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Top 10 Japanese YouTube Channels to Improve Your Japanese


Thanks to information technology nowadays, learning Japanese isn’t as difficult as you think. You can acquire the language quickly, even if you live outside of Japan and don’t have access to native speakers. There are various sources on the internet (like YouTube) that can help you learn Japanese!

While there are plenty of Japanese YouTube channels, not all of them are useful or efficient for learning. Using the right tools and resources is the key to faster and more effective learning, so in this article, we’ll introduce the ten best YouTube channels to supplement your Japanese studies.

These channels provide informative and entertaining content, and we’ll include channels in a variety of categories. And at the end, we’ll show you why the JapanesePod101 YouTube channel is the best place to learn Japanese on YouTube!

Log in to Download Your Free Cheat Sheet - Beginner Vocabulary in Japanese Table of Contents
  1. NHK World Japan
  2. Easy Japanese
  3. Baka Proof
  5. Japanese Ammo with Misa
  6. Ask Japanese
  7. Rachel & Jun
  8. Paolo from TOKYO
  9. Nihongo no mori
  10. JapanesePod101
  11. How JapanesePod101 Can Help You Learn More Japanese

A Woman Editing a Video for YouTube
ユーチューブで日本語を学ぼう (YouTube de Nihon-go o manabō) – “Let’s learn Japanese on YouTube.”

1. NHK World Japan

Category: News, Documentary, Culture, Language
Level: All

NHK, or 日本放送協会 (Nippon Hōsō Kyōkai), stands for the Japan Broadcasting Corporation, which is Japan’s national broadcaster. It has terrestrial and satellite television channels, as well as domestic and international radio networks. 

Their YouTube channel, NHK World Japan, offers a variety of interesting videos, including:

  • An “Easy Japanese Lessons” series for learning Japanese
  • News
  • Sports (Sumo wrestling)
  • Documentaries on various topics about Japan
  • Much more

Most of the videos are narrated in English, and some are in Japanese with English subtitles. 

Their “Easy Japanese Lesson” playlist is especially useful for beginners looking to learn basic Japanese. Each episode follows a short skit in Japanese on a particular topic, such as answering phone calls or how to politely ask someone to repeat something. The videos have subtitles in both Japanese and English. Then, the host explains the dialogue and phrases in English (or in Japanese with English or Rōma-ji subtitles). 

All of their videos are well-produced. This channel is useful not only for learning Japanese, but also for deepening your knowledge about Japan and its culture.

2. Easy Japanese

Category: Culture, Japanese Street Interviews
Level: All

Easy Language has many language channels on YouTube, including Easy Japanese.

This is one of the best Japanese YouTube channels for immersion, and it introduces learners to how Japanese natives speak in everyday conversations. The videos feature interviews with Japanese people on the street, where the interviewer asks their opinions on certain topics. These topics may include things like Japanese public transportation, love, sushi, onomatopoeia, and Valentine’s Day in Japan. 

It’s very easy to follow along with, and its captions are in English, Japanese script, and Rōma-ji for effective learning. It’s not a conventional language lesson, but it’s helpful for learning spoken Japanese.

3. Baka Proof

Category: Learn with Anime
Level: Beginner – Intermediate

If you’re a fan of anime, then the Baka Proof channel is just right for you! This Japanese anime YouTube channel uses famous anime to introduce Japanese phrases, vocabulary, and grammar points. 

The videos on this channel first show a snippet of an anime scene with Japanese audio and English subtitles. Then, there’s an explanation (in English) of the Japanese phrases used in that scene. Even if you don’t have any basic knowledge, you can easily follow along with the videos and start learning basic Japanese. 

It’s an ideal channel for anime-lovers who want to learn spoken Japanese and eventually watch anime in the original language.


Category: Culture, Subculture
Level: Beginner

When you get bored of formal lessons and textbook-style content, you’ll find the TOFUGU channel fun and entertaining.

This channel deals with many aspects of Japanese culture, covering various topics that will keep you focused and entertained. You’ll find videos on topics such as Japanese gestures, weird and interesting restaurants in Japan, Hiragana lessons, news, travel, and old Japanese myths. 

All of the videos are narrated in English so that absolute beginners can enjoy the videos. On the other hand, we only recommend this channel as a supplement to your normal Japanese studies. This is because the hosts don’t speak Japanese in the videos nor do they offer traditional-style lessons.

5. Japanese Ammo with Misa

Category: Language
Level: All

YouTuber Misa is a cute bilingual Japanese girl who will teach you practical Japanese phrases with grammatical explanations. She gives fun and easy-going Japanese lessons in English, with both Japanese and English subtitles.

Whether you’re a beginner or advanced learner, you’ll find her videos very useful. Her lessons include very basic content (such as how to write Hiragana and Katakana), as well as more advanced explanations (such as the difference between similar expressions and phrases). She also has interesting videos in which she reads manga comics in Japanese or introduces viewers to Japanese snacks.

Her content features wonderful grammatical explanations and covers a good deal of useful information. However, most of the phrases she deals with are informal and casual, so it’s better to use this channel mainly for learning daily conversations and casual language.

6. Ask Japanese

Category: Culture, Japanese Street Interviews
Level: Intermediate – Advanced

Ask Japanese is hosted by a multilingual German girl who lives in Japan. This is another channel that features interviews with people on the street. She talks with both native Japanese people and foreigners living in Japan. 

These interviews cover many different topics, including subculture and personal matters. For example: 

  • Japan’s strictest school rules
  • Whether Japanese people use dating apps
  • Sweets that Japanese people can’t live without
  • How the Japanese take great photogenic photos

Videos are narrated in Japanese or English, and you can turn on the subtitles. It may be a bit difficult to keep up with the Japanese, as they speak fast at times; in addition, there’s no Japanese script or Rōma-ji to follow along with. That said, this channel can be a good tool for listening practice and for learning natural spoken Japanese.

7. Rachel & Jun

Category: Life, Subculture, Travel, Vlog
Level: All

YouTubers Rachel & Jun, an American and Japanese couple living in Japan, offer interesting videos covering a range of topics.  

The couple creates vlogs to show what it’s like to live in Japan, culture shock, travel and food reports, interviews with traditional Japanese craftsmen, interesting facts about Japan, etc. If you’re interested in Japanese culture and life in Japan, this informative channel will become your new favorite!

Rachel & Jun speak mainly English in their videos, and there are Japanese captions. If you’re more interested in the language aspect, some of their videos focus on the Japanese language. For example, they sometimes talk about Japanese mistakes that Japanese people make, Japanese words that English should have, Japanese slang on the internet, and so on.

8. Paolo from TOKYO

Category: Food, Life, Travel, Vlog
Level: All

Paolo from TOKYO is one of the most popular YouTubers in Japan, creating videos that serve as an exciting guide to the country. Paolo is a fun and friendly American guy who has been living in Tokyo for a long time, and is married to a Japanese woman.

His videos cover topics such as:

  • Good food and tasty restaurants
  • Sightseeing spots and travel information
  • What it’s like to live in Japan
  • Cultural events and traditions

Some of his videos are documentary-style, following individual people. For example, he has videos about a day in the life of a Japanese university student and what life is like for a mother of a young child. Paolo is also a tech fan, and he creates videos about his drone and other cool gadgets he discovers.

Although it may be a bit difficult to choose which video to watch, as most of the titles are written in Japanese, you’ll be able to follow along with any video you choose. He speaks in English and his videos have Japanese subtitles; when other people speak Japanese, there are English captions. 

This channel can be a very useful addition to your main language learning sources. Paolo will stir up your interest in Japan, its life, and its culture. In turn, this will motivate you to keep learning Japanese.

9. Nihongo no mori

Category: Language / Language Exam (Japanese Language Proficiency Test)
Level: Intermediate – Advanced

If you’re a serious Japanese learner aiming to take the JLPT (Japanese Language Proficiency Test), this channel is perfect for you. 

Nihongo no mori provides Japanese lesson videos that are made especially for JLPT preparation. There’s a lot of content for N1 and N2 levels, but you can also find some lessons for N3, N4, and N5. In addition to Japanese grammar lessons, you’ll find plenty of vocabulary and practice tests by level.

The presenters teach in Japanese, so this channel is recommended for those who already have some Japanese knowledge. (You can turn on the subtitles for better understanding, but these are also in Japanese.)

10. JapanesePod101

Category: Language
Level: All

Learning Japanese with anime, vlogs, news stories, and street interviews can be interesting and helpful, but when you want to learn a language effectively, you need a solid source of information. The JapanesePod101 YouTube channel serves as this solid source, providing fun and effective lessons for learners at every level. 

The JapanesePod101 YouTube channel has a well-organized structure, and its lesson content includes:

  • Comprehensive grammar lessons
  • Vocabulary lists
  • Writing and reading exercises
  • Phrases for any situation
  • Conversations between native speakers
  • Exam preparation tips
  • Cultural insights
  • Learning tips
  • Much more

You’re sure to enjoy these lessons, delivered by our friendly and humorous hosts!

Whether you’re just starting out or already know some Japanese, you’ll find tons of useful content suitable for your current level. You’ll feel comfortable learning with us, as we provide you with Japanese script, Rōma-ji, and English subtitles.

Not sure where to start? Here are some recommendations:

For Beginners

For Intermediate Learners

For Travelers

11. How JapanesePod101 Can Help You Learn More Japanese

In this article, we introduced the ten best YouTube channels for learning Japanese. When you take your language studies seriously, watching Japanese YouTube channels can really help you brush up on your skills. Continuation and repetition are the keys for effective learning. Find your favorite channels and make the most of your YouTube time!

If you would like to learn more about the Japanese language, from basic grammar to practical phrases for any occasion, you’ll find a lot more useful content on Together with the JapanesePod101 YouTube channel, we provide a variety of free lessons for you to improve your Japanese language skills. 

Our personal one-on-one coaching service, MyTeacher, is also available when you subscribe to a Premium PLUS membership with us. Your private teacher will help you practice pronunciation, and you’ll get personalized feedback and advice to improve efficiently.

And we have so much more to offer you! Learn Japanese faster and enjoy studying at

Before you go, let us know in the comments if there are any good Japanese YouTube channels you know about that we didn’t include. Have you watched any of the ones from this article? We look forward to hearing from you!

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How to Say Goodbye in Japanese


As you know, greeting is the most basic and essential aspect of any conversation. While knowing how to say hello is certainly crucial for getting to know people, learning how to say goodbye is just as important. Giving the proper farewell can improve the quality and longevity of your relationships and make you sound more like a native speaker. 

There are various ways to say goodbye in Japanese, and some phrases are unique and untranslatable ones which reflect the politeness of Japanese culture. As you learn how to say goodbye in Japanese, you’ll also deepen your understanding of Japanese culture and get tips for having smooth conversations with Japanese people.

In this article, we’ll introduce the most common phrases for saying bye in Japanese, from easy casual words to more formal ones. We’ll also show you some expressions that are unique to the Japanese language. After reading this guide from, you’ll be able to leave any conversation with confidence! Start with a bonus, and download the Must-Know Beginner Vocabulary PDF for FREE!(Logged-In Member Only)

Log in to Download Your Free Cheat Sheet - Beginner Vocabulary in Japanese Table of Contents
  1. The Most Common Japanese Goodbye Phrases
  2. Various Ways to Say Goodbye in Japanese
  3. Untranslatable Goodbye Phrases in Japanese
  4. Conclusion: How JapanesePod101 Can Help You Learn More Japanese

1. The Most Common Japanese Goodbye Phrases

Most Common Goodbyes

Let’s start by looking at the most popular ways to say goodbye in the Japanese language. These are phrases you may know already, but keep reading to learn how to use them properly! 

1 – さようなら (Sayōnara)

You’ve probably heard the famous Japanese word さような(Sayōnara) in movies and other media. This word is the direct translation of “goodbye.”

To say it properly, pronounce a bit longer and with no intonation. (English-speakers saying “sayoNAra” in Hollywood movies is a big Japanese pronunciation mistake! Don’t shorten the long vowel and stress the wrong syllable of a word!)

Despite its overall popularity, however, Sayōnara is not commonly used by Japanese people from day to day, especially between close friends or family. 

Sayōnara is actually a formal word, having the connotation of “farewell,” “goodbye for a long time,” or even “goodbye forever.” This word is most often used when someone isn’t sure when they’ll be seeing another person again (or if they’ll meet again at all). Therefore, don’t scare your loved one by telling them Sayōnara, as they may get confused and think that you’re going far away or that you don’t want to see them again!


Gomen nasai, hoka ni suki na hito ga iru no. Sayōnara.
“I’m sorry, I have feelings for someone else. Goodbye.”

Matte, ikanaide! Wakaretaku nai!
“Wait, don’t go! I don’t want to break up!”

2 – ばいばい (Baibai)

This simple and easy phrase, borrowed from the English phrase “bye-bye,” is very common among close friends and family, though women and younger generations tend to use it more.

Baibai is used very casually. For example, someone may say this to their close friend after chatting with them for a while.


Kyō wa tanoshikatta ne, mata asobō. Baibai!
“Today was fun, let’s hang out again. Bye-bye!”

うん、またね! ばいばい!
Un, mata ne! Baibai!
“Yeah, see you! Bye-bye!”

A Woman Looking Out at a Body of Water

Tengoku demo genki de ne. Sayōnara.
“Be well also in heaven. Goodbye.”

3 – Japanese Goodbye Gestures

Bowing is the most basic and essential gesture when it comes to Japanese greetings, especially in formal situations. Whether you’re greeting your boss or a client, you should bow when you say goodbye in Japanese to be polite. The form and length of your bow will depend on the level of respect you have for the other person and/or how official the situation is. To learn all about how to bow properly, please check out our Japanese Body Language article.

On the other hand, Japanese people don’t bow when they say goodbye to friends or family. The most common gesture in casual situations is to wave one’s hand. Simply wave your palm left and right in front of your chest. 

Unlike in Western culture, Japanese culture does not have greeting customs that involve hugging or kissing. So, even if it’s a casual occasion, do not astonish Japanese people with hugs or kisses when greeting them. They’ll be very bashful and not know how to react to it!

Two Japanese Businessmen Bowing To Each Other in a Hallway

In formal situations, Japanese people bow when saying goodbye.

2. Various Ways to Say Goodbye in Japanese

Now that the basics are covered, we’ll show you how to say goodbye in Japanese in a variety of situations! 

1 -じゃあね (Jā ne)

This is a very casual word used among close friends and family, and it means “See you” or “Bye, then.” 

じゃあ () means something like “well then,” and ね (ne) is a Japanese particle that’s put at the end of a sentence to make it sound softer. This particle also has a nuance of seeking the listener’s agreement and confirming a fact.

This is such a natural phrase that using it with your friends will make you sound like a native speaker! 


  • あ、もう5時だ。行かなくちゃ! じゃあね!
    A, mō go-ji da. Ikanakucha! Jā ne!
    “Ah, it’s already five o’clock. I gotta go! See you!”

2 – またね (Mata ne)

またね (mata ne) is another very casual phrase you can use with your close friends and family. This one means “See you later.”

また (mata) is a colloquial way of saying “again,” and ね (ne) is the sentence ending particle. The masculine version, またな (mata na), is also commonly used among males.

This is a very natural and common expression that you’ll hear often in Japan.


Kurasu ga hajimaru kara mō iku yo. Baibai, mata ne!
“I’m going now because the class is starting. Bye, see you later!”

Two Children Waving Bye to Friends After School

Bai bai, mata ne!
“Bye, see you later!”

3 – また___ (Mata ___)

This is a useful expression that you can use both casually and in slightly more formal circumstances. 

また (mata) means “again,” and you can put any word in the blank that expresses time. Common examples include “later,” “tomorrow,” and “next week.” 

Adding では (dewa), which means “then,” in front of the phrase makes it sound a bit more formal, and thus more appropriate for use with colleagues in the workplace.  

Vocabulary for Time Words You Can Use

EnglishKanji HiraganaReading
“later”後であとでato de
“next week”来週らいしゅうraishū
“next month”来月らいげつraigetsu
“next year”来年らいねんrainen


Ashita wa purojekuto no daiji na hi nanode, kyō wa mō kaerimashō.
“Let’s go home now because tomorrow is an important day for the project.”

Hai, dewa mata ashita.
“Yes, see you tomorrow then.”

4 – 元気でね (Genki de ne)

元気でね (genki de ne) can be translated as “Take care of yourself,” “Stay well,” or “All the best.”

This casual phrase is used when someone is going on a long trip or moving to another place.

You can also say お元気で (o-genki de) to make it sound more polite for use in formal situations. The お (o) here is the Japanese honorific prefix that adds a feeling of politeness or respect to a word. For example: 

  • すし (sushi) >> おすし (o-sushi)
  • 水 (mizu) – “water” >> お水 (o-mizu)
  • 皿 (sara) – “plate” >> お皿 (o-sara)


Atarashii machi de mo tomodachi takusan dekiru yo. Genki de ne!
“You will make a lot of friends in the new town, too. All the best!”

5 – 気をつけてね (Ki o tsukete ne) 

This casual phrase means “Take care.”

Similar to the phrase above, 気をつけてね (ki o tsukete ne) is used when someone is going on a trip. However, it can also be used when a family member is leaving home.

To make it more polite, you can say: お気をつけて (o-ki o tsukete).


Ashita Fujisan ni nobori ni iku yo.
“I’m going to climb Mt. Fuji tomorrow.”

Ki o tsukete ne.
“Take care.”

Mt. Fuji

Yamanobori ki o tsukete ne.
“Take care when climbing the mountains.”

6 – 行ってきます(Ittekimasu) / 行ってらっしゃい (Itterasshai)

行ってきます (ittekimasu) means “I’m leaving (the house),” and it’s a common way to say goodbye to family members when you’re opening the front door to leave.

This phrase is also used between colleagues when a staff member is leaving the office to meet clients outside (if he’s coming back to the office later).

The paired response to 行ってきます (ittekimasu) is 行ってらっしゃい (itterasshai), which literally means “Go and come back.” Those who are staying behind say this phrase to those who are leaving.


A (Kid):
Chikoku surū! Ittekimasu!
“I’m getting late! I’m leaving now!”

B (Mom):
Itterasshai. Ki o tsukete ne.
“Bye. Take care.”

A Mother Saying Bye to Her Husband and Children

-行ってきます! (Ittekimasu!) – “I’m leaving now!”
-行ってらっしゃい。(Itterasshai.) – “Bye, take care.”

7 – 良い1日を (Ii ichi-nichi o)

良い1日を (ii ichi-nichi o) means “(Have) a good day.”

This is the short version of the polite phrase: 良い1日をお過ごしください (Ii ichi-nichi o o-sugoshi kudasai) or “Please have a good day.”

Keep in mind that while the equivalent phrase in English is used often in English-speaking countries, this is not the case for this phrase in Japan. It might be used in a situation where the speaker is a host and the listener is a guest (such as at a hotel). 


[From a hotel staff member to hotel guests who are leaving and will come back later]

  • お客様、いってらっしゃいませ。良い1日をお過ごしください。
    O-kyaku-sama, itterasshai-mase. Ii ichi-nichi o o-sugoshi kudasai.
    “Dear guests, please go safely and have a good day.”

8 – 楽しんでね (Tanoshinde ne)

The casual Japanese goodbye phrases 楽しんでね (tanoshinde ne) and 楽しんできてね (tanoshinde kite ne), which mean “have fun” and “have a good time,” are more commonly used than 良い1日を (ii ichi-nichi o).

To make it more polite, you can also say 楽しんでください (tanoshinde kudasai) or 楽しんできてください (tanoshinde kite kudasai).


Ima kara tomodachi to eiga ni iku no. Mata ne.
“I’m going to watch a movie with my friend. See you.”

Ii ne. Tanoshinde kite ne.
“That’s nice. Have fun.”

9 – お大事に (Odaiji ni)

お大事に (odaiji ni) means “get well soon,” and it’s frequently used when you’re leaving a person who is sick or injured. 

You can use this phrase when you leave your friend’s or family member’s room at a hospital, or when a colleague is leaving work early because they don’t feel well. In addition, doctors often say this to their patients after a consultation.


Kibun ga warui node sōtai shite byōin ni ikimasu.
“I’m leaving the office early and going to see the doctor because I feel sick.”

Odaiji ni. Yukkuri yasunde kudasai.
“Get well soon. Please rest well.”

A Sick Woman

-風邪を引いています。Kaze o hiite imasu. – “I have a cold.”
-お大事にどうぞ。Odaiji ni dōzo.- “Please get well soon.”

3. Untranslatable Goodbye Phrases in Japanese

There are numerous untranslatable Japanese phrases which do not have a direct translation in English. Such untranslatable phrases are unique to the Japanese language as they reflect the Japanese culture, which places importance on politeness and respect for social harmony.

Here’s a list of untranslatable goodbye phrases in Japanese:

1 – お疲れ様 (Otsukare-sama)

お疲れ様 (otsukare-sama) is literally translated as “(You must be) tired,” in a respectful manner. 

This phrase is often used between colleagues as a greeting, sort of like “see you” or “see you tomorrow.” It can also be used in sport-related situations such as at a gym or sports club. 

Japanese people use this phrase to express a feeling of gratitude for hard work, as well as sympathy concerning the tiredness one might feel after working. 


Kyō no torēningu wa kitsukatta desu ne.
“Today’s training was really tough, wasn’t it?”

Otsukare-sama deshita. Mata raishū.
“(We trained so hard and tired.) See you next week.”

2 – お先に失礼します (Osaki ni shitsurei shimasu)

お先に失礼します (osaki ni shitsurei shimasu) is literally translated as “I do impoliteness before you,” meaning “Excuse me for leaving before you.”

This phrase is commonly used as a departure greeting, especially between colleagues.

In the traditional working culture of Japan, people are considered more hardworking when they work long hours. Additionally, due to the seniority tradition, less-experienced employees have invisible yet strong pressure to leave the office later than their bosses or more-experienced colleagues. Therefore, people feel guilty leaving the office earlier than other colleagues. The formal phrase “I do impoliteness before you” is used to excuse the action of leaving early.

There’s also a shorter version of this phrase: お先に (osaki ni), meaning “Before you.” This is used casually among close colleagues or to subordinates. 


  • 今日は子供の誕生日なので、お先に失礼します。
    Kyō wa kodomo no tanjōbi na node, osaki ni shitsurei shimasu.
    “Excuse me for leaving before you, (I’m leaving the office now because) today is my kid’s birthday.”

*Japanese people tend to subconsciously feel that they need a good reason for leaving the office earlier. 

3 – お世話になりました (O-sewa ni narimashita)

This beautiful untranslatable Japanese phrase is literally translated as “I was taken care of by you,” which means “Thank you for taking care of me/supporting me” in a humble way. 

This phrase is often used when you resign from your job and greet colleagues on your last day in the office, or when you finish a course or training that helped grow your career. It shows gratitude toward the people and environment that supported you. 

Variations of this phrase are: 

  • お世話になります (o-sewa ni narimasu) – present tense
  • いつもお世話になっております (itsumo o-sewa ni natte orimasu)

These mean “Thank you for your support” and “Thank you for your continued support,” respectively. They’re commonly used in business settings when talking to clients when they visit or send emails.


Jū-nenkan o-sewa ni narimashita. Subarashii dōryō to issho ni hatarakete shiawase deshita.
“Thank you for taking care of and supporting me for ten years. I was happy to work with such wonderful colleagues.”

A Group of Colleagues in the Office Smiling for a Group Photo

お世話になりました (o-sewa ni narimashita) is a typical goodbye phrase on one’s last day of work to say “Thank you for supporting me.”

4 – お邪魔しました (Ojama shimashita)

お邪魔しました (ojama shimashita) is literally translated as “I disturbed/bothered you,” in a humble and polite way. It means “Excuse me for intruding” or “Thank you for having me over.”

In Japan, it’s polite to say this phrase together with “thank you” when you’re invited to someone’s home, and when you’re leaving there. Similarly, when you enter someone’s home, you should say: お邪魔します (ojama shimasu) in the present tense.

You can use this phrase casually or formally whenever you enter someone’s house or property.


Go-shōtai arigatō gozaimashita. Ojama shimashita.
“Thank you for inviting me and having me over.”

For more great information, check out our vocabulary list on the Most Common Ways to Say Goodbye (with audio)!

4. Conclusion: How JapanesePod101 Can Help You Learn More Japanese

In this article, we introduced how to say goodbye in Japanese in any situation, and also showed you a few untranslatable goodbye phrases in Japanese. I hope you enjoyed today’s topic, and that you were able to take away some valuable information on how Japanese culture relates to its many goodbye phrases. 

If you would like to learn more about the Japanese language, you’ll find much more helpful content on We provide a variety of free lessons to help you improve your Japanese language skills. To get you started, here’s some information about the basics of Japanese to enrich your knowledge: 

Please don’t forget to check out the audio and listen to the pronunciation carefully!

And there’s so much more! Learn faster and enjoy studying Japanese at!

Before you go, let us know in the comments if you have any questions about today’s article. We’d be glad to help you out!

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Is Japanese Hard to Learn?


If you’re interested in learning the Japanese language but haven’t started yet, you may still be wondering: “Is Japanese hard to learn?” or “What are the hardest and easiest parts of learning Japanese?” No worries! We’ll explain everything you need to know about learning Japanese right here in this article.

Japanese is a unique and fascinating language. Although it’s spoken primarily in Japan, knowing the language is useful not only for fans of Japanese anime and manga, but also for those traveling in Japan. Even a basic understanding of Japanese will allow travelers to enjoy Japan’s wonderful culture to the fullest extent possible, and it’s essential for business if you’re interested in the Asian market.

Considering that Japanese is a major language with 128 million speakers, you can find plenty of language-learning resources. These can range from ordinary textbooks to subcultural “live” materials, such as content on YouTube and Netflix—not to mention the most useful online Japanese-learning platform,!

In this article, we’ll introduce what it’s like to learn Japanese, including what makes Japanese difficult for some learners (and things that learners find pretty easy). We’ll also give you some tips on how to start learning Japanese in the fastest, easiest way possible. 

Let’s get started!

Log in to Download Your Free Cheat Sheet - Learning Japanese Table of Contents
  1. Is it Hard to Learn Japanese?
  2. The Easiest and Hardest Parts of Learning Japanese
  3. Want to Learn Japanese? Here’s Where You Should Start!
  4. Why is JapanesePod101 Great for Learning Japanese?
  5. Conclusion

A Woman Smiling and Holding a Map in Her Hands

Fast, easy learning at!

1. Is it Hard to Learn Japanese?

Or rather, is it hard for English-speakers to learn Japanese?

According to the language difficulty rankings by FSI (Foreign Service Institute), Japanese is a Category 5 language. This is the most difficult category, based on a scale of 1 to 5, and the ranking indicates how many hours of learning a native English-speaker would need to reach General Professional Proficiency in both Reading and Speaking.

However, the difficulty of Japanese for you depends on a number of factors, such as: 

  • Your learning goals
  • Your mother tongue
  • How interested you are in the Japanese language and culture

For example, if your learning goal is to be able to have daily conversations (speaking and listening), then learning Japanese may not be as difficult as you think. But if your goal is to be able to read Japanese newspapers and write business documents in Japanese, then keep in mind that this is an extremely difficult task for those who speak English or a Romance language (but fairly easy for Chinese- and Korean-speakers).

In addition, contrary to popular belief, spoken Japanese is said to be relatively easy to master when compared with other languages. Japanese has only five vowel sounds and thirteen consonant sounds, while English has twenty vowel sounds and twenty-four consonant sounds. Moreover, Japanese is a flat-sounding language which doesn’t use many tones or pitches. Thus, English-speakers and speakers of other non-tonal languages can easily learn how to speak and listen to Japanese!

2. The Easiest and Hardest Parts of Learning Japanese

In the following sections, we’ll go over the basics of what makes Japanese hard to learn (and how to overcome those issues). But first, let’s look at the easier aspects of Japanese! 

A- What Makes Japanese Easy?

1 – Listening & Speaking

For most people, the goal of learning a new language is to be able to have conversations in that language. Conversation, as one of the most essential parts of communication, requires listening and speaking skills. In this regard, Japanese is actually an easy language to learn!

As mentioned in the previous section, Japanese is a flat-toned language with only five vowels and thirteen consonants. Compared to other languages that have more complex and difficult-to-pronounce sounds, as well as distinct tones and pitches, Japanese is rather simple. 

English-speakers, who have already mastered twenty vowel sounds and twenty-four consonant sounds, will have little difficulty listening to and pronouncing Japanese words. (On the other hand, Japanese people always struggle to understand spoken English and pronounce English correctly. It’s difficult for Japanese people to tell the difference between word pairs like club and crab, bun and van, bowling and boring, etc.)

Even if you’re a beginner, you’ll be able to easily recognize and imitate Japanese sounds. There’s no need to be afraid of making mistakes here. Practice speaking as soon as you feel ready!    

A Group of Women Chatting Over Tea and Pastries

Speaking and listening are essential skills for conversation!

2 – Simple Grammatical Rules

No Article Needed

In Japanese, you don’t need to put an article in front of nouns. There’s no “a friend” or “the friend,” it’s just “friend,” or 友達 ともだち (tomodachi). How simple is that! 

In English, you need to think about whether you should put “a” or “the” in front of a certain noun. Some Romance languages have even more complicated article variations, such as the Italian “un, una, la, le, il, lo, l’, gli, i.”

In Japanese, you only need to say the noun! 

Words Don’t Change

In addition, Japanese words (nouns, adjectives, and verbs) do not change based on number, gender, or person. Japanese words are neutral, and there’s no feminine/masculine distinction that affects grammatical forms. 

In English, “s” is usually added to a noun to make it plural (such as “friends“). And in Italian, nouns, articles, and adjectives change their forms according to the number (singular/plural) and the gender: mia amica é simpatica (“my friend is nice” – one female) / mio amico é simpatico (“my friend is nice” – one male) / miei amici sono simpatici (“my friends are nice” – plural).

These complicated rules don’t exist in Japanese! This also applies to Japanese verbs: there’s no variation of “is/are” or “do/does” in Japanese. 

  • 私の友達は親切です。
    Watashi no tomodachi wa shinsetsu desu.
    “My friend(s) is(are) kind.”

No matter how many people there are, and whether the person is female or male, words don’t change form in Japanese. Super-simple, right?

If you want to specify whether something is singular or plural, you only need to add a number or a word that expresses amount, such as “a few,” “many,” “hundreds of,” etc.

  • 私は車を1台持っています。
    Watashi wa kuruma o ichi-dai motte imasu.
    “I have a car (one car).”
  • 彼は1日にたくさんの本を読みます。 
    Kare wa ichi-nichi ni takusan no hon o yomimasu.
    “He reads many books a day (in one day).”

Whether it’s one or three, “apple” is りんご (ringo) in Japanese, with no article.

Only Two Conjugation Exceptions

There are only two verbs that have irregular Japanese conjugation: する (suru), meaning “do,” and 来る (kuru), meaning “come.” Only two irregular verbs! Anyone can easily memorize them. 

When you think about irregular verbs in English, the list is tremendously long: “be, go, come, eat, get, say, buy, run, know, take, put, read, send, meet, leave, pay, lay, think, teach, sing, ring, write, begin, drink, fly, draw, bring, feel, fall, have, hear, make, see, sit, shine, mean, stand, sleep….” and a lot more! 

This is not the case in Japanese, so go ahead and let out a deep sigh of relief.

3 – Easy Tenses

There are only two tenses in Japanese: present and past. In order to mention something about the future in Japanese, use the present tense and add a word that indicates the future, such as “later,” “tomorrow,” “next month,” etc. In addition, Japanese does not have the perfect tense.

  • 私は図書館へ行きます。 
    Watashi wa toshokan e ikimasu.  [Present Tense]
    “I go to the library.”
  • 私は明日図書館へ行きます。 
    Watashi wa ashita toshokan e ikimasu.  [Present + ashita (“tomorrow”)]
    “I will go to the library tomorrow.”
  • 私は図書館へ行きました。 
    Watashi wa toshokan e ikimashita. [Past Tense]
    “I went to the library.”

When learning verb tenses, many people find that Japanese is much easier and simpler than English, which has multiple variations: “I go to / I’m going to / I will go to / I went to / I have been to / I have gone to / I had gone to …”

B- Why Japanese is Hard to Learn

1 – The Japanese Writing System

The Japanese language uses three different scripts: Hiragana (ひらがな), Katakana (カタカナ), and Kanji (漢字). This can be a bit confusing for beginners.

Hiragana is a phonetic system with forty-six characters which represent all of the sounds in spoken Japanese. It also includes a few variations which are closely related to specific characters and their sounds. For example, だ (da) is a variation of た (ta). 

Katakana also has forty-six characters, which represent the same sounds as Hiragana. It is used mainly for writing words called 外来語 (Gairaigo), which are “imported” from foreign languages such as English. For example, アイスクリーム (aisu kurīmu) means “ice cream.”

Kanji originated from China and has been adopted by the Japanese language. Some Kanji characters are written using the same characters as in Traditional Chinese, but the way in which they’re used and read are unique to Japanese. For example, 新聞 means “newspapers” and it reads as しんぶん (shinbun) in Japanese. But these same characters mean “news” in Chinese, and are pronounced as xīnwén. It’s said that there are 3000-4000 Kanji characters, but there are only 2000 commonly used 常用漢字 (jōyō kanji) characters that are taught to children in schools.

If you’ve gotten the impression that the Japanese writing system is “a bit too complicated,” don’t worry too much! 

The good news is that the Latin Alphabet is also used in Japan. Japanese people refer to it as ローマ字 (Rōma-ji), or “Roman letter,” and these letters are used to write a phonetic translation of Japanese words. People who have just started learning Japanese learn Hiragana and Katakana together with Rōma-ji. 

In addition, all Japanese sounds end in a vowel (the only exception is ん [n]), and all of the Japanese syllables are very simple sounds. Every sound is written in Hiragana and Katakana. (There is no variation in the pronunciation of a given Japanese letter, such as “A” in the English words “family,” “agent,” and “away.”)

This will make Japanese pronunciation super-easy to learn! You just need to get used to Hiragana and Katakana and how their sounds are pronounced. 

2 – Japanese is an SOV Language 

A lot of English-speakers get confused with the Japanese word order.

The Japanese sentence structure is SOV, which means that the basic word order in a sentence is S (Subject)O (Object)V (Verb). English, on the other hand, is an SVO language: S (Subject)V (Verb)O (Object).

       (S)           (O)            (V)

Japanese: Watashi wa toshokan e ikimasu.  私は図書館へ行きます

                     (      I    /  the library to /  go.    )

               (S)       (V)       (O)

English:   I    go to  the library.

The fact that Japanese verbs are always placed at the end of a sentence can be very confusing at first for  SVO language-speakers.

You don’t know if it’s an affirmative sentence or a negative one until you hear the very end of that sentence, especially if a sentence is very long.

  • 私は昨日友達と話した後に図書館へ行きませんでした。
    Watashi wa kinō tomodachi to hanashita ato ni toshokan e ikimasen deshita.
    ( I / yesterday / friend / with / talked / after / the library / to / go / not / did )
    = I did not go to the library after I talked to my friend yesterday.

You may find this aspect of Japanese easier if you remember that the verb (and its negator, if there is one) will always be at the end of the sentence. 

However, asking questions in Japanese is consistent and very simple! 

There’s no need to change the word order or add a new verb like in English: “She went to the library.” vs. “Did she go to the library?”

All you need to do is add か (ka) to the end of a sentence and say it with a rising tone.

    ➢ 彼女は図書館へ行きます。
    Kanojo wa toshokan e ikimasu.
    “She goes to the library.”
    ➢ 彼女は図書館へ行きますか。
    Kanojo wa toshokan e ikimasu ka.
    “Does she go to the library?”

See how easy that is?

A Little Girl Picking Out a Book at the Library

Japanese is an SOV language: 彼女は図書館へ行きます (Kanojo wa toshokan e ikimasu.) – She (S) / the library (O) / to / go (V).

3 – Honorific Language

Japanese culture is famous for its politeness and respect, and this cultural aspect is reflected in the language: 敬語 (Keigo), or “honorific language.” 

Apart from the casual language, Japanese has the three forms of Keigo, which are: 

  • 丁寧語 (Teineigo) – “polite language”
  • 尊敬語 (Sonkeigo) – “respectful language”
  • 謙譲語 (Kenjōgo) – “humble language”

You don’t need to be able to use all of these respectful forms perfectly for daily conversations as long as you can use the basic polite form. However, you’ll often hear Keigo in Japan as a customer or during official/business occasions. 

The difficult thing about learning Keigo is that there are different expressions for verbs, and you need to use the appropriate words according to the level of politeness and the person whom you’re referring to. 

You can use Teineigo (polite language) to express things politely for more general situations. However, you can neither use Sonkeigo (respectful language) for your own actions nor use Kenjōgo (humble language) for someone respectful (elders, boss, clients, honored person, etc.).

For example, there are three different expressions for “come”:

[ to come : 来る (kuru)

  • Teineigo (general politeness):  来ます (kimasu)   

    Kare wa mainichi gimu ni kimasu.
    “He comes to the gym every day.”
  • Sonkeigo (respectful expression for others): いらっしゃいます  (irasshaimasu)

    Tanaka-sama wa ichi-ji ni irasshaimasu.
    “Mr./Ms.Tanaka comes at one o’clock.”
  • Kenjōgo (humble expression for yourself): 参ります/ 伺います (mairimasu / ukagaimasu

    Watashi ga shorui o motte mairimasu.
    “I will come with the documents.”

If you would like to know more about Keigo and common honorific mistakes, please see our article about Common Japanese Mistakes.

Two Japanese Businessmen Bowing to One Another

Honorific language is one of the hardest parts of learning Japanese.

3. Want to Learn Japanese? Here’s Where You Should Start!

Now that you know what makes the Japanese language hard to learn (and which parts are easy), have you decided you want to learn it after all? Great! Here are some tips from 

1. Get Motivated

The very first thing you should do is get motivated!

What do you want to do after you learn Japanese? Learn more about Japanese culture? Travel to Japan for work, study, or holiday? Watch Japanese anime and read manga in the original language? Make new Japanese friends? 

With your interests and purpose in mind, set a learning goal to keep you motivated. It doesn’t need to be a big goal at first, like passing the advanced level exam, but a small goal you’ll be able to reach quickly. 

A small learning goal is something you can work on without too much effort. Examples might include making new Japanese friends online, learning ten new words everyday, watching Japanese TV series everyday, traveling to Japan, or speaking to Japanese people when shopping.

The important thing is to stay motivated and accumulate your achievements in small chunks. 

The more motivated you are, the faster you will learn!

2. Learn the Basics

When learning a new language, it’s essential to understand how it works first. 

Once you learn the ground rules, such as the sentence structure and pronouns, then focus on learning useful sentence patterns that you can use in a variety of situations. With the most useful and common sentence patterns and phrases, you can adjust and adapt them for new situations as you build your vocabulary. 

For beginners, our Top 100 articles are very helpful for building up your vocabulary with useful nouns, verbs, and adjectives. You can also use Flashcards to check and review everything you’re learning.

3. Input, Output, and Repeat

No one can do well at something they’ve never tried before! If you want to be able to speak, then listen, speak, and repeat as many times as possible. Learning by doing is the golden rule for mastering a language.

Japanese, as mentioned above, is easy to learn when it comes to listening and speaking, so you can start practicing at home from Day 1. Check the pronunciation of new words with audio using our Vocabulary Lists, and then repeat the word after the audio recording. After repeating a word or phrase several times, you’ll get used to the sounds and how to pronounce them. 

If you’re living or traveling in Japan, you’re privileged with plenty of opportunities to practice in real life. Don’t be afraid, and make the most of your opportunities.

Even if you live outside of Japan, you can take advantage of the Internet age to access numerous learning materials, including and our YouTube channel! You can even interact and practice with your own personal teacher using our MyTeacher program.

4. Have Fun!

To learn and improve your Japanese skills, it’s crucial that you study and practice hard. But don’t let yourself get too bored with traditional learning! Learning is more than studying at a desk with textbooks.

Entertain yourself while learning by watching Japanese movies and series, listening to music, reading comics and novels, etc. 

Speaking, listening, reading, and writing are very separate skills, and you need to work on honing each one, depending on your goals. If your learning goal is, for example, focused on practical daily conversations, then such entertainment sources are very helpful. With video, audio, and subtitles, you’ll be able to learn a lot of practical vocabulary and phrases.

Also, check out our articles on how to learn Japanese with netflix and Anime! There are plenty of entertainment sources for learning Japanese.

Someone Watching a Video on Their Tablet

Learn Japanese with entertainment!

4. Why is JapanesePod101 Great for Learning Japanese?

Many people think that Japanese is a difficult language, but this is only partly true. In reality, Japanese is a unique and interesting language which is actually easier to learn than you think. It’s just different from English, and learners require some strategic planning to learn it effectively.

JapanesePod101 offers a variety of effective and fun learning content for beginners and advanced learners. 

1. Comprehensive and Practical Approach

JapanesePod101 offers a comprehensive and balanced approach to help you improve your listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills, step-by-step. We also offer focused lessons that look at a particular aspect of the language or culture. Each lesson has easy-to-understand information to keep you hooked.

Depending on your level, you’ll go through effective study materials with audio to improve your listening skills, practice pronouncing new vocabulary, and do writing exercises. Tests and quizzes will also help you check your knowledge.

After each lesson, you’re ready to move forward. Every lesson covers a practical topic or theme that you would encounter in everyday life in Japan.

2. Incredible Free Content is free but surprisingly affluent with information! We offer a wide range of rich content for learners at every level. 

Before beginning your lessons, you may want to take a placement test that will give you a better idea of where to start. Every level has multiple lessons that follow a storyline designed to keep you engaged and learn natural Japanese.  

Our free content includes themed vocabulary lists, customizable flashcards to practice your vocabulary, and a dictionary tool where you can search for a word by Latin Alphabet (Rōma-ji) or Japanese. Some of these features can be downloaded onto your computer so you can use them offline!

3. Your Own Teacher

Along with the lessons, our Premium MyTeacher service can accelerate your learning. Yes, you can have your own Japanese teacher by upgrading your account!

With MyTeacher, you can practice your speaking, reading, and writing through interaction with your private teacher. You’ll get personal feedback and tips on how to improve your pronunciation and writing skills. This personalized program and weekly assignments will keep you going, and you’ll also have full access to our self-study learning system.

5. Conclusion

In this article, you’ve learned the answer to “Is Japanese hard to learn?” Learning Japanese is not as difficult as you may think, especially if your goals are focused on verbal communication. 

If you would like to explore the Japanese language further, stay with for the fastest and easiest way to fluency. With a variety of rich, free lessons and tools, your Japanese language skills will improve immensely. 

Don’t forget that you’re not alone. When you use our MyTeacher service, your own teacher can always help you practice through personalized programs and assignments.

Before you go, let us know in the comments if you feel ready to start learning Japanese. If not, we’d love to hear your questions or concerns, and we’ll be glad to help any way we can. 

Now, it’s time to get started at!

Log in to Download Your Free Cheat Sheet - Learning Japanese

Learn About the Common Japanese Mistakes Students Make


Making mistakes is a matter of course when learning a new language. It’s actually good to make a lot of mistakes, because as you learn from correcting them, you’ll deepen your understanding of the language.

There are many common mistakes in Japanese that are easy for new learners to make. This is due to Japanese honorifics (which are unfamiliar to many learners), the various forms of postpositional particles, different grammar structures than in English, and so on. Although it seems complicated at first, once you get used to the patterns, you’ll surely improve your skills and know how to correct yourself when you make a mistake in Japanese.

In this article, we’ll introduce the most common mistakes people make when learning Japanese. Being able to spot these mistakes in Japanese is a sure sign of improvement! Let’s get started here at!

Log in to Download Your Free Cheat Sheet - Beginner Vocabulary in Japanese Table of Contents
  1. Common Japanese Pronunciation Mistakes
  2. Vocabulary Word Mistakes
  3. Word Order Mistakes in Japanese
  4. Japanese Grammar Mistakes
  5. Honorific Mistakes
  6. The Biggest Mistake
  7. Conclusion: How JapanesePod101 Can Help You Learn More Japanese

2+2=5 Written on a Blackboard

Mistakes help you learn.

1. Common Japanese Pronunciation Mistakes

Japanese pronunciation mistakes often trip up new learners, so we’ll be covering these first! 

1 – Shortening Long Vowels

Shortening long vowels is one of the most common mistakes that Japanese learners make.

All of the Japanese sounds, called ひらがな (Hiragana), always end with a vowel, except for ん (n):

  • あ(a)
  • (i)
  • う(u)
  • え(e)
  • お(o

When the same vowel sounds are next to each other, you pronounce it long. 


  • Mother: お母さん / おかあさん – okaa・san   = “o-kā-san”   [pronounce “a” longer]
  • Far:       遠い / とおい                – too・i          = “tōi”    [pronounce “o” longer]

Please pay attention when you’re pronouncing a word, because shortening the vowel can change the word’s meaning. For example:

  • おばあさん – obaa・san = “o-bā-san [pronounce “a” long, it means “grandmother” / “old woman”]
  • おばさん    – oba・san       = “oba-san  [pronounce “a” short, it means “aunt” / “middle-aged woman”]

2 – Pronouncing Imported Words with an English Accent

カタカナ (Katakana) is one of the Japanese writing systems. It’s used for Japanese words not covered by 漢字 (Kanji), especially for foreign language words—外来語 (Gairaigo), or loan words—transcribed into Japanese.

Most Japanese learners may think Katakana is very simple and easier to use than Kanji or even Hiragana. However, you need to be careful when it comes to pronunciation.

Although most of the foreign words can be written in Katakana, make sure you pronounce them the Japanese way!


  • Hamburger: ハンバーガー (hanbāgā) = pronounce it as “ha・n・baa・gaa”
  • Christmas: クリスマス (kurisumasu) = pronounce it without intonation
  • Orange: オレンジ (orenji) = pronounce each Katakana, as in “o・re・n・ji”
  • Ticket: チケット (chiketto) = pronounce consonants and following vowels

Please note that the following word pairs are written in the same Katakana, and are pronounced the same way.

  • bath / bus: バス (basu) = pronounce each Katakana, as in “ba・su”
  • track / truck:トラック (torakku)
  • coat / court: コート (kōto) = pronounce “ko” longer.

A Hamburger with Cheese, Lettuce, and Tomato

 ハンバーガー (hanbāgā), or “hamburger” = pronounce it as “ha・n・baa・gaa”

3 – Stressing the Wrong Syllables

More common Japanese language mistakes occur when a new learner stresses the wrong syllables of a word. 


  • waTAshi  わたし
  • KOnNIchiwa こんにちは
  • iTAshi MAshite どういたしまして
  • SUshi   すし
  • tenPUra  てんぷら

Listen carefully to how native speakers pronounce Japanese words. You’ll notice that most Japanese words lack strong intonation, and are rather flat.

To check the pronunciation of Japanese words, listen to the audio for the 50 Most Common Nouns and Top 10 Hardest Words to Pronounce.

4 – Pronouncing the “R” Sound in Japanese Incorrectly 

The Japanese syllabaries Hiragana and Katakana represent syllables and sounds that are totally different from the alphabet and its sounds. Some alphabet sounds can’t be precisely expressed in the Japanese syllabary.

Some of the most confusing sounds may be: ら・り・る・れ・ろ. These are written as “ra, ri, ru, re, ro” in alphabet letters. Keep in mind that you should not roll your tongue when pronouncing the Japanese “r.” It actually sounds closer to the “L” sound.


  • glass: グラス  (gurasu) = Even though the original word is “gLass,” it is “guRasu” in Japanese.
  • apple: りんご (ringo) = It’s pronounced more like “li.”
  • travel: 旅行/りょこう  (ryokō) = You don’t roll your tongue to say “ryo.”
  • rule:  ルール  (rūru) = It’s pronounced more like “lu・u・lu,” with the “u” in the middle pronounced longer.

Someone Picking Up a Red Apple

Pay attention when you pronounce “ら (ra) り (ri) る (ru) れ (re) ろ (ro)”, such as in りんご (ringo), meaning “apple.”

2. Vocabulary Word Mistakes

Now we’ll go over a few common Japanese mistakes that learners make concerning vocabulary. Pay close attention! 

1 – Saying “You” in Japanese

“You” in Japanese is あなた (anata). Unlike English, Japanese doesn’t usually use this pronoun during conversations. The subject or object in a sentence can usually be omitted, especially in casual situations.


  • 窓を開けてくれますか。 
    Mado o akete kuremasu ka.
    “Can (you) open the window?”
  • これあげます。
    Kore agemasu.
    “(I) give (you) this.”
  • マリの今日の服かわいいね。
    Mari no kyō no fuku kawaii ne.
    “Mari’s outfit today is pretty.” (instead of “Your outfit today is pretty.”)

Japanese people use the name of the person they’re speaking to instead of using “you.”

2 – Using the Wrong “I”

Personal pronouns in Japanese are rich in expression, especially the first- and second-person pronouns. There are dozens of expressions for “I,” depending on the gender, politeness, formality, and how you want to express yourself.

Using the wrong word for “I” in a given situation is one of the most common mistakes that Japanese learners make.


  • “I am Kaori Tanaka.” [In a formal occasion when the subject is female]
    Wrong: は田中かおりです。(Ore wa Tanaka Kaori desu.)
    Correct: は田中かおりです。(Watashi (or Watakushi) wa Tanaka Kaori desu.)
  • “I am a student.” [In a casual occasion when the subject is male]
    Wrong: あたしは学生です。(Atashi wa gakusei desu.)
    Correct: 僕 / 俺は学生です。(Boku / ore wa gakusei desu.)

Following are the most frequently used first person pronouns.

Reading KanjiHiraganaLevel of FormalityGenderCharacteristics
watakushiわたくしvery formalbothThis is a very formal and polite personal pronoun that’s often used in official occasions.
watashiわたしformal / informal bothThis one is used by both genders in formal occasions, such as in the workplace. This is the most commonly used word for “I,” but it’s often omitted in sentences. In informal situations, this is typically used by women. 
atashiあたしinformalfemaleThis is the casual version of watashi, and it’s used by younger females in conversations. However, it can sound a bit childish and unsophisticated.
bokuぼくinformalmale This pronoun is used by males of all ages, but very often by kids and younger men. It gives an impression of humbleness. This can also be used as a second-person pronoun toward little boys (English equivalent: “kid”).
oreおれvery informalmale This is frequently used by men in informal settings, such as among family and friends. It sounds very masculine. This can be rude when it’s used in formal occasions or in front of respectable/senior people.

3 – Using the Wrong Casual Language 

There are some sentence-ending particles in Japanese which are colloquial expressions and used only in casual situations. 

Some are feminine and used by females, such as:

  • -よ (-yo)
  • -わ (-wa)
  • -わよ (-wa yo)

And some are masculine, such as:

  • -ぜ (-ze)
  • -だぜ (-da ze)

Such sentence-ending particles don’t have a particular meaning; they just add emphasis or a sense of femininity or masculinity.  

Make sure you use the correct suffix, otherwise you’d sound very strange!


  • “I cleaned it.” [When the subject is a man]
    Wrong: 私が掃除したわよ。(Watashi ga sōji shita wa yo.)
    Correct: 俺が掃除した。(Ore ga sōji shita ze.)  [it sounds a bit rough]
  • “It’s okay!” [When the subject is a woman]
    Wrong: いい!(Ii ze!)
    : いいわよ!・いいわ! (Ii wa yo! / Ii wa!)

Someone Vacuuming the Floor

俺が掃除した。(Ore ga sōji shita ze.) = “I cleaned it.” – in a masculine and slightly rough manner

3. Word Order Mistakes in Japanese

You probably know already that Japanese uses a different sentence structure and word order than English. Many Japanese language mistakes by English-speakers have to do with word order confusion. 

1 – Japanese is SOV

The word order of Japanese sentences may be confusing for learners whose native language is an SVO type, because the Japanese sentence structure is SOV: S (subject)O (object)V (verb)

       (S)          (O)        (V)

Japanese: Watashi wa ringo o tabemasu.   私はりんごを食べます

               (S)       (V)       (O)

English:   eat an apple.

When it comes to making a negative sentence, the word indicating negativity comes at the end of the sentence.

Japanese:            Kyō  watashi wa ringo o hitotsu mo  tabemasen.  今日私はりんごを一つも食べません

[Literal meaning]  today /     I    /     apple /  any (even one) /  eat /  not

English:                I did not eat any  apples today.

Make sure you don’t get confused and try to say: Watashi wa tabemasen hitostumo ringo o kyō.

2 – Adjective + Noun

Another word order mistake is to place the adjective and noun incorrectly in a sentence. 

Remember that adjectives always come in front of nouns in Japanese

Make sure you don’t put adjectives after nouns like you would in other languages such as Italian (mela verde = “apple green”) or French (pomme verte = “apple green”).

Correct:  赤いりんご  (akai ringo)     = “red apple”

Wrong:   りんご赤い  (ringo akai)     = “apple red”


  • 安い靴    (yasui kutsu)        = “cheap shoes”
  • 寒い日       (samui hi)             = “cold day”
  • 丸い形       (marui katachi)     = “round shape”
  • 親切な人   (shinsetsu na hito) = “kind person”
  • 静かな部屋  (shizuka na heya)  = “quiet room”

4. Japanese Grammar Mistakes

Many new learners struggle with certain concepts of Japanese grammar, so pay close attention to avoid these mistakes yourself. 

1 – Usage of Postpositional Particles

There are multiple positional particles in Japanese, and learning how to use them correctly can be a challenge.

Some particles are used for similar purposes, but it’s still important to know the distinction between them.

  • は (-wa) and が (-ga)

    は (-wa) is the topic marker particle. It’s placed after the word to be marked as the topic of a sentence, defining that word as a subject or an object.

      ➢ 彼は医者です。(Kare wa isha desu.)  = “He is a doctor.”

      ➢ たかしは駅に行きます。(Takashi wa eki ni ikimasu.) = “Takashi goes to the station.”

    On the other hand, the particle が (-ga) is the subject marker, which emphasizes the subject.

      ➢ 彼が医者です。(Kare ga isha desu.)
      This is also translated as “He is a doctor,” but it has a nuance of “He is the one who is a doctor.”

      ➢ たかしが駅に行きます。(Takashi ga eki ni ikimasu.)
      This is also translated as “Takashi goes to the station,” but it has a nuance of “It is Takashi who goes to the station.”
  • で (-de) and に (-ni)

    Both で (-de) and に (-ni) are used as locatives. However, there are many differences between them.

     で (-de) is used as a locative particle, as well as an instrumental particle. When it’s used as a locative particle, it defines where an action or occurrence took place, especially those linked with active cases.

      ➢ 私は家勉強します。
      Watashi wa ie de benkyō shimasu.
      “I study at home.”

      ➢ 彼は池溺れた。
      Kare wa ike de oboreta.
      “He drowned in a pond.”

     で (-de) is also used as an instrumental particle which can be translated as “using,” “by,” or “with.”

      ➢ まりこは箸パスタを食べます。
      Mariko wa hashi de pasuta o tabemasu.
      “Mariko eats pasta with chopsticks.”

      ➢ その生徒はバス大学へ行きます。
      Sono seito wa basu de daigaku e ikimasu.
      “The student goes to university by bus.”

    On the other hand, the locative particle に (-ni) indicates a place or time, and it can be translated as “to,” “on,” “at,” or “in.” When used as a locative particle, it’s differentiated from で (-de) according to existence and passive cases. It’s also used when the result of an action or occurrence is being realized in that place.

      ➢ 彼は椅子座った。
      Kare wa isu ni suwatta.
      “He sat on the chair.”

      ➢ 私は浅草住んでいます。
      Watashi wa Asakusa ni sunde imasu.
      “I live in Asakusa.”

      ➢ 本は図書館あります。
      Hon wa toshokan ni arimasu.
      “The books are in the library.”

      ➢ お昼おにぎりを食べました。
      O-hiru ni onigiri o tabemashita.
      “(I) ate Onigiri at lunch.”

2 – Differentiating Between いる (iru) and ある (aru)

Many foreign learners struggle to differentiate between いる (iru) and ある (aru), as both are translated as “there is (are)” in English.

The easiest way to differentiate them is to remember that いる (iru) is used for living things and ある (aru) is used for objects and living things which are already deceased. 

The polite form of いる (iru) is います (imasu), and the polite form of  ある (aru)  is あります (arimasu).

  • いる (iru)

    ➢ 台所に誰かがいる。
    Daidokoro ni dareka ga iru.
    “There is someone in the kitchen.”

    ➢ 豚が一匹庭にいる。
    Buta ga ippiki niwa ni iru.
    “There is a pig in the garden.”

    ➢ 彼らは今渋谷にいます。
    Kare-ra wa ima Shibuya ni imasu.
    “They are in Shibuya now.”
  • ある (aru)

    ➢ 台所にテレビがある。
    Daidokoro ni terebi ga aru.
    “There is a TV in the kitchen.”

    ➢ 豚肉ステーキが冷蔵庫にある。
    Butaniku sutēki ga reizōko ni aru.
    “There is a pork steak in the fridge.”

    ➢ 渋谷にハチ公像があります。
    Shibuya ni Hachikōzō ga arimasu.
    “There is a statue of Hachikō in Shibuya.”

Japanese woman drinking tea at kitchen table

O 台所に誰かがいる。(Daidokoro ni dareka ga iru.) – “There is someone in the kitchen.
“X 台所に誰かがある。(Daidokoro ni dareka ga aru.)

3 – Past Tense of い (i)-Adjectives

There are two types of adjectives in Japanese: い (i)-adjectives and な (na)-adjectives.

い (i)-adjectives always end with the Hiragana character い (i). Examples include:

  • 丸い (marui) – “round”
  • 暑い (atsui) – “hot”
  • 楽しい (tanoshii) – “fun”

 な (na)-adjectives consist of adjectival nouns and a form of the copula な (na). Examples include:

  • 親切な (shinsetsu na) – “kind”
  • 穏やかな (odayaka na) – “mild” / “calm”
  • 曖昧な (aimai na) – “vague” / “ambiguous”

Adding でした (deshita), which is the past tense of です (desu), makes an adjective polite. 

Another common mistake in Japanese is often seen in the past tense of the copula (“be” / “is”). After い (i)-adjectives, this is a mistake; however, it’s okay to do so in the case of な (na)-adjectives.

Instead, conjugate い (i)-adjectives to the “adjective stem + かった (-katta)” form for the past tense.


  • “It was difficult.”  [present tense of “difficult” : 難しい (muzukashii)]
    Wrong: 難しいでした。(Muzukashii deshita.)
    Correct: 難しかった。(Muzukashikatta.)
  • “She was beautiful.”  [present tense of “beautiful” : 美しい (utsukushii)]
    Wrong: 彼女は美しいでした。(Kanojo wa utsukushii deshita.)
    Correct:  彼女は美しかった。(Kanojo wa utsukushikatta.)

5. Honorific Mistakes

The honorific language is another source of confusion and Japanese mistakes for learners.

While it’s generally adequate to be able to use the basic polite form for daily life, it’s good to learn 敬語 (Keigo) to deepen your understanding of the Japanese language. Even if you don’t use them, you’ll hear a lot of honorifics as a customer in Japanese stores and restaurants.

Japanese Keigo has three forms of respectful speech, which are: 

  • 丁寧語 (Teineigo) – polite language
  • 尊敬語 (Sonkeigo) – respectful language
  • 謙譲語 (Kenjōgo) – humble language

Being able to use the appropriate honorifics is considered good manners for adults in Japan, especially at work and in many social situations. 

  • 丁寧語 (Teineigo) – polite language
    This is used to express things politely. It’s used for any person and in any situation.
  • 尊敬語 (Sonkeigo) – respectful language
    This is used to show respect by expressing things that heighten action, status, or things of other people. It’s used when talking about someone superior to you, clients, and customers. Do not use this to talk about yourself.
  • 謙譲語 (Kenjōgo) – humble language
    This is used to show respect by expressing things that lower/humble yourself in comparison to the other person. It’s used to tell someone about your action or status. Do not use this to talk about another person.

The following is a list of frequently used verbs of honorifics in the present tense.

EnglishBasic Verb丁寧語
(polite language) 
 (respectful language) 
 (humble language) 
申します/ 申し上げます
/ mōshiagemasu
参ります / 伺います
/ ukagaimasu 
いらっしゃいます / おいでになります
/ oide ni narimasu
お知りになります / ご存じです
o-shiri ni narimasu
/ gozonji desu
see / look見る
goran ni narimasu
haiken shimsu
o-age ni narimasu

Japanese Woman Bowing Respectfully

To customers/clients : 感謝申し上げます。(Kansha mōshiagemasu.) – “I tell you thank you.” [in a respectful way]

6. The Biggest Mistake

What is the biggest mistake when learning Japanese?

Yes, the biggest mistake is to be afraid of making mistakes! 

Speak and practice proactively over the course of your studies. When you make mistakes, you’ll improve your Japanese skills by correcting those mistakes.

When you don’t know something and wonder what it is and how it works, don’t hesitate to ask!

    Kiku wa ittoki no haji, kikanu wa isshō no haji

This is the famous Japanese proverb for learners. It means: “The man who asks a question is a fool for a minute; the man who does not ask is a fool for life.” 

The direct translation is: “Asking is shameful temporarily; not asking is shameful for life.” 

As the Japanese culture is one of shame, honor, and collective harmony, the proverb uses the word 恥 (haji), meaning “shame” for a life lesson. It’s more shameful to not ask and be ignorant for the rest of your life than it is to ask and learn.

7. Conclusion: How JapanesePod101 Can Help You Learn More Japanese

In this article, we introduced the ten most common mistakes students make when learning Japanese. Whether you’re a beginner or advanced learner, this information will surely deepen your understanding and help you improve your Japanese skills! 

If you would like to learn more about the Japanese language, you’ll find a lot more helpful content on We provide a variety of free lessons to help you improve your Japanese language skills. 

Here’s some more information about the basics of Japanese to enrich your knowledge: 

Please don’t forget to check out the audio and listen to the pronunciation carefully!

And there’s so much more waiting for you! Learn faster and enjoy studying Japanese at!

Before you go, let us know in the comments how many of these mistakes you’ve made before, and how you overcame them. We look forward to hearing from you!

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The 10 Most Useful Japanese Questions and Answers


Have you ever tried to use a newly learned Japanese phrase, only to panic when you couldn’t understand your interlocutor’s reply? 

Whether you’re making new Japanese friends or traveling in Japan, knowing how to give questions and answers in Japanese will allow for smoother communication. Learning how to ask Japanese questions will also help you better understand Japanese, and improve your speaking and listening skills. The keys to mastering these skills early on are to speak a lot and practice!  

In this article, we’ll introduce the ten most useful Japanese question & answer patterns. Even if you’re just getting started, you can start having basic conversations with these phrases! Learn how to speak Japanese here at!

First things first, though: How do you form questions in Japanese?

Japanese questions are easy to recognize because the question particle か (ka) always appears at the end (formal / polite form), and questions are asked with a rising tone.

Log in to Download Your Free Cheat Sheet - Beginner Vocabulary in Japanese Table of Contents
  1. What’s your name?
  2. Where are you from?
  3. Do you speak Japanese?
  4. How long have you been studying Japanese?
  5. Have you been to [location]?
  6. How is ___?
  7. Do you like [country’s] food?
  8. What are you doing?
  9. What’s wrong?
  10. How much is this?
  11. How JapanesePod101 Can Help You Learn More Japanese

1. What’s your name?

Introducing Yourself


  • Japanese: (あなたの)名前は何ですか。
  • Reading: (Anata no) namae wa nan desu ka.  
  • English: “What is (your) name?”

This is one of the most common phrases that’s used when meeting someone new. The Japanese possessive case あなたの (anata no), meaning “your,” can be omitted when the context makes it clear whose name you’re talking about. Especially in casual conversations, the subject and possessive case (noun + possessive particle の) are often omitted; this sounds more natural.


(1) Polite

  • Japanese: 私の名前は___です。
  • Reading: Watashi no namae wa ___ desu. 
  • English: “My name is ___.”

This is the most common way to give someone your name. 

(2) Casually Polite

  • Japanese: (私は)___です。
  • Reading: (Watashi wa) ___ desu. 
  • English: “(I) am ___.”

This is another common phrase for giving someone your name. In a casual conversation, you can omit the subject 私は (Watashi wa), meaning “I.”

(3) Very Polite

  • Japanese: ___と申します。
  • Reading: ___ to mōshimasu. 
  • English: “I am ___.” (honorific language – humble expression) 

Japanese uses honorific language, called 敬語 (Keigo), which has various expressions that connote different levels of politeness and respect. 

This phrase is a humble expression that’s used in official occasions where you should speak very politely, or when you’re talking to someone who is very honorable.


Q: 名前は何ですか。  
Namae wa nan desu ka.
“What is your name?”

A: 私の名前はかおりです。
Watashi no namae wa Kaori desu.
“My name is Kaori.”

Japanese Colleagues Shaking Hands

Q: あなたの名前は何ですか。(What is your name?) 

A: はじめまして、私はゆりです。(Nice to meet you. I’m Yuri.)

2. Where are you from?


  • Japanese: (あなたの)出身はどこですか。
  • Reading: (Anata no) shusshin wa doko desu ka.
  • English: “Where are you from?”

This is one of the most popular Japanese questions that foreigners may be asked. あなたの出身はどこですか。literally translates as “Where is your hometown?”

The possessive case あなたの (anata no), meaning “your,” can be omitted in casual situations. In order to ask more politely, use the word どちら (dochira) instead of どこ (doko).



  • Japanese: (私は)___出身です。 
  • Reading: (Watashi wa) ___ shusshin desu. 
  • English: “(I) am from (my origin is) ___.”

This is a typical way to answer the question.

The word 出身 (shusshin) refers to a person’s origin, such as his or her hometown, city, or country. If you’re a foreigner in Japan, you can put your country name in the blank.

The subject 私は (Watashi wa), or “I,” can be omitted in casual situations.


  • Japanese: (私は)___から来ました。 
  • Reading: (Watashi wa) ___ kara kimashita. 
  • English: “(I) come from ___.”

This is another common way to answer, and once again, the subject can be omitted in casual situations.


Q: あなたの出身はどこですか。 
Anata no shusshin wa doko desu ka.
“Where are you from?”

A: 私は東京出身です。
Watashi wa Tōkyō shusshin desu.
“I’m from Tokyo.”

First Encounter

3. Do you speak Japanese?

These basic questions and answers in Japanese will be extremely helpful for you while in Japan. 



  • Japanese: (あなたは) ___を話しますか。
  • Reading: (Anata wa) ___ o hanashimasu ka.
  • English: “Do you speak ___?”

The subject あなたは (Anata wa), meaning “you,” can be omitted in casual situations.


  • Japanese: (あなたは) ___を話せますか。
  • Reading: (Anata wa) o hanasemasu ka.
  • English: “Can you speak ___?”

This question sounds similar to the one above, but it indicates “speaking ability” by changing 話ます (hanashimasu) into 話ます (hanasemasu).

The subject can be omitted in casual situations.

Language Vocabulary

In Japanese, the name of a language is expressed with the word 語 (-go), meaning “language,” attached after the name of a language or country.

English JapaneseReading
English 英語Eigo



  • Japanese: 私は___を話します。
  • Reading: Watashi wa ___ o hanashimasu.
  • English: “I speak ___.”


  • Japanese: 私は___を話せます。 
  • Reading: Watashi wa ___ o hanasemasu. 
  • English: “I can speak ___.”


  • Japanese: 私は___を話せません。 
  • Reading: Watashi wa ___ o hanasemasen. 
  • English: “I can’t speak ___.”

This is a negative form you can use to say that you can’t speak the language.


Q: あなたは日本語を話しますか。  
Anata wa Nihon-go o hanashimasu ka.
“Do you speak Japanese?”

A: はい、私は少し日本語を話します。
Hai, watashi wa sukoshi Nihon-go o hanashimasu.
“Yes, I speak Japanese a little.”

Different Language-learning Books

Q: 日本語を話せますか。(Can you speak Japanese?)

A: 私は日本語を話せます。(I can speak Japanese.)

4. How long have you been studying Japanese?


  • Japanese: どのくらい___を勉強していますか。
  • Reading: Dono kurai ___ o benkyō shite imasu ka.
  • English: “How long have you been studying ___?”

どのくらい (Dono kurai) literally translates as “to what extent,” but in this case, it refers to “how long.”

If you come from abroad and speak a bit of Japanese while in Japan, Japanese people will be very curious and ask you this question.



  • Japanese: ___か月です。 
  • Reading: ___-kagetsu desu. 
  • English: “For ___ month(s).”

If you’ve been learning Japanese for a few months, you can use this phrase to answer. Put the number of months in the blank.

___-kagetsu desu literally means “It’s ___ month(s).”

There’s no difference in expression for singular and plural in Japanese. So whether you’ve been learning for one month or several, the phrase remains the same.


  • Japanese: ___年です。 
  • Reading: ___-nen desu. 
  • English: “For ___ year(s).”

Use this phrase if you’ve been studying for one or more years.

___-nen desu literally means “It’s ___ year(s).”


Q: どのくらい日本語を勉強していますか。   
Dono kurai Nihon-go o benkyō shite imasu ka.
“How long have you been studying Japanese?”

A: 1年5か月です。
Ichi-nen go-kagetsu desu.
“For a year and five months.”

5. Have you been to [location]?


  • Japanese: ___に行ったことがありますか。
  • Reading: ___ ni itta koto ga arimasu ka.
  • English: “Have you been to ___?”

-ことがあります (-koto ga arimasu) is an expression meaning “to have done (something),” and it’s used after the past tense form of a verb. In this case, that would be 行った (itta), meaning “went.” It’s translated as “Have you been to ___?”

You can put the name of any place in the blank.



  • Japanese: はい、行ったことがあります。
  • Reading: Hai, itta koto ga arimasu.
  • English: “Yes, I have been.”


  • Japanese: いいえ、行ったことがありません。 
  • Reading: Iie, itta koto ga arimasen.
  • English: “No, I have never been.”

This is a negative sentence for answering “no.”


Q: 皇居に行ったことがありますか。   
Kōkyo ni itta koto ga arimasu ka.
“Have you been to the Imperial Palace?”

A: いいえ、行ったことがありません。
Iie, itta koto ga arimasen.
“No, I have never been.”

Tokyo Imperial Palace

Q: 皇居に行ったことがありますか。  (Have you been to the Imperial Palace?)

A: はい、行ったことがあります。  (Yes, I have been.)

6. How is ___?


  • Japanese: ___ はどうですか。 
  • Reading: ___ wa dō desu ka.
  • English: “How is ___?”

This is a common phrase to ask about the condition, situation, or status of something.

What Can You Ask About?

    ➢ 調子はどうですか。 (Chōshi wa dō desu ka.) – “How is the condition?”
    調子 means “condition,” and in this case, it means “How are you doing?” or “How is it going?”
    ➢ 勉強はどうですか。 (Benkyō wa dō desu ka.) – “How is studying?”
    ➢ 仕事の進み具合はどうですか。(Shigoto no susumiguai wa dō desu ka.) – “How is the progress of work?”



  • Japanese: 良いです。
  • Reading: Ii desu. 
  • English: “It’s good.”

うまく行っています (umaku itte imasu), meaning “It’s going good,” is another common expression you can use to say that something’s going well.


  • Japanese: まあまあです。 
  • Reading: Mā-mā desu
  • English: “So-so.”

This phrase is very common, and it’s used to say that something is relatively good.


  • Japanese: あまり良くないです。 
  • Reading: Amari yokunai desu.
  • English: “It’s not so good.”

You can use this phrase when things aren’t going very well. Japanese people tend to avoid straightforward words like “bad,” even if something is bad; they prefer to use euphemistic expressions.


Q: 体調はどうですか。 
Taichō wa dō desu ka.
“How is your body condition?” / “How are you feeling?”

A: まあまあです。 
Mā-mā desu.

A Woman Taking a Test

Q: 勉強はどうですか。 (How is studying?)

A: うまく行っています。(It’s going good.)

7. Do you like [country’s] food?


  • Japanese: ___ 料理は好きですか。
  • Reading: ___ ryōri wa suki desu ka.
  • English: “Do you like ___ food?”

To express a country’s food, put the name of the country in the blank and add 料理 (ryōri) after it. 料理 (ryōri) means “cuisine” or “cooking.”

Cuisine Vocabulary:

English Japanese Reading
Japanese food日本料理Nihon ryōri
Chinese food中華料理Chūka ryōri
Korean food韓国料理Kankoku ryōri
French foodフランス料理Furansu ryōri
Italian foodイタリア料理Itaria ryōri
Spanish foodスペイン料理Supein ryōri
Indian foodインド料理Indo ryōri
Thai foodタイ料理Tai ryōri



  • Japanese: はい、好きです。
  • Reading: Hai, suki desu. 
  • English: “Yes, I like it.”


  • Japanese: まあまあ好きです。 
  • Reading: Mā-mā suki desu
  • English: “I somewhat like it.”

This phrase is a very common way to say that you relatively like something. 


  • Japanese: いいえ、好きではありません。 
  • Reading: Iie, suki de wa arimasen.
  • English: “No, I don’t like it.”

This is a simple phrase to answer that you don’t like something. However, some Japanese people tend to use more euphemistic expressions to avoid saying “no.”

In such cases, you can also say ___料理は苦手です (___ ryōri wa nigate desu), which means “I’m not good with ___.”


Q: フランス料理は好きですか。 
Furansu ryōri wa suki desu ka.
“Do you like French food?”

A: はい、好きです。 
Hai, suki desu.
“Yes, I like it.”

8. What are you doing?


  • Japanese: 何をしていますか。
  • Reading: Nani o shite imasu ka.
  • English: “What (are you) doing?”

There’s also a shorter version you can say: 何してますか。(Nani shite masu ka.) It’s still polite, but it sounds more casual.

This Japanese expression doesn’t have a particular subject. Therefore, if you add a subject, such as 彼女は (kanojo wa) meaning “she” or 彼は (kare wa) meaning “he,” to the beginning of the sentence, it becomes “What is she / he doing?”


Answers can vary, but here are some general answers to the question.


  • Japanese: ___ をしています。
  • Reading: ___ o shite imasu. 
  • English: “(I’m) doing ___.”

To answer the question, put a suitable noun in the blank. Some Japanese nouns belong to a group that allows the noun to turn into a verb when attached with the verb する (suru), meaning do. For example:

演技する (engi suru) = 演技 (engi), meaning “acting” + する (suru), meaning “do” —–> “to act”

This phrase works well with this kind of noun.

This Japanese expression doesn’t have a particular subject, so if you add a subject, such as 彼女は (kanojo wa) meaning “she” or 彼は (kare wa) meaning “he,” to the beginning of the sentence, it becomes: “She / he is doing ___.”

How to Use:

    ➢ 仕事をしています。(Shigoto o shite imasu.) – “I’m doing work.” = “I’m working.”
    ➢ 勉強をしています。(Benkyō o shite imasu.) – “I’m doing study.” = “I’m studying.”
    ➢ 食事をしています。(Shokuji o shite imasu.) – “I’m doing meal.” = “I’m having a meal.”


  • Japanese: ___ています。 
  • Reading: ___-te imasu.  
  • English: “(I’m) ___ing.”

This is another common phrase for telling someone what you’re doing. You can put any Japanese verb in the blank. The verb must be conjugated in a form that -ている(-te iru) can follow.

How to Use:

    ➢ 見ています。(Mite imasu.) – “I’m watching/looking.”
    ➢ 歩いています。(Aruite imasu.) – “I’m walking.”
    ➢ 食べています。(Tabete imasu.) – “I’m eating.”


Q: 何をしていますか。  
Nani o shite imasu ka.
“What are you doing?”

A: 映画を見ています。 
Eiga o mite imasu.
“I’m watching a movie.”

Children Enjoying Good Books

Q:何をしていますか。 (What are you doing?)

A: 本を読んでいます。 (I’m reading a book.)

9. What’s wrong?


  • Japanese: どうしましたか。 
  • Reading: Dō shimashita ka.
  • English: “What’s wrong?” / “What’s the matter?”

A similar phrase is どうかしましたか。(Dō ka shimashita ka.) which means the same thing.


Answers can vary, but here are some examples.


  • Japanese: 何でもないです。
  • Reading: Nan demo nai desu.
  • English: “It’s nothing.” / “There’s nothing wrong.”

何でもない (Nan demo nai) means “nothing.”


  • Japanese: 疲れています。 
  • Reading: Tsukarete imasu
  • English: “I’m tired.”


  • Japanese: 気分が悪いです。 
  • Reading: Kibun ga warui desu.
  • English: “I don’t feel good.”

This literally translates as “feeling is bad,” but in this case, it means “I don’t feel good/well.”


Q: どうしましたか。 顔色が悪いですよ。 
Dō shimashita ka. Kaoiro ga warui desu yo.
“What’s wrong? You look pale.”

A: 少し疲れています。 
Sukoshi tsukarete imasu.
“I’m a bit tired.”

10. How much is this?


  • Japanese: これはいくらですか。
  • Reading: Kore wa ikura desu ka.
  • English: “How much is this?”

This is a must-know phrase if you plan on shopping during your trip to Japan.


  • Japanese: これは___円です。
  • Reading: Kore wa ___-en desu. 
  • English: “It’s ¥___.”

The Japanese currency is 円, which is actually pronounced as えん (en). The currency symbol is ¥.


Q: この本はいくらですか。  
Kono hon wa ikura desu ka.
Kono hon wa ikura desu ka.

A: この本は1000円です。 
Kono hon wa sen-en desu.
“This book is ¥1000.”

For more useful shopping phrases with audio, please check out this lesson on 15 Shopping Phrases: Exchanges, Refunds, and Complaints!

11. How JapanesePod101 Can Help You Learn More Japanese

In this article, we introduced the ten most useful Japanese question & answer patterns. After learning these, you’ll have strong survival Japanese communication skills! 

If you would like to learn more about the Japanese language, you’ll find even more helpful content on We provide a variety of free lessons that will help you improve your Japanese language skills. 

Here are some more lessons with audio about the basics of Japanese:

For beginners, our lesson on the Top 25 Must-Know Phrases is a must-read! 

And there’s so much more! Learn faster and enjoy studying Japanese at!

Before you go, let us know in the comments if there are any Japanese questions and answers you still want to know! We’d be glad to help, and look forward to hearing from you!

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A Day of Rest for the Weary: Labor Thanksgiving Day in Japan

From the Harvest Festival in Germany to Thanksgiving Day in the United States, many cultures around the world have a thanksgiving holiday of some sort. In Japan, this holiday is 勤労感謝の日 (きんろうかんしゃのひ), or “Labor Thanksgiving Day.”

In this article, you’ll learn how the Japanese show 感謝 (かんしゃ), or “appreciation,” on this special day, as well as the holiday’s origins. 

Are you ready? Let’s get started.

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1. What is Labor Thanksgiving Day in Japan?

Up-close Image of a Man in Work Gear

Each year on November 23, the Japanese celebrate Labor Thanksgiving Day. This is a national holiday dedicated to honoring all workers, reflecting on progress and production, and enjoying the company of family. 

While Labor Thanksgiving Day in Japan does have some similarities to Thanksgiving in the United States, there are marked differences which we’ll discuss in the following section.

    → Feeling appreciative today? Learn different ways to say ありがとう。 (“Thank you!”) with our relevant blog post.

Labor Thanksgiving Day Origin

Labor Thanksgiving Day has its roots in a very old Japanese tradition, called Niiname-sai. This was a moveable harvest festival during which the Emperor would thank the gods for all of the food produced that year, offer rice and beans to the gods, and then eat some of the offering himself. During the Meiji Era, the holiday received its fixed date of November 23.

In 1948, following World War II, the harvest festival became Labor Thanksgiving Day. This was to commemorate the positive changes that were made to the Japanese Constitution following the war. 

2. How Does Japan Celebrate Labor Thanksgiving Day?

Labor Thanksgiving Day traditions largely revolve around giving thanks and showing appreciation to workers for all of their hard 労働 (ろうどう), or “labor,” all year long.

Children often write thank-you notes to their parents, take part in chores, and even try their hand in the kitchen to give their parents a break after working so hard. In addition, kids often write notes for and give gifts to workers whom they find inspirational or have much gratitude toward, such as police officers or hospital workers.

Labor Thanksgiving Day celebrations in Japan are not nearly as elaborate as those for Thanksgiving in the United States. Most businesses are closed on this day, giving workers time off to enjoy the holiday with family. Common Labor Thanksgiving Day activities include spending some quality home time with loved ones or heading to the outdoors for some fresh air. Certain organizations or companies may use this day to discuss important topics regarding the future or to show gratitude for their employees.

The Imperial House of Japan continues the original tradition of Niiname-sai, in which a food offering is given to the Shinto gods from that year’s harvest and then eaten by the Emperor. It’s important to note that this is done quietly and is not a large celebration.

Japanese Labor Thanksgiving Day food tends to be less important than Thanksgiving food in the United States. That said, because this holiday traditionally celebrated the autumn harvest, there’s often some type of ごちそう (“feast”) to be enjoyed with family or loved ones. 

3. Japanese Constitution Changes

We mentioned earlier that the Japanese Constitution underwent some important changes following WWII. Do you know what they were? 

The new Japanese Constitution was drafted by a team from the U.S. under Douglas MacArthur, with the help of Japanese scholars. The finished document made several provisions, such as the right to life, universal suffrage, greater equality between men and women, and the right to a fair trial. Additionally, Article 9 of the constitution prohibits Japan from declaring war. 

The new constitution also limited the Emperor’s power within the Japanese government, and the country created a new bicameral parliamentary system.

The Japanese Constitution is a topic of debate; some consider it a sensitive issue, though most people fully welcome and accept the provisions of the new constitution.

    → Do you want to learn more about how the Japanese view their constitution? Then look at our Culture Class lesson about Japanese Constitution Day.

4. Essential Labor Thanksgiving Day Vocabulary

An Industrial Building

Let’s review some of the vocabulary words and phrases from this article so you can talk about Labor Thanksgiving Day in Japanese!

  • ありがとう。-  “Thank you!”
  • 祝日 (しゅくじつ) – “holiday” [n]
  • 家族 (かぞく) – “family” [n]
  • プレゼント – “present” [n]
  • 勤労感謝の日 (きんろうかんしゃのひ) – “Labor Thanksgiving Day” [n]
  • 仕事 (しごと) – “job” [n]
  • 感謝 (かんしゃ) – “appreciation” [n]
  • 労働 (ろうどう) – “labor” [n]
  • 産業 (さんぎょう) – “industrial” [n]
  • 労をねぎらう (ろうをねぎらう) – “appreciate the pains somebody has taken”
  • ごちそう – “feast” [n]

Remember that you can hear the pronunciation of each word and phrase on our Labor Thanksgiving Day vocabulary list!

Final Thoughts

Two Female Colleagues Shaking Hands

The Labor Thanksgiving Day festival is a time of gratitude, appreciation, and enjoyment. Is there a similar holiday in your country? If so, how do you celebrate?

If you enjoyed learning about this Japanese holiday, we think you’ll enjoy the following articles on

In addition to our insightful cultural lessons, JapanesePod101 provides tons of Japanese language learning materials, from podcasts to YouTube videos and free vocabulary lists. What are you waiting for? Create your free lifetime account today and start learning Japanese in the easiest, fastest, and most fun way!

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The 10 Most Useful Japanese Sentence Patterns


Learning a new language is fun, but it requires a lot of effort—studying the complicated grammar rules and memorizing thousands of words. But we have a tip for you! The fastest and easiest way to learn Japanese is to just focus on the most useful and common Japanese sentence patterns and start speaking them!

The most frequently used Japanese sentence patterns are useful for survival communication and day-to-day interactions. When you know the essential sentence patterns in Japanese, you can arrange and create more sentences to express yourself and have conversations. 

In this article, we’ll introduce the ten most useful Japanese sentence patterns, which cover the most basic statements and questions. Boost your Japanese conversation skills here at!

Log in to Download Your Free Cheat Sheet - Beginner Vocabulary in Japanese Table of Contents
  1. A is B – AはBです
  2. Asking Simple Questions: Is A B? AはBですか。
  3. I Want (to)…  …が欲しいです/…たいです 
  4. I Need (to)…  …が必要です/…(する)必要があります 
  5. I like …  …が好きです
  6. Please (do) … ….(して)ください
  7. May I / Can I (Do) …? ….(しても)いいですか。/a>
  8. What is …? ….は何ですか? 
  9. When is …? ….はいつですか? 
  10. Where is …? ….はどこですか? 
  11. Conclusion: How Can Help You Learn More Japanese
A Woman Deep in Thought in Front of a Blackboard

With the top 10 Japanese sentence patterns, you can easily have simple conversations!

1. A is B – AはBです

A is B = A (wa) B (desu) or  A は B です

This is the simplest Japanese sentence construction for describing something. A is usually a noun and B can be a noun or an adjective.

です (desu) is the basic predicate that represents politeness; it’s placed at the end of a Japanese sentence. 

The Japanese sentence structure is SOV (Subject + Object + Verb), while English has an SVO structure (Subject + Verb + Object).


  • 私は学生です。(Watashi wa gakusei desu.) — “I am a student.”
  • 彼は私の友達です。(Kare wa watashi no tomodachi desu.) — “He is my friend.”
  • このご飯は美味しいです。(Kono gohan wa oishii desu.) — “This meal is delicious.”
  • あのレストランは海鮮料理で有名です。(Ano resutoran wa kaisen ryōri de yūmei desu.) — “That restaurant is famous for seafood.”
  • 今年の夏は去年より暑いです。 (Kotoshi no natsu wa kyonen yori atsui desu.) — “This summer is hotter than the one last year.”

For more about Japanese nouns and adjectives, please check out our pages on the 50 Most Common Nouns and 50 Most Common Adjectives.

Sentence Patterns

2. Asking Simple Questions:  Is A B? AはBですか。

Is A B ? = A (wa) B (desu ka) or  A は B ですか。

Here’s the most common question sentence pattern in Japanese. 

To make a Japanese interrogative sentence, simply add the question marker か (ka) to the end of an affirmative sentence and pronounce it with a rising intonation. 


  • あなたは学生ですか。(Anata wa gakusei desu ka.) — “Are you a student?”
  • 彼らはあなたの友達ですか。(Kare-ra wa anata no tomodachi desu ka.) — “Are they your friends?”
  • その本は難しいですか。(Sono hon wa muzukashii desu ka.) — “Is that book difficult?”
  • 今日の天気は雨のち曇りですか。(Kyō no tenki wa ame nochi kumori desu ka.) — “Is the weather today cloudy after rain?”
  • 駅の隣のビルは銀行ですか。(Eki no tonari no biru wa ginkō desu ka.) — “Is the building next to the station a bank?”
Mt. Fuji in Japan

Ashita wa hare desu ka. = “Is tomorrow sunny?”

3. I Want (to)…  …が欲しいです/…たいです 

I want  … = [noun] …が欲しい です  (ga hoshii desu)

I want to … =  [verb] …たい です  (-tai desu)

These are the simplest Japanese sentence patterns for expressing “want.”

These Japanese phrases differ depending on whether you want something [noun] or want to do something [verb], as indicated above.

Keep in mind that the subject can be omitted from a Japanese sentence when it’s clear from the context who the subject is.

Japanese verb conjugation is NOT affected by the person (I, you, he, she, we, they), number (singular/plural), or gender (female/male) of the subject.

Examples using a noun:

  • (私は)水が欲しいです。([Watashi wa] mizu ga hoshii desu.) — “I want water.”
  • (私は)新しい車が欲しいです。([Watashi wa] atarashii kuruma ga hoshii desu.)  “I want a new car.”
  • 誕生日にダイヤの指輪が欲しいです。(Tanjōbi ni daiya no yubiwa ga hoshii desu.) — “I want a diamond ring for (my) birthday.”

Examples using a verb:

  • (私は)今日は和食が食べたいです。([Watashi wa] kyō wa washoku ga tabetai desu.) — “I want to eat Japanese food today.”
  • 来年は沖縄に行きたいです。(Rainen wa Okinawa ni ikitai desu.) — “I want to go to Okinawa next year.”
  • 太ったので運動をしたいです。(Futotta node undō o shitai desu.) — “I want to do exercises because I got fat.”

For more information about Japanese verbs, please check out our Japanese Verbs and 50 Most Common Verbs pages.

4. I Need (to)…  …が必要です/…(する)必要があります 

I need … = [noun] …が必要です (ga hitsuyō desu)

I need to … = [verb] …(する)必要があります (hitsuyō ga arimasu)

These are the simplest Japanese sentence patterns for expressing “need.”

As you can see above, the Japanese sentence structure changes depending on whether you need something [noun] or need to do something [verb].

Examples using a noun:

  • (私は)あなたが必要です。([Watashi wa] anata ga hitsuyō desu.) — “I need you.”
  • その車は電気の充電が必要です。(Sono kuruma wa denki no jūden ga hitsuyō desu.) — “That car needs to charge with electricity.”
  • この店での支払いはクレジットカードが必要です。(Kono mise de no shiharai wa kurejitto kādo ga hitsuyō desu.) — “You need a credit card to pay at this store.”

Examples using a verb:

  •  週末に働く必要があります。(Shūmatsu ni hataraku hitsuyō ga arimasu.) — “I need to work on the weekend.”
  • あなたは病院に行く必要があります。(Anata wa byōin ni iku hitsuyō ga arimasu.) — “You need to go to a hospital.”
  • 学生は卒業試験に合格する必要があります。(Gakusei wa sotsugyō shiken ni gōkaku suru hitsuyō ga arimasu.) — “The students need to pass the graduation exam.”
Students Taking a Test in a Classroom

Watashi wa shiken ni gōkaku suru hitsuyō ga arimasu. = “I need to pass the exam.”

5. I like …  …が好きです 

I like … = [noun] …が好きです (ga suki desu)

This is one of the easiest and most useful sentences in Japanese. You can use it the same way you would in English when you’re fond of something or someone.


  • 私は動物が好きです。(Watashi wa dōbutsu ga suki desu.) — “I like animals.”
  • 彼は食べることが好きです。(Kare wa taberu koto ga suki desu.) — “He likes eating.”
  • 私の猫は昼寝が好きです。(Watashi no neko wa hirune ga suki desu.) — “My cat likes taking a nap.”
  • かおりは背が高い男性が好きです。(Kaori wa se ga takai dansei ga suki desu.) — “Kaori likes tall guys.”
  • 私は山より海が好きです。(Watashi wa yama yori umi ga suki desu.) — “I like the sea more than the mountains.”
Sentence Components

6. Please (do) …   ….(して)ください 

“Please (do) …” = … [verb]  …ください (kudasai)

This is a simple sentence pattern in Japanese for asking someone to do something; here, the word ください(Kusadai) is used with a verb. 

Also note that when a noun and the postpositional particle を (o) come before kudasai, it becomes a polite way of saying “Please give (me) [noun].”  For example: りんごを一つください (ringo o hitotsu kudasai), meaning “Please give me one apple.”


  •  静かにしてください。(Shizuka ni shite kudasai.) — “Please be quiet.”
  • お座りください。(O-suwari kudasai.) — “Please be seated/sit down.”
  • そのペンを取ってください。(Sono pen o totte kudasai.) — “Please take the pen.”
  • 食事の前に手を洗ってください。(Shokuji no mae ni te o aratte kudasai.) — “Please wash your hands before the meal.”
  • 次の電車が来るまでしばらくお待ちください。(Tsugi no densha ga kuru made shibaraku o-machi kudasai.) — “Please wait some time until the next train comes.”

7. May I / Can I (Do) …?   ….(しても)いいですか。

“May I / Can I (do) …?”  = … [verb] …(しても)いいですか。(mo ii desu ka.)  

This is a very common Japanese language sentence structure to ask for permission in a polite way. It literally means: “(Is it/Am I) good to (do)…?”


  • 今から行ってもいいですか。(Ima kara itte mo ii desu ka.) — “Can I go now?”
  • 水を飲んでもいいですか。(Mizu o nonde mo ii desu ka.) — “Can I drink water?”
  • 明日提出してもいいですか。(Ashita teishutsu shite mo ii desu ka.) — “May I submit it tomorrow?”
  • ここで楽器を演奏してもいいですか。(Koko de gakki o ensō shite mo ii desu ka.) — “Can I play instruments here?”
  • この切符でこの電車に乗ってもいいですか。(Kono kippu de kono densha ni notte mo ii desu ka.) — “Can I take this train with this ticket?”

Kono kippu de kono densha ni notte mo ii desu ka. = “Can I take this train with this ticket?”

8. What is …?   ….は何ですか? 

“What is …?” = … [noun] ….は何ですか?(wa nan desu ka?) 

This is a very simple phrase to ask for information in a polite way.  


  • これは何ですか。(Kore wa nan desu ka.) — “What is this?”
  • あなたの名前は何ですか。(Anata no namae wa nan desu ka.) — “What is your name?”
  • 今年の和暦は何ですか。(Kotoshi no wareki wa nan desu ka.) — “What is the year of the Japanese era this year?”
  • この下着の素材は何ですか。(Kono shitagi no sozai wa nan desu ka.) — “What is the material of this underwear?”
  • あなたの一番好きな映画は何ですか。(Anata no ichi-ban suki na eiga wa nan desu ka.) — “What is your favorite movie?”
A Man Watching Soccer on TV

Anata no ichi-ban suki na eiga wa nan desu ka. = “What is your favorite movie?”

9. When is …?   ….はいつですか? 

“When is …?” = … [noun] ….はいつですか。(wa itsu desu ka.)

This is a common Japanese sentence pattern to ask about time in a polite way.  


  • 次の会議はいつですか。(Tsugi no kaigi wa itsu desu ka.) — “When is the next meeting?”
  • あなたの誕生日はいつですか。(Anata no tanjōbi wa itsu desu ka.) — “When is your birthday?”
  • 桜の満開時期はいつですか。(Sakura no mankai jiki wa itsu desu ka.) — “When is the best season of full-bloom cherry blossoms?”
  • 初めて海外旅行したのはいつですか。(Hajimete kaigai ryokō shita no wa itsu desu ka.) — “When was the first time you traveled overseas?”
  • 大学の卒業式はいつですか。(Daigaku no sotsugyōshiki wa itsu desu ka.) — “When is the graduation ceremony of the university?”
A Diploma, Graduation Cap, and Stack of Books

Sotsugyōshiki wa itsu desu ka. = “When is the graduation ceremony?”

10. Where is …?   ….はどこですか? 

“Where is …?” = … [noun] ….はどこですか。(wa doko desu ka.)

This is a common Japanese sentence pattern for asking about location in a polite way.  


  • 明日の会議はどこですか。(Ashita no kaigi wa doko desu ka.) — “Where is the meeting tomorrow?”
  •  あなたの地元はどこですか。(Anata no jimoto wa doko desu ka.) — “Where is your hometown?”
  • 渋谷駅はどこですか。(Shibuya Eki wa doko desu ka.) — “Where is Shibuya Station?”
  • ここから一番近いトイレはどこですか。(Koko kara ichi-ban chikai toire wa doko desu ka.) — “Where is the nearest toilet from here?”
  • 東海道新幹線の乗り場はどこですか。(Tōkaidō Shinkansen no noriba wa doko desu ka.) — “Where is the platform of Tōkaidō Shinkansen?”

For more information (with audio) about the most useful Japanese sentence patterns, please check out the Top 10 Sentence Patterns for Beginners lesson on our website.

11. Conclusion: How Can Help You Learn More Japanese

In this article, we introduced the ten most useful sentence patterns in Japanese. Once you learn these Japanese sentence patterns, you can create many more variations for better communication! The good thing about Japanese is that verbs don’t conjugate in terms of the number (singular/plural), person (I, you, he, she, we, they, it), or gender of the subject/object! So don’t hesitate to practice speaking today!

If you would like to learn more about the Japanese language, you’ll find much more helpful content on We provide a variety of free lessons to help you improve your Japanese language skills. Here’s some more information about Japanese basics, with audio to enrich your conversations:

And there’s so much more! Learn faster and enjoy studying Japanese at!

Before you go, let us know in the comments if there are any Japanese sentence patterns you still want to know! We’d be glad to help, and look forward to hearing from you!

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Top 100 Common Japanese Adverbs


It’s impossible to explain something in detail without using adverbs. These are words which can efficiently express time, frequency, place, manner, degree, and more. When you want to boost your language skills, learning adverbs is important and inevitable.

Just like those in other languages, there are a variety of Japanese adverbs and they’re frequently used in sentences. Japanese adverbs are quite similar to English adverbs, though there are some differences to keep in mind. For example, Japanese adverbs are classified in categories according to their characteristics, and they’re placed in different positions in a sentence depending on how they’re used. But don’t worry! The rules are quite simple, and you’ll get the hang of them over time! 

In this article, will provide you with:

  • A Japanese adverbs list containing 100 useful Japanese adverbs
  • Explanations of how to use Japanese adverbs
  • Examples of Japanese adverbs in sentences

Let’s get started!

Log in to Download Your Free Cheat Sheet - Useful Verbs in Japanese Table of Contents
  1. The Adverb in Japanese: An Introduction
  2. Japanese Adverbs List
  3. How Do You Use Adverbs in Japanese Sentences?
  4. Conclusion: How JapanesePod101 Can Help You Learn More Japanese
Easter Eggs and Springtime Flowers

When you learn Japanese adverbs, your conversation will be colorful and rich in expression.

1. The Adverb in Japanese: An Introduction

1 – What is the Function of Japanese Adverbs?

An adverb, or 副詞 (fukushi), is not an independent class of word, as it’s always used with other words. Adverbs are similar to adjectives in that they both modify words. However, adverbs modify verbs, or 動詞 (dōshi), adjectives, or 形容詞 (keiyōshi), and other adverbs, while adjectives only modify nouns, called 名詞 (meishi).

Japanese adverbs, unlike those in English, can appear anywhere in a sentence when they’re used before verbs. 

2 – The Classifications and Types of Japanese Adverbs 

1. Derived from Adjectives

Most adverbs are linked to adjectives that share similar meanings. By changing a part of an adjective, we can turn it into an adverb. You can also see this rule applied in English. For example: “first” / “kind” / “happy” (Adjectives)  >>> “firstly” / “kindly” / “happily” (Adverbs).

In most cases, it’s easy to change Japanese adjectives to adverbs. There are two types of conjugations here.

  • Modification of Japanese い (i) Adjectives

An い (i) adjective always ends with い (i).

By changing the final い (i) to く (ku), an adjective will turn into an adverb.


い (i) Adjective

[ Stem + い (i) ]

[ Stem + く(ku) ]




  • Modification of Japanese な (na) Adjectives

A な (na) adjective always ends with な (na) when it comes before a noun.

Changing な (na) to に (ni) will convert a な (na) adjective into an adverb.



[ Stem + な (na) ]

[ Stem + に (ni) ]
shinsetsu na 
shinsetsu ni   
shizuka na  
shizuka ni  
kantan na   
kantan ni  

For more information about Japanese adjectives, please visit 50 Most Common Adjectives.

  • Other Non-Adjectival Adverbs

There are also Japanese adverbs which are not related to adjectives. Such adverbs do not have a particular pattern to identify them with, so you have to remember each vocabulary term. The good thing is that they’re used in the same way as other adverbs.

Non-adjectival adverbs are often seen among adverbs of frequency, time, and place, which we’ll explain in the following sections.

2. Classification of Japanese Adverbs

Japanese adverbs are classified into different categories, including Time, Frequency, Place, Manner, and Degree. Although it’s not so important to know which adverbs belong to what category, it is useful if you know them for more accurate usage.

Now let’s see various Japanese adverbs from each category! 

Chirashizushi Dish for the Japanese Doll’s Festival, Hinamatsuri

Chirashizushi wa kantan ni tsukuremasu. = “You can make Chirashizushi easily.”

簡単に (Kantan ni) is an adverb.

2. Japanese Adverbs List

1 – Japanese Adverbs of Time

Japanese time adverbs indicate when something happens, has happened, or will happen.

4“this morning”kesa今朝けさ
7“later”ato de後であとで
8“soon”sugu niすぐに
9“right now”ima sugu ni今すぐにいますぐに
10“previously”mae ni前にまえに

2 – Japanese Adverbs of Frequency

Adverbs of frequency are used when describing how often an action takes place.

17“rarely”tama niたまに
18“seldom”metta niめったに
*used only with negative forms
22“(not) at all”zenzen (-nai) *全然 (ーない) *ぜんぜん(ーない) *
23“never”kesshite  (-nai) *決して (ーない) *けっして(ーない) *
24“definitely,” “inevitably”kanarazu必ずかならず
25“daily,” “every day”mainichi毎日まいにち
26“weekly,” “every week”maishū毎週まいしゅう
27“monthly,” “every month”maitsuki毎月まいつき
28“annually,” “every year”maitoshi毎年まいとし
29“every time”maikai毎回まいかい

* 全然 (ーない) [zenzen (-nai)]  and 決して (ーない) [kesshite (-nai)] are the negative forms which are usually used together with -ない (-nai).

For example:

  • 私は全然気にしない
    Watashi wa zenzen ki ni shinai.  
    “I don’t care at all.”
  • 彼女は決して肉を食べない
    Kanojo wa kesshite niku o tabenai
    “She never eats meat.”
Woman Refusing a Piece of Meat at a Barbecue

Kanojo wa kesshite niku o tabenai. = “She never eats meat.”

決して (kesshite), meaning “never,” is an adverb.

3 – Japanese Adverbs of Place

Adverbs of place indicate where an action takes place.

32“there,” “over there”asokoあそこ
33“over here,” “this way”kotchiこっち
34“over there,” “that way”atchiあっち
35“somewhere”doko kaどこか
36“anywhere”doko demoどこでも
37“inside”naka de中でなかで
38“outside”soto de外でそとで
40“near,” “close by”chikaku ni近くにちかくに
41“(at) home”ie de家でいえで
The Tokyo Tower

Watashi no kaisha chikaku ni Tōkyō Tawā ga arimasu. 

= “There is Tokyo Tower close to my company.”   

近くに (chikaku ni), meaning “close,” is an adverb.

4 – Japanese Adverbs of Manner

Adverbs of manner describe the condition of a thing or how an action is performed. Adverbs which are related to adjectives mostly fall in this category. Keep in mind that some Japanese adverbs don’t have direct translations in English.

45“late,” “tardily”osoku遅く
46“quietly”shizuka ni静かにしずかに
47“enjoyably,” “merrily”tanoshiku楽しくたのしく
48“interestingly,” “amusingly”omoshiroku面白くおもしろく
49“noisily,” “loudly”urusakuうるさく
50“simultaneously,” “at the same time”ichi-do ni一度にいちどに
51“easily”kantan ni簡単にかんたんに
54“together”issho ni一緒にいっしょに
55“alone”hitori de一人でひとりで
56“by chance,” “accidentally”gūzen ni偶然にぐうぜんに
57“suddenly”kyū ni急にきゅうに
58“largely,” “greatly”ōkiku大きくおおきく
62“beautifully,” “neatly,” “cleanly”kirei ni綺麗にきれいに
64“kindly”shinsetsu ni親切にしんせつに
65“cheerily,” “lively”genki ni元気にげんきに
66“conveniently”benri ni便利にべんりに
71“highly,” “high,” “expensive”takaku高くたかく
73“cheaply,” “inexpensively”yasuku安くやすく
74“getting along well with”nakayoku仲良くなかよく
77“dark,” “darkly”kuraku暗くくらく
78“hard,” “fastly,” “firmly”kataku硬く・固くかたく

*There are adverbs for colors in Japanese, but there are no equivalent words in English for adverbs of color.

In Japanese, these color adverbs are transformed from い (i) adjectives.

  •  (akai)  >> 赤 (akaku)
  • (shiroi) >> 白 (shiroku)
  • (kuroi)  >> 黒 (kuroku)

Here’s an example:

Watasih wa kami o kuroku someta. 
“I dyed my hair black.”

Close-up of Someone Playing a Guitar at a Concert

Hitori de konsāto e itta. = “I went to the concert alone.”

一人で (hitori de), “meaning alone,” is an adverb.

5 – Japanese Adverbs of Degree

More Essential Verbs

Adverbs of degree indicate the degree or extent of a thing, situation, or action.

88“pretty,” “way”sōtō ni相当にそうとうに
90“plenty,” “much,” “many”takusan沢山たくさん
91“slightly,” “barely,” “only”wazukani僅かにわずかに
92“largely,” “nearly,” “mostly”hotondoほとんど
93“about,” “roughly,” “more or less”hoboほぼ
94“a little,” “a bit,” “a few”sukoshi少しすこし
95“truly,” “really”hontō ni本当にほんとうに
98“much,” “greatly,” “highly”daibu大分だいぶ
100“just,” “right,” “precisely,” “exactly”chōdo丁度ちょうど
A Japanese Family Taking a Family Photo on a Bridge

Watashi wa kazoku ga totemo daisuki desu. = “I like my family very much.” 

とても (totemo), meaning “very,” is an adverb.

3. How Do You Use Adverbs in Japanese Sentences?

Top Verbs

In terms of Japanese adverb placement, most of them can appear anywhere in a sentence, but they should come before the verb.

Let’s take a look at some examples of Japanese adverbs in sentences.

  • 私は後で宿題をする。
    Watashi wa ato de shukudai o suru.  
    “I will do my homework later.”

後で (ato de), meaning “later,” is an adverb. In Japanese, this can also be placed at the front of the sentence or in front of the verb する (suru), meaning “to do.” 

  •  時々彼は参拝に行きます。
    Tokidoki kare wa sanpai ni ikimasu.  
    “He sometimes goes to visit a shrine.”

時々 (tokidoki) is an adverb, and it can also appear in front of 参拝に (sanpai ni), meaning “to visit a shrine,” or in front of 行きます (ikimasu), meaning “goes.”

  • 近くに本屋はありますか。
    Chikaku ni hon’ya wa arimasu ka.  
    “Is there a bookstore nearby?” 

近くに (chikaku ni), meaning “nearby,” is an adverb. It can be placed in front of ありますか (arimasu ka), meaning “is there.”

  • 台風は素早く過ぎ去った。
    Taifū wa subayaku sugisatta. 
    “The typhoon passed by quickly.”

素早く (subayaku), meaning “quickly,” is an adverb, and it can also appear at the front of the sentence.

  • 本当に彼を信じますか。
    Hontō ni kare o shinjimasu ka.  
    “Do you really believe him?”

本当に (hontō ni), meaning “really,” is an adverb. It can also be put in front of 信じます (shinjimasu), meaning “believe.”

4. Conclusion: How JapanesePod101 Can Help You Learn More Japanese

In this article, we introduced you to Japanese adverbs. There are many adverbs in the Japanese language, and they’re just as rich in expression as adjectives. However, if you already know a lot of Japanese adjectives, then don’t worry! You can easily learn many adjective-transformed adverbs! Or vice-versa; once you learn Japanese adverbs, you can also learn the adjectives much easier. 

If you would like to learn more about the Japanese language and other useful Japanese phrases for any situation, you’ll find much more helpful content on We provide a variety of free lessons for you to improve your Japanese language skills. For example, you may find these lessons with audio recordings useful: 50 Most Common Nouns, 50 Most Common Verbs, and Most Common Adjectives.

 To learn more about Japanese adverbs and adjectives, check out Must-Know Adverbs and Phrases for Connecting Thoughts and Spring Adjectives/Adverbs. How to Improve Your Speaking Skills and Top 10 Conversational Phrases are also useful pages you can visit to brush up on your Japanese conversational skills.

And there’s so much more. Learn Japanese faster and enjoy studying the language at!

Before you go, let us know in the comments if there are any Japanese adverbs you still want to know! We’d be glad to help, and look forward to hearing from you!

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Japanese Keyboard: How to Install and Type in Japanese


You asked, so we provided—easy-to-follow instructions on how to set up your electronic devices to write in Japanese! We’ll also give you a few excellent tips on how to use this keyboard, as well as some online and app alternatives if you prefer not to set up a Japanese keyboard.

Log in to Download Your Free Japanese Alphabet Worksheet Table of Contents
  1. Why it’s Important to Learn to Type in Japanese
  2. Setting up Your Computer and Mobile Devices for Japanese
  3. How to Activate an Onscreen Keyboard on Your Computer
  4. How to Change the Language Settings to Japanese on Your Computer
  5. Activating the Japanese Keyboard on Your Mobile Phone and Tablet
  6. Japanese Keyboard Typing Tips
  7. How to Practice Typing Japanese

1. Why it’s Important to Learn to Type in Japanese

A keyboard

Learning a new language is made so much easier when you’re able to read and write/type it. This way, you will:

  • Get the most out of any dictionary and Japanese language apps on your devices
  • Expand your ability to find Japanese websites and use the various search engines
  • Be able to communicate much better online with your Japanese teachers and friends, and look super cool in the process! 

2. Setting up Your Computer and Mobile Devices for Japanese

A phone charging on a dock

It takes only a few steps to set up any of your devices to read and type in Japanese. It’s super-easy on your mobile phone and tablet, and a simple process on your computer.

On your computer, you’ll first activate the onscreen keyboard to work with. You’ll only be using your mouse or touchpad/pointer for this keyboard. Then, you’ll need to change the language setting to Japanese, so all text will appear in Japanese. You could also opt to use online keyboards instead. Read on for the links!

On your mobile devices, it’s even easier—you only have to change the keyboard. We also provide a few alternatives in the form of online keyboards and downloadable apps.

3. How to Activate an Onscreen Keyboard on Your Computer

1- Mac

1. Go to System Preferences > Keyboard.

2. Check the option “Show Keyboard & Character Viewers in Menu Bar.”

3. You’ll see a new icon on the right side of the main bar; click on it and select “Show Keyboard Viewer.”

A screenshot of the keyboard viewer screen

2- Windows

1. Go to Start > Settings > Easy Access > Keyboard.

2. Turn on the option for “Onscreen Keyboard.”

3- Online Keyboards

If you don’t want to activate your computer’s onscreen keyboard, you also have the option to use online keyboards. Here are some good options:

4- Add-ons of Extensions for Browsers

Instead of an online keyboard, you could also choose to download a Google extension to your browser for a language input tool. The Google Input Tools extension allows users to use input tools in Chrome web pages, for example.

4. How to Change the Language Settings to Japanese on Your Computer

Man looking at his computer

Now that you’re all set to work with an onscreen keyboard on your computer, it’s time to download the Japanese language pack for your operating system of choice:

  • Windows 8 (and higher)
  • Windows 7
  • Mac (OS X and higher)

1- Windows 8 (and higher)

1. Go to Settings > Change PC Settings > Time & Language > Region & Language.

2. Click on “Add a Language” and select “Japanese.” This will add it to your list of languages. It will appear as 日本語 with the note “language pack available.”

3. Click on 日本語 > “Options” > “Download.” It will take a few minutes to download and install the language pack.

4. As a keyboard layout, you’ll only need the one marked as “Japanese – 日本語.” You can ignore other keyboard layouts.

2- Windows 7

1. Go to Start > Control Panel > Clock, Language, and Region.

2. On the “Region and Language” option, click on “Change Keyboards or Other Input Methods.”

3. On the “Keyboards and Languages” tab, click on “Change Keyboards” > “Add” > “Japanese.”

4. Expand the option of “Japanese” and then expand the option “Keyboard.” Select the keyboard layout marked as “Japanese.” You can ignore other keyboard layouts. Click “OK” and then “Apply.”

3- Mac (OS X and higher)

If you can’t see the language listed, please make sure to select the right option from System Preferences > Language and Region

1. From the Apple Menu (top left corner of the screen) go to System Preferences > Keyboard.

2. Click the Input Sources tab and a list of available keyboards and input methods will appear.

3. Click on the plus button, select “Japanese,” and add the “Japanese” keyboard.

Adding a system language

5. Activating the Japanese Keyboard on Your Mobile Phone and Tablet

Texting and searching in Japanese will greatly help you master the language! Adding a Japanese keyboard on your mobile phone and/or tablet is super-easy.

You could also opt to download an app instead of adding a keyboard. Read on for our suggestions.

Below are the instructions for both iOS and Android mobile phones and tablets.

1- iOS

1. Go to Settings > General > Keyboard.

2. Tap “Keyboards” and then “Add New Keyboard.”

3. Select “Japanese” from the list.

4. When typing, you can switch between languages by tapping and holding on the icon to reveal the keyboard language menu.

2- Android

1. Go to Settings > General Management > Language and Input > On-screen Keyboard (or “Virtual Keyboard” on some devices) > Samsung Keyboard.

2. Tap “Language and Types” or “ + Select Input Languages” depending on the device and then “MANAGE INPUT LANGUAGES” if available.

3. Select 日本語 from the list.

4. When typing, you can switch between languages by swiping the space bar.

3- Applications for Mobile Phones

If you don’t want to add a keyboard on your mobile phone or tablet, these are a few good apps to consider:

6. Japanese Keyboard Typing Tips

Typing in Japanese can be very challenging at first! Therefore, we added here a few useful tips to make it easier to use your Japanese keyboard.

A man typing on a computer

1- Computer

1. To toggle your IME on/off, you just need to hit “Alt + Tilde (~).” 

2. You can just type in Japanese words on your keyboard, if you know how they’re spelled in Romanization. (Like “a” = あ, “ko” = こ, and “re” = れ)But there are some points to be noticed:

 – To type ん, you need to type “nn” (double “n”). When you hit just “n,” you may have the chance to hit vowels (a, e, i, o, u) and it will make な, に, ぬ, ね, の. So you need that extra “n” to type ん.

 – To type small-sized vowel characters, as in ねぇ or あぁ, you need to hit “l” or “x + vowel.” For example, to type ぁ, you hit “la” or “xa.”

 – To get っ, the small “tsu.” However, you don’t have to type “ltsu” or “xtsu.” You just type it using a double consonant. For example, to type きっと, you hit “kitto.”

3. If you want to use Katakana instead of Hiragana, in most cases all you need to do is hit “spacebar” after you’ve typed the word in Hiragana. Then, your IME will most likely recommend that word in Katakana. But if this isn’t the case for you, or if you instead want a Katakana input mode, just hit “Ctrl + Caps Lock” to find it.

4. To convert to Kanji, you need to use the “spacebar” just like you do with Katakana words. Your IME will suggest a candidate Kanji list for the word. So hit the “spacebar” until you find the one you’re looking for, and then hit the “Enter” to determine the conversion candidate.

2- Mobile Phones

1. You can type Japanese words on a Kana-style keyboard as well as a Romanization-style keyboard. As for the Romanization-style typing, it’s almost the same as it is on the PC.

2. You’ll have only ten Hiragana letter keys, plus a punctuation key and a text face key to input with a Kana-style keyboard. The letter keys are arranged by consonant and each of them has three or more letters inside it. To select a letter, quickly tap the key to go through the different letters. Alternatively, you can simply hold down the key, which will bring up the options visually, and then slide your finger to the intended letter. 

3. The 改行 key is the equivalent to the Enter key, and the 空白 key is the equivalent to the space key.

7. How to Practice Typing Japanese

As you probably know by now, learning Japanese is all about practice, practice, and more practice! Strengthen your Japanese typing skills by writing comments on any of our lesson pages, and our teacher will answer.
If you’re a JapanesePod101 Premium PLUS member, you can directly text our teacher via the My Teacher app—use your Japanese keyboard to do this!

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Ultimate Japanese Verb Conjugation Guide


How many verbs do you think you use everyday? Verbs are the second-most frequently used part of speech in Japanese (after nouns), making it crucial to know and understand Japanese verb conjugation.

Compared to English, Japanese verb conjugation has distinct rules which might be difficult to understand at first. However, the good news is that Japanese verbs do not conjugate according to the speaker. Instead, the Japanese verb conjugation rules are the same for every grammatical person, or 人称 (ninshō), and any number of subjects (singular or plural). Therefore, you won’t be easily confused on how to conjugate Japanese verbs in this respect. In addition, there are very few irregular verb conjugations!

In this article, we’ll introduce the basics of Japanese verbs and Japanese verb conjugation, including verb groups and conjugation patterns. We’ll also provide examples for you.
Once you learn the conjugation patterns, you only have to apply the rules to any new verbs you learn! Let’s get started here at!

Table of Contents
  1. What is Conjugation?
  2. Japanese Verb Conjugation Groups
  3. Conjugation Patterns
  4. Conjugation Patterns for Irregular Verbs
  5. Let’s Practice!
  6. Conclusion: How JapanesePod101 Can Help You Learn More Japanese
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1. What is Conjugation?

Top Verbs

1 – What Does Conjugation Mean?

Conjugation in Japanese is described as the variation of the form of a certain part of speech—such as verbs—which is influenced by certain elements. These include: voice, mood, tense, and politeness level.

In Japanese, there are four parts of speech which have conjugation: 

In this article, we’ll just be focusing on Japanese verb conjugations so we can explain in better detail. 

2 – What Affects Conjugation? 

As we mentioned above, the voice, mood, tense, and politeness level are identified by the form of Japanese verb conjugation used.

  • Voice

There are two types of voice: 能動態 (nōdōtai), or “active voice,” and 受動態 (judōtai), or “passive voice.”

  • The basic form of a verb is usually the active voice, where the subject performs the action.

    Watashi wa nikki o kaku.
    “I write a journal.”
  • In Japanese, the passive voice is mainly used when the action is performed on the subject, or 受け身 (ukemi). However, it’s also used for other cases, such as:

    可能 (kanō) — to denote ability
    自発 (jihatsu) — spontaneous
    使役 (shieki) — causative
    尊敬 (sonkei) — respectful language

The Japanese passive voice is expressed in either れる (reru) or られる (rareru), which are auxiliary verbs used together with other verbs.

-Passive action: 
Sensei ni yoku shika-rareru.
“I’m often scolded by the teacher.”

Takusan tabe-rareru.
“I can eat a lot.”

Maitoshi ano saigai ga omoidasa-reru.
“That disaster is remembered every year.”

Kōshi ga hanasa-reru.
“A lecturer is talking.” [In a respectful manner]

Someone Writing in a Journal

Active: Watashi wa nikki o kaku. (“I write a journal.”)

Passive: Nikki wa watashi ni yori kakareru. (“The journal is written by me.”)

  • Mood 

There are different types of moods that are identified in the conjugation forms. Grammatical mood  refers to the attitude of the speaker toward the action of the verb. For example, it indicates whether  that person is giving an order, making an assumption, giving a suggestion, etc.


Dictionary form : 食べる (taberu) “to eat”

Verb stem: 食べ- (tabe-)  

Mood / UsageConjugationKanji
Negative Formtabenai食べない
Attributive Form taberu(toki)食べ(とき)
Conditional Formtabereba食べれば
Imperative Formtabero食べ
Volitional Form ( “Let’s-“)tabe食べよう
  • Tense  

Japanese verb conjugation by tense is actually very simple when compared to English and romance languages such as French, Spanish, and Italian.

There are just two main tenses for the Japanese verb forms: present and past tense. The form of the present tense is used for future and habitual action, and therefore there is no particular future tense. 

The past tense always ends with た。 (ta).  

  • Japanese verb conjugation (Present Tense):

    Watashi wa ima dekakeru.
    “I go out now.”

    Watashi wa raishū dekakeru.
    Literal translation: “I go out next week,” or “I will go out next week.”
  • Japanese verb conjugation (Past Tense):

    Watashi wa dekaketa.
    “I went out.”
  • Level of Politeness   

In Japanese conjugation, politeness level is another factor to consider. Verbs in the dictionary form are casual and informal, while verbs in the formal form end with ます (-masu), as do verbs in the ordinary polite form 丁寧語 (Teineigo).

In addition to verb conjugation, the Japanese language (especially verbs) has three types of 敬語 (keigo), or “honorific language,” which affect the Japanese conjugation forms. They also show different levels of respect: 

丁寧語 (teineigo) — polite

尊敬語 (sonkeigo) — respectful

謙譲語 (kenjōgo) — humble / modest

They’re used to express social distance and intimacy, as well as disparity or similarity in rank. For more details on Japanese 敬語 (keigo), please visit Japanese Honorifics.

It’s necessary for adults to be able to use 敬語 (keigo) properly in formal situations in Japan. However, you can use at least the formal/polite form without being rude.

Here’s a Japanese conjugation table for 言う (iu), or “to say,” by politeness level.

Dictionary / Informali-u言-う
Formal / Teineigo / Politeii-masu言い-ます
Sonkeigo / Respectfulossharuおっしゃる
Kenjōgo / Humblemōsu申す
Two Japanese Businessmen Bowing to each Other

Appropriate use of 敬語 (keigo) is a must in the Japanese business world.

2. Japanese Verb Conjugation Groups

Japanese verbs always end with u or ru, and verbs are categorized into three groups: 

Class 1: U-verb

Class 2 : Ru-verb

Class 3: Irregular verb

Japanese verbs consist of two parts: a verb base (“stem”) and a suffix.  

A stem doesn’t change and a suffix conjugates according to the voice, mood, tense, and forms (casual vs. polite, and plain vs. negative).

1 – Class 1: U-verbs

More Essential Verbs

U-verbs always end with –u. However, please note that this refers to the last vowel being u when it’s written in reading form. Therefore, U-verbs can end with Hiragana う(u), く (ku), す(su), つ(tsu), ぬ (nu), む (mu), and sometimes る (ru). 

Examples of U-verbs

“listen” / “hear”kiku聞くきく

2 – Class 2: Ru-Verbs

Ru-verbs always end with –ru which is Hiragana る. Some verbs that end with る (ru) are categorized as U-verbs, such as 取る (toru), meaning “take,” but they’re just a few exceptions that you’ll easily start to recognize.

Examples of Ru-verbs

“wake up” /
“get up”

3 – Class 3: Irregular Verbs

Surprise! There are only two irregular Japanese verbs, which are 来る (kuru), meaning “come,” and する (suru), meaning “do.”

Unlike U-verbs and Ru-verbs, the stem of the irregular verbs change according to the conjugation forms. 

The Japanese verb する (suru), meaning “do,” is one of the most frequently used verbs. It’s also very handy because it can often turn a noun into a verb when it’s added after a noun. Here’s how Japanese irregular verb conjugation works for this word:

  • 回転 (kaiten)  + する (suru)  = “to rotate” / “to spin around”
    [“rotation” / “spin”]             [“do”]  
  • 出席 (shusseki)  + する (suru)  = “to attend”
    [“attendance”]                    [“do”]
  •  謝罪 (shazai) +  する (suru)  = “to apologize”
                [“apology”]                         [“do”]

For more Japanese verb vocabulary, please visit our article on The 100+ Most Common Japanese Verbs.

Two People jogging on the Road Together

運動 (undō) “exercise” +  する (suru) “to do” = Undō-suru (“to exercise”)

3. Conjugation Patterns

In the Japanese verb conjugation system, a suffix (which is often an auxiliary verb) plays an important role in conjugation, together with the main verb.

1 – Class 1: U-verb Conjugation

U-verbs conjugate as in this example:

  • Dictionary form: はなす・話す (hanasu) “to talk” / “to speak”
  • Verb stem: はな- (hana-)  

The verb 話す (hanasu), which means “to talk” or “to speak,” has the stem はな (hana) and the suffix す (su). 

In Japanese conjugation, suffixes conjugate and change like in the example below, according to the forms.

hana-shimasen deshita

Example Sentences

  • 私は彼と話しませんでした。
    Watashi wa kare to hana-shimasen deshita
    “I didn’t talk with him.” [past / formal / polite]
  • 彼らと一緒に話そう。
    Kare-ra to issho ni hana-sō.   
    “Let’s talk with them.” [volitional / informal]
  • 本当のことを話せ!
    Hontō no koto o hana-se!  
    “Tell the truth!” [imperative / informal]
Negative verbs

2 – Class 2: Ru-verb Conjugation

Ru-verb conjugation is similar to U-verb conjugation, but slightly different. Please pay attention to the suffix after the stem. 

  • Dictionary form:  たべる・食べる (taberu) “to eat”
  • Verb stem: たべ- (tabe-)  

The verb 食べる (taberu), meaning “to eat,” has the stem たべ (tabe) and the suffix る (ru). 

The suffix conjugates and changes as follows:

tabe-masen deshita

Example Sentences

  • 彼女は肉を食べません。
    Kanojo wa niku o tabe-masen.  
    “She does not eat meat.” [present / formal / polite]
  • 私は子供達に野菜を食べさせます。
    Watashi wa kodomo-tachi ni yasai o tabe-sasemasu.   
    “I make my children eat vegetables.” [causative / formal]
  • これを食べれば良くなるよ!
    Kore o tabe-reba yoku naru yo!  
    “If you eat this, you’ll get better!” [conditional]
Woman signaling that She doesn’t want Meat on Her Plate

Watashi wa niku o tabe-masen. = “I don’t eat meat.”

4. Conjugation Patterns for Irregular Verbs 

Contrary to U-verbs and Ru-verbs, the two irregular verbs 来る (kuru), meaning “come,” and する (suru), meaning “do,” conjugate even the stems. These two irregular verbs are frequently used, so let’s simply memorize them!

1. 来る

  • Dictionary form: くる・来る (kuru) “to come”
  • Verb stem: く (ku-) /  こ (ko-) / き (ki-
ki-masen deshita

Example Sentences

  • 彼女は昨日学校に来なかった。
    Kanojo wa kinō gakkō ni ko-nakatta.
    “She did not come to school yesterday.” [past / informal]
  • こちらへ来れば安全です。
    Kochira e ku-reba anzen desu. 
    “You will be safe if you come here.” [conditional]
  • 今すぐここへ来なさい!
    Ima sugu koko e ki-nasai!  
    “Come here right now!” [imperative / formal / polite]

2. する

  • Dictionary form: する (suru) “to do”
  • Verb stem: す (su-)  / し (shi-) / さ (sa-)
shi-masen deshita

Example Sentences

  • 彼はそんなことしません。
    Kare wa sonna koto shi-masen.
    “He does not do such things.” [present / formal / polite]
  • 一緒に勉強しよう。
    Issho ni benkyō shi-yō.    
    “Let’s study together.” [volitional / informal]
      * benkyō + suru (studying + do = to study)
  • 早くしなさい!
    Hayaku shi-nasai!  
    “Do it quickly!” [imperative / formal / polite]

5. Let’s Practice! 

Now it’s time for a Japanese conjugation quiz to practice! 

Try to conjugate each verb in the ( ), following the instructions, and write your answer in the blank. Even if you don’t know, try to guess and check the answers below!

  1. Write the verb in the past tense and informal form:

    Watashi wa kinō ringo o (taberu) ______ .
    (“I ate an apple yesterday.”)

  1. Write the verb in the volitional and formal form:

    Watashi-tachi to issho ni  (hanasu) ______ .
    (“Let’s talk with us.”)

  1. Write the verb in the negative-present and formal form:

    Kyō wa shiken no hi desu ga, dare mo (kuru) ______ .
    (“Although today is the exam day, nobody comes.”)

  1. Write the verb in the imperative and formal form:

    Kanojo ni (shazai suru) ______!
    (“Apologize to her!”)

  1. Write the verb in the volitional and formal/polite form: 

    Issho ni (iku) ______.
    (“Let’s go together.”)
Large Serving Tray of Sushi

Sushi o tabeyō! = “Let’s eat Sushi!”

Let’s check the answers!

  1. The past tense and informal form of taberu is tabemashita.
    It’s the conjugation pattern of Class 2: Ru-verbs.

    Watashi wa kinō ringo o tabemashita.
    (“I ate an apple yesterday.”)

  1. The volitional and formal form of hanasu is hanashimashō.
    It’s the conjugation pattern of Class 1: U-verbs.

    Watashi-tachi to issho ni hanashimashō.
    (“Let’s talk with us.”)

  1. The negative-present and formal form of kuru is kimasen.
    It’s the conjugation pattern of the Class 3 irregular verb 来る (kuru), meaning “to come.”

    Kyō wa shiken no hi desu ga, dare mo kimasen.
    (“Although today is the exam day, nobody comes.”)

  1. The imperative and formal form of shazai suru is shazai shinasai.
    It’s the conjugation pattern of the Class 3 irregular verb する (suru), meaning “to do.”
    * shazai (“apology”) + suru (“to do”) = “to apologize”

    Kanojo ni shazai shinasai!
    (“Apologize to her!”)

  1. The volitional and formal/polite form of iku is ikimashō.
    It’s the conjugation pattern of Class 1: U-verbs.

    Issho ni ikimashō.
    (“Let’s go together.”)

6. Conclusion: How JapanesePod101 Can Help You Learn More Japanese

In this article, we introduced you to Japanese verbs conjugation. Japanese verb conjugation has unique rules, but it’s simpler than you think. For example, you don’t have to worry about conjugating for person or number.

Once you master the conjugation patterns, you’ll be able to increase your verb vocabulary much easier!

If you would like to learn more about the Japanese language and other useful Japanese phrases by situation, you’ll find a lot more helpful content on We provide a variety of free lessons for you to help improve your Japanese language skills. To start, here’s some more information about the basics of Japanese with audio: 

To learn more about Japanese verbs and other grammar-related topics, check out Basic Kanji for Verbs and The 50 Most Common Japanese Verbs You’ll Find in Textbooks. How to Improve Your Speaking Skills and Must-Know Adverbs and Phrases for Connecting Thoughts are also useful if you want to brush up on your Japanese conversation skills.

And there’s so much more! Be a faster learner and enjoy studying Japanese at!

Before you go, let us know in the comments if there are any Japanese verbs you still want to know! We’d be glad to help, and look forward to hearing from you! 

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