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Hanabi: The Japanese Fireworks Festival!

Japanese fireworks are arguably the best part of summer. After a long and trying rainy season (tsuyu), people are just itching to get out and enjoy themselves!

Did you know there’s a firework display called the Niagara? These fireworks are arranged in a row, set off at the same time, and are specially designed to look like a huge wave or waterfall.

In this article, you’ll learn all about the fireworks festival in Japan: what to expect, how these festivals got started, and some relevant vocabulary you can use to impress your Japanese friends.

Let’s get started.

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1. What is the Hanabi Festival in Japan?

Sumidagawa Fireworks Festival

Every year during the summer, usually in July and August, the Japanese celebrate the Hanabi festival. Hanabi is Japanese for “fireworks,” but it literally means “fire flower.” The Japanese consider Hanabi to be the 夏の風物詩 (なつの ふうぶつし), or “epitome of summer.”

A History of Fireworks in Japanese Culture

It’s believed that Japan had its first taste of fireworks in the 1600s when the shogunate founder, Tokugawa Ieyasu, was given fireworks as a gift from someone representing King James I. He greatly enjoyed them, and over time, the Edo lords began using the fireworks for their entertainment by setting them off above the Sumida River.

It was at the Sumida River that one of the first public fireworks displays in Japan took place in 1733. During this time, the fireworks were used for both entertainment and to ward off evil spirits. Many Japanese during this era had taken ill or died from disease, so watching the Hanabi in Japan was both a means of easing one’s mind and of mourning.

Today, there tends to be a greater focus on the creative aspect of fireworks, and once you see the amazing fireworks in Japan, you’ll see that the Japanese take this creativity very seriously.

2. What to Expect During Hanabi

Exhibition Fireworks

How to Prepare

Because Hanabi takes place during the hottest months of summer, you’ll definitely want to wear cool summer clothes. Alternatively, you can purchase a 浴衣 (ゆかた), or yukata, which is a summertime kimono designed to keep you cool. You should also ensure that you have something to sit on, like a blanket or groundsheet.

The Fireworks

Japanese fireworks are known for their clever, fascinating designs. There’s no better time to see them than during the Hanabi festival. Japanese pyrotechnicians really put their heart and soul into these things! There are fireworks that are shaped like hearts, faces, cartoon characters, and other objects or elements.

Some of the best fireworks festivals in Japan are:
  • Nagaoka Fireworks
  • Osaka Tenjin Fireworks
  • 隅田川花火大会 (すみだがわはなびたいかい) – Sumidagawa Fireworks Festival

Of course, there are many more all summer long!

Another important note: If you really want to fit in while watching the fireworks, be sure to say 玉屋 (たまや), or “tama-ya,” and 鍵屋 (かぎや), or “kagi-ya,” as the fireworks burst. Everyone around you will be doing this, so why not join in the fun?

We highly recommend that you try something from a 屋台 (やたい), or “food stall,” while you’re out.

    → Take a look at our list of the top Japanese Foods and let us know which one is your favorite!

Tips for the Festival

Before you visit Japan for the Hanabi festival, keep in mind that it’s going to be crowded.

This means that if you want a good seat or view, you’ll need to arrive super-early. Many Japanese people show up to the fireworks location several hours before they actually begin. The same goes for tickets: If you need a ticket to attend a specific firework show, be sure to purchase it in advance. You normally can’t buy a ticket on the day of the show.

In addition, you’ll need to book a hotel room as soon as possible. If you wait until the last minute to take this step for your trip, you may find all of the hotels booked!

And big crowds mean long lines! Definitely use the bathroom before arriving at the firework viewing area. Otherwise, you’ll end up waiting a really long time to use the bathrooms there.

Finally, don’t leave immediately after the firework show. If you do, you’ll be squished between all the other people leaving; the trains will be full, and the roads will be jammed with traffic. It’s better to wait a little while and enjoy the other amenities before leaving.

3. Why Do We Say Tama-ya?

During the Edo period, there were two men credited with bringing fireworks to Japan. These two firework-makers’ names were Tamaya and Kagiya, and the Japanese shouted their names while watching the Hanabi.

Today, there’s less meaning in shouting the names, and it’s mostly done to make the show more exciting.

4. Vocabulary for the Japanese Fireworks Festival

Japanese Food Stalls

Here’s a quick list of some of the vocabulary words and phrases from this article.
  • 夏 (なつ) — “summer”
  • 甚平 (じんべい) — “jinbei”
  • 花火大会 (はなびたいかい) — “fireworks festival”
  • 浴衣 (ゆかた) — “yukata”
  • 屋台 (やたい) — “food stall”
  • 玉屋 (たまや) — “tama-ya”
  • 夏の風物詩 (なつの ふうぶつし) — “epitome of summer”
  • 隅田川花火大会 (すみだがわはなびたいかい) — “Sumidagawa Fireworks Festival”
  • 打上花火 (うちあげはなび) — “sky rocket”
  • 花火師 (はなびし) — “pyrotechnician”
  • 鍵屋 (かぎや) — “kagi-ya”
  • 火薬 (かやく) — “gunpowder”
  • 仕掛花火 (しかけ はなび) — “exhibition”

To hear the pronunciation of each word and phrase, visit our Japanese Fireworks Festival vocabulary list!

Final Thoughts

The Hanabi festival in Japan really is one of the most beautiful and exciting occasions all year long. There’s something about the coolness of the rivers, the company of fellow onlookers, and watching the brilliant Hanabi with a drink in your hand.

What are your favorite things about summer? Are there any special summertime events in your country? Let us know your experiences with them in the comments!

To learn more about fun things that happen in Japan throughout the year, and to pick up some new phrases you can start using today, check out these free articles on

Stay safe out there, and happy Japanese learning!

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Guide to the Top 100+ Japanese Nouns


Expanding one’s vocabulary is one of the most essential elements in improving one’s language skills. Learning Japanese nouns will help you boost your knowledge of the Japanese language because nouns occupy the majority of the language’s words. Knowing the top 100 Japanese nouns is the first step to enhance your Japanese vocabulary.

Japanese nouns are used to name a person, place, thing, or idea. Contrary to English, Japanese nouns don’t accompany any articles, such as “a” and “the.” In addition, there are no certain rules for indicating, in a precise sense, whether a noun is singular or plural. For example, there’s the word 達(たち) [tachi], which indicates a plural form of people or creatures when it’s put next to a noun (e.g. 動物 + 達 = 動物達:animals).

In most cases, however, Japanese nouns don’t have anything added to indicate the difference between singular and plural. In order to show that a certain noun in Japanese is plural, add another word such as たくさんの (takusan no), or “many,” and 二つの (futatsu no), or “two” in the sentence.

In this article, we introduce the 100 most common Japanese nouns. Let’s master the basic Japanese nouns in everyday life here at JapanesePod101! Here are the top Japanese nouns by category.

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Table of Contents
  1. Japanese Nouns: Appliances
  2. Japanese Nouns: Technology
  3. Japanese Nouns: Transportation
  4. Japanese Nouns: Food & Restaurants
  5. Japanese Nouns: School Essentials
  6. Japanese Nouns: Occupations
  7. Japanese Nouns: Family Members
  8. Japanese Nouns: Body Parts
  9. Japanese Nouns: Time
  10. 10. Conclusion: How JapanesePod101 Can Help You Learn More Japanese

1. Japanese Nouns: Appliances

Nouns 1

Before studying this basic Japanese nouns list, keep in mind that some of the imported words from other languages become Japanese words, or 和製英語 (wasei eigo), with a similar sound written in Katakana. For example, “television” is テレビ (terebi) in Japanese.

3microwave電子レンジでんしれんじdenshi renji
4air conditioner冷房機/クーラーれいぼうき/クーラーreibōki / kūrā
6laundry machine洗濯機せんたくきsentakuki
7hair dryerドライヤーdoraiyā


Reitōko kara kōri to, reizōko kara nomimono o dashite kudasai.
Please take out ice from the freezer and drinks from the refrigerator.

O-furo no ato wa doraiyā de kami o kawakashimasu.
After taking a bath, I dry my hair with a hair dryer.

Watashi wa terebi o miru koto ga suki desu.
I like watching TV.

Denshi renji to sentakuki ga kowareta node komatte imasu.
I’m upset because the microwave and laundry machine broke.

You can also check our more useful Japanese nouns for home appliances with Japanese pronunciations at our Home Appliances vocabulary list!

Air Conditioner

Air conditioner in Japanese is also called クーラー (kūrā), which comes from the word “cooler.”

2. Japanese Nouns: Technology

Most important Japanese nouns regarding technology originated from other countries and were imported to Japan. Expressed in Katakana, these imported words have Japanese pronunciation that resembles the original English words.

10laptopノートパソコンnōto pasokon
12cellphone携帯電話けいたいでんわkeitai denwa


Watshi wa taburetto yori mo nōto pasokon no hō ga suki desu.
I like laptops more than tablets.

Waifai no pasuwādo wa nan desu ka.
What is the wifi password?

Anata no keitai denwa jyūdenki o tsukatte mo ii desu ka.
Can I use your mobile phone charger?

Our vocabulary list about the Top 20 Words You’ll Need for the Internet is also useful to learn Japanese nouns related to technology.

3. Japanese Nouns: Transportation

Transportation is an essential part of daily life. Some of the most useful Japanese nouns are vocabulary words related to transportation. This is especially true for those who travel in Japan, who may need to ask how to get around.

28bus stopバス停ばすていbasutei
30traffic light信号しんごうshingō


Ichi-ban chikai basutei wa doko desu ka.
Where is the nearest bus stop?

Watashi no machi ni wa chikatetsu wa arimasen.
There is no subway in my town.

Shingō no aru kōsaten o hidari ni magarimasu.
Turn left at the intersection which has a traffic light.

Attendant Watching Train Leave

Public transportation is well-developed in Japan, especially in the large cities. Shinkansen is very famous for its super-fast speed and is popular among foreign tourists.

4. Japanese Nouns: Food & Restaurants

Whenever you go out to eat at restaurants, you look at a menu and order what you want to eat and drink. Knowing Japanese nouns and vocabulary related to restaurants makes your dining-out experience much smoother. Japan has a variety of foods and a wide range of ingredients are used in the Japanese food culture. If can’t eat certain things due to your religion, an allergy, or a discipline such as vegetarianism, you have to ask a staff member if your preferred meal is available. Here’s a common Japanese nouns list to help you do so!



Bejitarian no menyū wa arimasu ka.  
Do you have a vegetarian menu?

O-hashi no tsukaikata o oshiete kudasai.
Please teach me how to use chopsticks.

Watashi wa butaniku o taberaremasen.
I can’t eat pork.

For more about Japanese nouns related to food and restaurants, see our Food – Utensils & Tableware and Restaurant vocabulary lists.

Fully Set Dining Table

Japan has great food culture where you can find tasty food from low-end and high-end restaurants.

5. Japanese Nouns: School Essentials

The Japanese school system consists of elementary school, middle school, high school, and higher education such as universities and vocational schools. Compulsory education is six years of elementary school and three years of middle school, and both are free. Here are the most common nouns in Japanese related to school.

45elementary school小学校しょうがっこうshōgakkō
46middle school中学校ちゅうがっこうshōgakkō
47high school高校こうこうkōkō


Anata no senkō wa nan desu ka.
What is your major?

Kanojo wa shōgakkō no sensei desu.
She is a teacher at an elementary school.

Watashi wa shukudai o oeta ato ni asobi ni ikimasu.
I will go and play after finishing my homework.

6. Japanese Nouns: Occupations

Nouns 2

To engage in certain occupations, one must pass the related national examinations. The most difficult occupations to attain in Japan are said to be a doctor, lawyer, and accountant, in terms of how difficult the national examinations are.

60police officer警察官けいさつかんkeisatsukan
63civil servant公務員こうむいんkōmuin


Shōbōshi ni naru no wa muzukashii desu ka.  
Is it difficult to become a firefighter?

Watashi wa keisatsukan ni naritai desu.
I want to become a police officer.

Kōmuin no shokugyō wa antei shite iru node ninki desu.
The occupation of civil servant is popular because it is stable.

To hear how to pronounce the words on this Japanese list of nouns, see our Jobs / Work vocabulary list.

Group of Different Professions Some people take many years to pass the national examination to be a lawyer or accountant in Japan.

7. Japanese Nouns: Family Members

It’s useful to know Japanese nouns and vocabulary related to family members when you introduce yourself and describe your family to someone.



Watashi no haha wa kangoshi desu.
My mother is a nurse.

Watashi no kazoku wa go-nin kazoku desu.
My family has five family members.

Kanojo no musuko wa roku-sai desu.
Her son is six years old.

Compared to English, Japanese has more words to describe family members according to age and style, and also uses both formal and informal forms. For more details on this, please visit our Japanese Family article and our Must-Know Terms for Family Members vocabulary list.

8. Japanese Nouns: Body Parts

Nouns 3

Knowing the Japanese nouns for the parts of the body is very useful, especially when it comes to health (e.g. seeing a doctor at a hospital or working out at the gym).



Kaze o hiita node atama ga itai desu.  
I have a headache because I caught a cold.

Karada o ugokasu undō wa kenkō ni ii desu.
Exercise that moves your body is good for health.

Kanojo wa kawaii ōkina me o motte imasu.
She has cute big eyes.

For more Japanese nouns of body parts, and to check their Japanese pronunciation, visit our Body Parts vocabulary list.

Photo of the Upper Bodies of Two Fit People

Many Japanese people are keen on diet and health.

9. Japanese Nouns: Time

Expressing the time is essential for everyday life. Learning the Japanese nouns for time is always useful for things such as scheduling plans, making an appointment, or just checking the time and date. Here’s our Japanese nouns list for words related to time.

98year (as unit)とし/ねんtoshi/nen


Ashita wa kin-yōbi desu.
Tomorrow is Friday.

Kekka o dasu made ni-nen to go-kagetsu kakarimashita.
It took two years and five months to achieve the result.

Watashi wa kyō san-jikan arukimashita.
I walked three hours today.

There are various expressions regarding dates in Japanese. Visit our article on Japanese Dates to learn more Japanese nouns of time and date, and how to use that information in real life!

10. Conclusion: How JapanesePod101 Can Help You Learn More Japanese

Nouns 4

We’ve now introduced the 100 most useful Japanese nouns. I hope this article helps you improve your Japanese vocabulary and skills!

Did you learn any new words today? Are there any Japanese nouns you still want to know? Let us know in the comments; we look forward to hearing from you!

If you would like to learn more about the Japanese language and other Japanese nouns, you’ll find a lot more useful content on We provide a variety of free lessons for you to improve your Japanese language skills.

To learn about Japanese nouns and more vocabulary, check out Top 25 Japanese Nouns and Japanese Core 100 Word List. Our vocabulary lists about School, School Subjects, and Body – Describing the Body are also useful; you can learn more about the topics and practice your Japanese pronunciation with audio.

There’s so much more, too! Learn faster and enjoy studying Japanese at!

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The Rainy Season in Japan: Making the Most of Tsuyu

Rain, rain, go away…

I don’t know about you, but I get pretty depressed when it’s rainy or overcast—and more so with each day that the weather remains gloomy. Imagine that kind of weather for several weeks straight!

Each year, various regions of Japan experience a several-week period of much rainfall and cloud cover called the rainy season, or tsuyu. In this article, you’ll learn all about this rainy season, Japan’s most notable features during this time, what you can do during a rainy season visit, and some useful vocabulary.

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1. What is the Rainy Season in Japan?

梅雨 (Tsuyu) is the rainy season in Japan, and it literally translates to “plum rain.” This is in reference to when the rainy season generally takes place: mid-summer, around the time that the plums begin to ripen.

During the rainy season, Japan experiences several weeks of 大雨 (おおあめ), or “heavy rain.” This is caused by a 梅雨前線 (ばいうぜんせん), or “rain front,” that develops when cooler air from the north mixes with warmer air from the south.

2. When is Rainy Season in Japan?

Japan’s Rainy Season is in June The 梅雨入り (つゆいり), or “start of the rainy season,” varies slightly from region to region.

For most of the country, Japan’s rainy season starts in early June, though the rainy season in Okinawa is known to start about a month earlier. In contrast, Hokkaido and Ogasawara often receive very little rain compared to the rest of Japan and don’t really have a rainy season.

The 梅雨明け (つゆあけ), or “end of the rainy season,” also varies. For most of the country, it ends in mid-July. In Okinawa, it ends in mid-June.

  • Keep in mind that the Japanese Meteorological Agency announces the beginning and end of the rainy season each year. You can check in often to see any updates.

3. Visiting Japan During Rainy Season

People Walking the Streets with Umbrellas Rainy weather can be a bummer any day, even more so when you’re on vacation. If rain really isn’t your thing, we recommend that you schedule your trip to Japan for another time of year when you can better enjoy the great outdoors!

That said, there are a few things you can do in Japan during the rainy season—and a few precautions you can take before you even board your plane!

How to Prepare

A Seven-day Forecast Do your research. First things first, you’ll need to do your research before scheduling your visit. Check to see the start and end dates of the rainy season for the area you want to visit, and see if you can find information on what to expect there.

Buy an umbrella. In Japan, the rainy season makes owning an umbrella a necessity!

Pack clothes for any weather situation. In addition to pouring rain, you can expect the weather to be hot and humid at times and cool at other times. Pack clothes that you can wear no matter what the weather decides to do, and once you arrive, dress in layers.

Things to Do

Have you decided to visit Japan during the rainy season, after all? Great! There are several activities you can still enjoy—and a couple that you can especially enjoy—during the rainy season!

Hydrangea Festivals

Hydrangea flowers are to the rainy season as cherry blossoms are to springtime. If there’s one thing to truly look forward to during these gloomy weeks, it’s the blooming of the hydrangeas!

Throughout the rainy season, Japanese temples and gardens hold hydrangea festivals. This is the perfect time to see a variety of hydrangeas, which can vary in color from region to region.

Hydrangeas are a greatly loved flower in Japan, and some people even wish for the rains to continue so that the hydrangeas can bloom to their full potential!


Just because you’re trapped indoors or under an umbrella most of the time doesn’t mean you can’t enjoy some good cuisine. Rainy season in Japan is a wonderful opportunity to taste seasonal dishes and explore a variety of foods from street vendors or small restaurants.


Because Japan’s rainy season generally takes place after Golden Week, you can expect to find prices quite low during this time. Perfect for shopping!


If there happens to be a 梅雨晴 (つゆばれ), or “sunny spell during the rainy season,” which there probably will be, you may enjoy going on a hike. Hiking in the mountains or taking a walk through a park is a fantastic way to see some of those hydrangeas we told you about. 😉

4. How Bad is the Rainy Season in Japan?

Heavy Rain in a Park Despite the beauty and adventure associated with the rainy season in Japan, the high humidity and perpetual rains can cause some damage. In particular, many Japanese households experience a mold problem during the rainy season: food goes bad, walls can begin growing mold, and personal items (especially clothes) can become damaged if the proper precautions aren’t taken. Do be mindful of this during your visit!

In addition, Japan is known to have typhoons. Generally, typhoons strike hardest after the official rainy season period (in August and September), though you should definitely keep this in mind while planning your trip, and stay aware!

5. Must-Know Rainy Season Vocabulary

Ladybugs on a Dripping Blade of Grass Ready to review some of the vocabulary words from this article? Here’s a quick list!

  • 梅雨 (つゆ) — “rainy season”
  • 雨 (あめ) — “rain”
  • 六月 (ろくがつ) — “June”
  • 大雨 (おおあめ) — “heavy rain”
  • 梅雨晴 (つゆばれ) — “sunny spell during the rainy season”
  • 梅雨入り (つゆいり) — “start of the rainy season”
  • 梅雨前線 (ばいうぜんせん) — “rain front”
  • 梅雨明け (つゆあけ) — “end of the rainy season”
  • 梅雨の中休み (つゆのなかやすみ) — “break in the rainy season”
  • 梅雨明け宣言 (つゆあけせんげん) — “announcement of the end of the rainy season”
  • 降水量 (こうすいりょう) — “amount of rainfall”

If you want to hear the pronunciation of each word and phrase, be sure to visit our Japanese Rainy Season vocabulary list!

Final Thoughts

As you can see, Japan’s rainy season may not be for everyone, though it does produce some beautiful sights and unique opportunities for tourists.

What are your thoughts on the rainy season in Japan? Does your country have a similar period where it rains a lot? Let us know in the comments!

If you’re interested in learning even more about Japanese culture and the language, has several free resources for you, straight from our blog:

This only scratches the surface of everything we have to offer the aspiring Japanese-learner! To make the most of your time on, create your free lifetime account today. Or, to gain access to exclusive content and lessons, upgrade to our Premium or Premium PLUS plans!

It’s our goal to make your learning as fun and effective as possible, so we do hope to see you around.

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Learn the Most Useful Compliments in Japanese


Giving compliments makes people feel important and happy, and compliments are a great way to express your positive feelings. However, “When in Rome, do as the Romans do!” There’s a particular way that people give and respond to compliments in Japanese.

Before giving compliments in Japanese, keep this in mind: Humbleness and modesty are the most important values in Japanese culture. Therefore, it’s considered bad manners to show off and explicitly exhibit your abilities and achievements. For this reason, people aren’t used to receiving a lot of praise.

However, it’s still a good thing to give a compliment when someone has great traits or has done wonderful things. Giving compliments is a useful way to improve communication and your relationships with others.

Let’s learn the most useful Japanese compliments and how to give them at!

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Table of Contents

  1. Complimenting Someone’s Appearance
  2. Complimenting Someone’s Work
  3. Complimenting Someone’s Skills
  4. How to Make Your Compliments Sound More Sincere
  5. What to Expect After Giving Compliments
  6. Conclusion: How JapanesePod101 Can Help You Learn More Japanese

1. Complimenting Someone’s Appearance


In Japanese culture, compliments aren’t given directly, contrary to compliments in other cultures (such as American). Compliments in Japanese tend to be mild, indirect, and euphemistic.

1 – Hair

髪の毛切った?ショートヘア似合うね。かわいい (かっこいい) ね!
Kaminoke kitta? Shōto hea niau ne. Kawaii (kakkoii) ne !
“Did you cut your hair? The short hairstyle suits you well. You are cute (handsome)!”

The Japanese compliment above is in the casual style. In order to say it politely, change the predicate 述語 (Jyutsugo) to the polite honorific 丁寧語 (Teineigo).

髪の毛切りましたか。ショートヘア似合いますね。かわいい (かっこいい) ですね!
Kaminoke kirimashita ka. Shōto hea niaimasu ne. Kawaii (kakkoii) desu ne !

2 – Outfit

Sono shatsu ii ne.

Sono shatsu ii desu ne.
Meaning: “That shirt is good.” (“Your shirt looks good.” )

Sono sukāto suteki da ne. Doko de katta no?

Sono sukāto suteki desu ne. Doko de kaimashita ka.

Meaning: “That skirt is nice. (Your skirt looks nice.) Where did you buy it?”

3 – Smile

笑顔が素敵だね /かわいいね。
Egao ga suteki da ne / kawaii ne.

笑顔が素敵ですね /かわいいですね。
Egao ga suteki desu ne / kawaii desu ne.

Meaning: “(Your) smile is nice / pretty.”

4 – General

Kanojo wa totemo bijin da ne.

Kanojo wa totemo bijin desu ne.

Meaning: “She is very beautiful.”

Kare wa se ga takakute hansamu da ne.

Kare wa se ga takakute hansamu desu ne.

Meaning: “He is tall and handsome.”

Two Japanese Women Talking and Laughing Over Coffee

How to compliment a Japanese girl: Egao ga totemo kawaii ne. = “Your smile is very cute.”

2. Complimenting Someone’s Work

In Japanese business settings, people typically use the formal and honorific language. Some people use casual language toward younger subordinates, but you should never use casual language when talking to your boss, seniors, or clients, because it’s very rude and inappropriate. Following is a list of the best compliments in Japanese for the workplace.

5 – Good job! / Well done!

Casual: 良くやったな!(Yoku yatta na!)
Polite: 良くやりましたね!(Yoku yarimashita ne!)

6 – Great work! / Excellent! / Bravo!

Casual: お見事!(O-migoto!)
Polite: お見事です!(O-migoto desu!)

7 – (Your) presentation today was very good.

Casual: 今日のプレゼンとても良かったよ。(Kyō no purezen totemo yokatta yo.)
Polite: 今日のプレゼンとても良かったです。(Kyō no purezen totemo yokatta desu.)

8 – That’s a nice idea with pretty good sense.

Casual: なかなかセンスの良いアイディアだね。(Nakanaka sensu no ii aidia da ne.)
Polite: なかなかセンスの良いアイディアですね。(Nakanaka sensu no ii aidia desu ne.)

9 – You are amazing to have solved that difficult matter easily.

Casual: あの難しい案件を簡単に解決させてすごいね。(Ano muzukashii anken o kantan ni kaiketsu sasete sugoi ne.)
Polite: あの難しい案件を簡単に解決させてすごいですね。(Ano muzukashii anken o kantan ni kaiketsu sasete sugoi desu ne.)

* すごい (sugoi) is a Japanese adjective which can be translated as “great,” “amazing,” “wonderful,” “cool,” etc. This is often used when something or someone has strong abilities.

The casual phrase すごいね (Sugoi ne) and polite phrase すごいですね (Sugoi desu ne) are very useful phrases you can use in many situations. They can be used just like “Wow!” in English.

Two Businessmen Shaking Hands

Here’s a compliment for a Japanese businessman: Kyō no purezen totemo yokatta desu. = “Presentation today was very good.”

3. Complimenting Someone’s Skills

10 – The meal is very delicious! You are good at cooking. (You are a good cook!)

Casual: ご飯がとてもおいしいよ!料理上手いね!(Gohan ga totemo oishii yo! Ryōri umai ne!)
Polite: ご飯がとてもおいしいです!料理上手いですね!(Gohan ga totemo oishii desu! Ryōri umai desu ne!)

11 – You have skills and a good sense of photography.

Casual: 写真のスキルがあって、センスもいいね。(Shashin no sukiru ga atte, sensu mo ii ne.)
Polite: 写真のスキルがあって、センスもいいですね。(Shashin no sukiru ga atte, sensu mo ii desu ne.)

12 – Your English is very fluent!

Casual: 英語がすごくペラペラだね!(Eigo ga sugoku perapera da ne!)
Polite: 英語がすごくペラペラですね!(Eigo ga sugoku perapera desu ne!)

*ペラペラ (Perapera) is a Japanese onomatopoeia which expresses a state of fluent speech.

13 – You run really fast! You could participate in the Olympic Games!

Casual: 足がすごく速いね!オリンピックに出られそうだね!(Ashi ga sugoku hayai ne! Orinpikku ni deraresō da ne!)
Polite: 足がすごく速いですね!オリンピックに出られそうですね!(Ashi ga sugoku hayai desu ne! Orinpikku ni deraresō desu ne!)

14 – You are (so) amazing that you can do anything!

Casual: 何でもできてすごいね!(Nan demo dekite sugoi ne!)
Polite: 何でもできてすごいですね!(Nan demo dekite sugoi desu ne!)

Someone Doing Japanese Calligraphy with a Brush

Good handwriting skills are praised in Japan as it’s considered a skill of the well-educated and sophisticated.

4. How to Make Your Compliments Sound More Sincere

Sometimes, compliments sound fake when you praise too much or only use words. Here are some tips for giving sincere Japanese compliments to avoid sounding empty.

1 – Avoid Direct and Exaggerated Expressions

As mentioned in the introduction, many Japanese people aren’t used to receiving compliments, especially when they’re very direct.

It becomes more natural and sounds real when you make a comment with euphemistic and indecisive expressions, and avoid using straightforward words.

For example:

Not Good
Gōka na sukāto o haite imasu ne.
“You are wearing a gorgeous skirt.”

Fasshon no sensu ga suteki desu ne.
“Your fashion sense is nice.”

Not Good
Kimi no hitomi wa totemo utsukushii yo.
“Your eyes are very beautiful.”

Egao ga totemo suteki da ne.
“Your smile is very nice.”

2 – Don’t Praise; Tell Instead

When you compliment someone in Japanese, it sounds more natural and real when you tell them casually instead of actually praising them. The key point is to say positive things to him/her casually and naturally in the flow of conversation.

For example:

When a boy likes a girl, he shouldn’t just give her compliments one after another whenever he wants: “You are cute today, too,” “You’re so nice,” “You have a pretty hairstyle.”

However, he can give positive comments during a conversation if the situation allows for it:

At a cafe, if the girl he likes pours water to refill his glass, he can say ありがとう、優しいね (arigatō, yasashii ne.), which means “Thank you, you are kind.”

Or, when she shows him pictures of her trip, he can tell her 楽しそうだね、笑ってる顔がとてもかわいいよ(tanoshisō da ne, waratte ru kao ga totemo kawaii yo.), which means “It looks fun, your smiling face is very cute.”

3 – Refer to Someone to Add Credit

When you give compliments, refer to someone else’s comment in order to avoid direct compliments, and to add credit to make it more realistic.

For example:

Tanaka-san wa shigoto ga dekiru hito da to jōshi ga itte imashita. Watashi mo hontō ni sō omoimasu.
“My boss said that Tanaka-san is someone who is good at his job. I really think so, too.”

Minna mo itte iru yō ni, kimi wa totemo yasashii ne.
“As everyone is saying, you are very thoughtful.”

5. What to Expect After Giving Compliments

Positive Feelings

As mentioned, modesty and humbleness are important values in Japanese culture, and Japanese people aren’t used to receiving a lot of compliments or direct expressions of praise from others.

While American people usually receive compliments with confidence and pride, Japanese people often receive them with hesitance and a shy feeling. Some Japanese people may reply with negative or denial phrases to express their humbleness, rather than admitting their good ability/quality. Doing so would be considered boasting and showing pride.

Response Examples :


Casual: 全然そんなことないよ (zenzen sonna koto nai yo)
Polite: 全然そんなことないです (zenzen sonna koto nai desu.)
Meaning: “(I’m) not (that) at all.”

This phrase is one of the most typical responses to compliments in Japanese. Often, compliments are met with denial, and 全然〜ない (zenzen — nai) is a common expression which means “not — at all.”

Doitsugo o perapera hanasete sugoi ne!   
“You are great that you can speak German fluently!”

Zenzen sugoku nai yo.  
“I’m not great at all.”


Casual: もっと上手くできたのだけど… (Motto umaku dekita no da kedo…)
Polite: もっと上手くできたのですが… (Motto umaku dekita no desu ga…)
Meaning: “I could have done better…”

This is another typical response to Japanese compliments. Saying that he or she could have done better is a way of showing modesty and that he/she needs to keep making an effort rather than satisfying the status quo.

Kyō no purezen totemo yokatta desu yo!   
“Your presentation was very good today!”

Sō desu ka? Motto umaku dekita no desu ga…
“Was it? I could have done better…”


Casual: (OOOの)足元にも及ばないよ ([OOO no] ashimoto ni mo oyobanai yo)
Polite: (OOOの)足元にも及びません ([OOO no] ashimoto ni mo oyobimasen)
Meaning: “can’t hold a candle to (OOO)” / “nowhere near as good as (OOO)”

This phrase is usually used in formal settings to respond to compliments. It literally means “I don’t even reach (someone’s) feet.” It expresses modesty by referring to someone better than you, and often, it’s the person who gave the compliment. This phrase is also used as お世辞 (O-seji), or “flattery,” to flatter a boss or client for smoother communication and relationships in traditional Japanese business customs.

Kyō no shōdan yoku yatta na! Kimi wa tsuyoi kōshōryoku o motte iru.
“Well done with the business today! You have a strong negotiation skill.”

Buchō no ashimoto ni mo oyobimasen!
“I’m nowhere near as good as you, Director!”

For more useful phrases for business, please check out Phrases for Doing Business Successfully and Must-Know Expressions for Agreeing and Disagreeing.

A Tranquil Garden and Temple in Japan
The important Japanese value of modesty is reflected in phrases toward compliments.

6. Conclusion: How JapanesePod101 Can Help You Learn More Japanese

In this article, we introduced the most useful Japanese compliments and how to give/respond to compliments in Japanese. Did you find it interesting that Japanese compliments are quite a reflection of Japanese culture? Always remember not to start bragging about your skills or traits after receiving a compliment in Japan!

If you would like to learn more about the Japanese language and other useful Japanese phrases for different situations, you’ll find much more helpful content on We provide a variety of free lessons for you to improve your Japanese language skills.

Here’s some more information about compliments in Japanese with audio:

Together with compliments, learn the Top 20 Words for Positive Emotions!

And that’s not all! Learn faster and enjoy studying Japanese at!

Before you go, let us know in the comments if there are any Japanese compliments you still want to know! We’d be glad to help, and look forward to hearing from you!

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Getting Angry in Japanese: 20+ Useful Japanese Angry Phrases


It’s essential to be able to express your feelings when communicating with others in everyday life. Knowing how to express your emotions in Japanese, including anger, will help you have smoother communication with Japanese people. Although showing anger with swear words isn’t common in Japanese culture, there are various angry phrases in Japanese you can use.

Knowing angry phrases, and how to show that you’re angry in Japanese, will not only help you understand Japanese anime and Japanese TV shows better, but it will also improve your conversation and communication skills.

In this article, we’ll introduce useful angry Japanese expressions and phrases to help you discuss your emotions. Let’s learn various expressions here at JapanesePod101!

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Table of Contents

  1. Angry Imperatives
  2. Angry Warnings
  3. Angry Blames
  4. Describing How You Feel
  5. Phrases to Calm Someone Down
  6. Conclusion: How JapanesePod101 Can Help You Learn More Japanese

1. Angry Imperatives


The following phrases are commonly used phrases in the imperative form for expressing anger in Japanese.

1 – Shut up.

  • 黙れ (damare) — impolite, order form
  • うるさい (urusai) — literally means “noisy”

Damare is a very hostile and impolite expression. You probably won’t hear this in daily conversations, but maybe in Japanese anime, especially those that are adventurous or involve lots of battles. Urusai is very casual and it’s a soft way to express “Shut up.”


A: またアイス食べてるの?太るよ。
A: Mata aisu tabete ru no? Futoru yo.
A: “Are you eating ice cream again? You’ll get fat.”

B: うるさいな、ほっといて!
B: Urusai na, hottoite !
B: “Shut up, leave me alone!”

2 – Stop it.

  • やめて (yamete) — casual
  • やめなさい (yamenasai) — polite, order form
  • やめろ (yamero) — impolite, order form

Yamete is a very casual and commonly used expression. Yamenasai is polite and usually said by a person in a superior position toward a person(s) in a lower position. Yamero is a very casual and impolite way to express “Stop it.”


Yamete! Mama, o-nii-chan ga butta!
“Stop it! Mom, my (big) brother hit me!”

Mari ga saki ni boku o oshite kita n da!
“Mari pushed me first!”

Futari tomo yamenasai!
“Both of you, stop it!”

“Stop it, I don’t wanna hear it. ” = Yamete, kikitakunai.

3 – Cut it out.

  • やめて (yamete) — casual
  • いい加減にして (iikagen ni shite) — casual

Iikagen ni shite is a very useful expression which literally means “Be in good moderation.” It can be translated as “That’s enough,” “Cut it out,” and “Stop it.”


Iikagen ni shite ! Ima sugu yamenai to keisatsu o yobu yo!
“Cut it out! I will call the police if you don’t stop now!”

4 – Leave me alone.

  • ほっといてよ (Hottoite yo)

Hottoite yo is a casual expression that’s typically used between people who are in a close relationship, such as family members and close friends.


Mō kodomo ja nai n da kara, hottoite yo!
“I’m not a child anymore, leave me alone!”

Little Girl Pouting

“I’m not a kid anymore, leave me alone!” = Mō kodomo ja nai n da kara, hottoite yo!

5 – Get lost.

  • 失せろ (usero) — impolite, order form

You’re likely to hear this expression in Japanese anime and movies. Usero is a very impolite and hostile expression which you’ll probably hear used by a very angry Japanese man or yakuza in a movie.


Usero! Ni-do to sugata o arawasu na!
“Get lost! Never show up again!”

2. Angry Warnings

Use these angry Japanese phrases to let someone know they’re going too far and it’s time to back off!

1 – Don’t mess with me.

  • 私に関わらないで (watashi ni kakawaranaide) — casual
  • 俺に関わるな (ore ni kakawaru na) — masculine

Watashi ni kakawaranaide is milder and a bit more feminine, while ore ni kakawaru na is a stronger, masculine expression. They both have the connotation of “Don’t get involved with me.”

There are various Japanese personal pronouns. Watashi is for the unisex “I” in the formal style, but it sounds more feminine in the informal style. Ore is commonly used by men in very casual situations.


Watashi ni kakawaranaide. Samonaito, taihen na me ni au yo.
“Don’t mess with me, or you’ll have a hard time.”

2 – You’re asking for trouble.

  • 面倒 / 厄介なことになるよ (mendō / yakkai na koto ni naru yo)

This is a very useful phrase that you can use in many different situations. If you want to say it in a polite way, change the last word to narimasu yo.


Sonna koto shitara, mendō na koto ni naru yo.
“You’re asking for trouble if you do so.”

3 – Don’t make me say it again.

  • 同じことを何度も言わせないで (onaji koto o nan-do mo iwasenaide)

This is another very common phrase you can use in many situations. If you want to say it in a polite way, add the word ください (kudasai) to the end.


Katazuke o shite! Onaji koto o nan-do mo iwasenaide.
“Clean up! Don’t make me say it again.”

Negative Verbs

4 – This is my last warning.

  • これが最後の警告だ (kore ga saigo no keikoku da)

You’re likely to hear this Japanese angry phrase in TV shows or movies. If you want to say it in a polite way, change the word だ (da) at the end to です (desu).


Kore ga saigo no keikoku desu. Tsugi wa uttaemasu.
“This is my last warning, I will sue you next time.”

5 – I can’t tolerate anymore.

  • もう我慢できない (mō gaman dekinai)
  • もう耐えられない (mō taerarenai)

These are commonly used angry Japanese sayings when someone can’t stand something anymore. If you want to say it in a polite way, conjugate the negative form ない (nai) to the polite ません (masen).


Mō gaman dekinai! Ima sugu sono urusai ongaku o tomero!
“I can’t stand anymore! Stop that loud music right away!”

Angry Bald Man Screaming at Someone

“I can’t tolerate this person anymore !” = Kono hito ni wa mō taerare nai!

6 – Watch your mouth.

  • 言葉に気をつけろ (kotoba ni ki o tsukero) — order form

This rough phrase is commonly used by angry Japanese people in TV shows and movies. If you want to say it in a milder way, change the word つけろ (tsukero) to つけなさい (tsukenasai), or even more politely, つけてください (tsukete kudasai).


Oya ni mukatte sono kuchi no kikikata wa nan da! Kotoba ni ki o tsukenasai!
“Don’t you dare talk to your parent like that! Watch your mouth!”

3. Angry Blames

1 – Who do you think you are?

  • 何様のつもり?(nani-sama no tsumori?) — casual

This is a casual phrase that you can use with people you’re close to, such as family or friends. When you want to imply a stronger meaning, add お前 (omae), a rude form of “you,” in front of the phrase.


Watashi ni zenbu kaji o yarasete, anata nani-sama no tsumori? Watashi wa kaseifu ja nai no yo!
“Who do you think you are to make me do all the house chores? I’m not a housemaid!”

2 – Are you out of your mind?

  • 頭おかしいんじゃないの?(atama okashii n ja nai no?) — casual
  • 正気ですか (shōki desu ka) — polite

Atama okashii n ja nai no? is a casual phrase that’s used among close friends or family members, while shōki desu ka is a more polite expression that can be used in workplaces.


Nande kō shita no? Atama okashii n ja nai no?
“Why did you do this? Are you out of your mind?”

Female Colleague Scolding Male Colleague

“How could you say that? Who do you think you are?” = Yokumo sonna koto ieta wa ne, nani-sama no tsumori?

3 – What’s wrong with you?

  • あなた一体どうしたの?(anata ittai dō shita no?)

This casual phrase is used to express frustration at someone’s unreasonable behavior.


Ima sugu yamete! Anata ittai dō shita no yo!
“Stop it right now! What’s wrong with you?”

4 – Listen to me.

  • ちゃんと聞いて (chanto kiite) — casual
  • ちゃんと聞きなさい (chanto kikinasai) — polite

Chanto kiite is a casual phrase that’s used among family and friends, while chanto kikinasai is the polite and imperative form which is usually used by a superior/senior person to a junior person.


Iiwake o yamete chanto kikinasai !
“Stop making excuses and listen to me!”

5 – It’s your fault.

  • あなたのせいだ (anata no sei da)

This phrase is casual and commonly used. When お前 (Omae) is used instead of あなた (anata), it becomes an even stronger expression. This is because お前 (Omae) is a rude way of saying “you.”


Zenbu anata no sei desu. Sekinin totte kudasai.
“It’s all your fault. Take responsibility for it.”

6 – It’s none of your business.

  • あなたに関係ない (anata ni kankei nai)

This phrase is casual and commonly used. In order to say it more politely, use ありません (arimasen) instead of ない (nai).


Kore wa shiteki na koto de, anata ni kankei arimasen.
“This is a private matter and none of your business.”

4. Describing How You Feel

Now that you’ve learned how to get angry in Japanese, let’s take a look at how to describe your emotions or why you’re angry.

1 – It’s getting on my nerves.

  • イライラする (iraira suru) — casual

This is a casual phrase that’s commonly used. Especially among younger people, 超ムカつく (chō mukatsuku) is also frequently used, and is considered 若者言葉 (youngster language).


Kare no sono yō na taido ni iraira suru.
“His attitude gets on my nerves.”

2 – I’m fed up with it.

  • うんざりだ (unzari da)

This phrase is casual and very common to use. By adding する (suru), meaning “do,” or its conjugated form next to うんざり (unzari), you can also use it as a verb.


Kanojo no iiwake ni unzari shimasu.
“I’m fed up with her excuses.”

3 – I hate it.

  • 嫌だ (iya da)

This is a casual phrase that’s frequently used to express one’s discomfort. To say it more politely, use です(desu) instead of だ (da).


Iya da! Haisha ni ikitakunai!
“I hate it! I don’t want to go to the dentist!”

Man Fed Up with Life

“I hate it! I wanna quit! ” = Iya da! Mō yametai!

4 – I’m disappointed.

  • がっかりだ (gagari da) — casual
  • 失望しました (shitsubō shimashita) — polite

がっかりだ (gagari da) is the casual phrase, while 失望しました (shitsubō shimashita) is a more polite form that can be used in formal situations.


Kare no purezen no hidoi naiyō ni shitsubō shimashita.
“I’m disappointed with the terrible content of his presentation.”

5. Phrases to Calm Someone Down

1 – Take a deep breath.

  • 深呼吸して (shinkokyū shite) — casual

深呼吸 (shinkokyū) is “a deep breath” and して (shite) is the conjugated form of する (suru), meaning “do.” If you want to say it more politely, add the word ください (kudasai) at the end.


Atama ni kitara, shinkokyū shite jū-byō kazoete kudasai.
“When you get angry, take a deep breath and count ten seconds.”

2 – Calm down.

  • 落ち着いて (ochitsuite)

This is a conjugated form of 落ち着く (ochitsuku), which means “relax.” If you want to say it more politely, add the word ください (kudasai) at the end.


Sawagazu ochitsuite kudasai.
“Please don’t make a fuss and calm down.”

Woman Meditating on the Beach

“Let’s take a deep breath and calm down.” = Shinkokyū shite ochitsukimashō.

3 – Write it down.

  • 書き出して (kakidashite)

The word 書き出して (kakidashite) consists of 書く (kaku), meaning “write,” and 出す (dasu), meaning “out.” If you want to say it more politely, add the word ください (kudasai) at the end.

In Japanese culture, 写経 (Shakyō) (Sutra copying and writing) of Buddhism is considered the action of calming one’s mind by concentrating only on writing, without thinking about anything else. This is done to empty one’s mind.


Kenka no toki wa ōgoe o dasu mae ni, kami ni iya na koto o kakidashite.
“When quarreling, write down the things you don’t like on paper before yelling.”

4 – Think from a different point of view.

  • 違う観点から考えて (chigau kanten kara kangaete)

It’s always good to try to see things from different angles; this also changes the way you think about things.


Kona toki wa, chigau kanten kara kangaete miyō.
“Let’s think from a different point of view at times like this.”

For more angry phrases in Japanese, and to hear Japanese pronunciation, see
Phrases to Use When You’re Angry.

6. Conclusion: How JapanesePod101 Can Help You Learn More Japanese

In this article, we introduced 20+ useful angry phrases in Japanese. Although Japanese people don’t often show angry emotions expressly, it’s helpful to know some angry phrases in Japanese for better understanding and communication.

Do you feel ready to express your anger in Japanese now? Let us know in the comments!

If you would like to learn more about the Japanese language and other useful Japanese phrases for different situations, you’ll find much more helpful content on We provide a variety of free lessons for you to help you improve your Japanese language skills. For example, here’s some more information about expressing emotions in Japanese, with audio:

To learn how to hold conversations in Japanese, check out Top 15 Questions You Should Know for Conversations and Top 10 Conversational Phrases.

And there’s much more! Learn Japanese faster and enjoy studying the language and culture at!

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Life Event Messages: Happy Birthday in Japanese & More


Giving proper greetings and celebration messages is essential in making relationships better. Whether you have Japanese friends online, live in Japan, or just want to understand Japanese culture, it’s good to know how Japanese people celebrate events and what they say. Once you learn how to say Happy Birthday in Japanese, Happy New Year in Japanese, and Merry Christmas in Japanese, use them practically with your friends!

Japan has various life and annual events to celebrate. Some of them come from the Western culture, such as Christmas and Valentine’s Day. But there are unique Japanese traditions as well, such as the twentieth and sixtieth birthdays, also called 成人 (Seijin) and 還暦 (Kanreki) respectively.

So, how do you wish someone well in Japanese? In this article, we introduce practical life event messages. Let’s master holiday greetings in Japanese, and more, here at JapanesePod101!

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Table of Contents

  1. Birthday + Turning 20 Years Old
  2. Japanese Congratulations: Graduation
  3. Japanese Congratulations: New Job / Promotion
  4. Retirement + Turning 60 Years Old
  5. Japanese Congratulations: Wedding & Marriage
  6. Japanese Congratulations: Pregnancy and Birth
  7. Bad News
  8. Injured/Sick
  9. Death/Funerals: Offering Condolences in Japanese Culture
  10. Holidays
  11. Conclusion: How JapanesePod101 Can Help You Learn More Japanese

1. Birthday + Turning 20 Years Old

Happy Birthday

As is the case in other cultures, birthdays are a happy celebration in Japan. Japanese people celebrate one’s birthday with a cake with candles, and by singing the Happy Birthday to You song in English (Japanese people also sing this song in English because it’s very easy and simple). In most cases, people have a birthday party, and friends and family give gifts to the birthday person.

A person’s twentieth birthday is very important in Japanese culture, because this is the official age of maturity, called 成人 (Seijin) in Japan, and one is officially recognized as an adult. Apart from individual twentieth birthday celebrations, Japan has the national holiday 成人の日 (Seijin no Hi), or “Coming of Age Day,” on the second Monday of January every year.

Check out our Coming of Age Day page for related Japanese vocabulary.

Here are phrases to say Happy Birthday in Japanese.

1- Happy birthday!

Japanese: (お) 誕生日おめでとう!
Pronunciation: (O)tanjōbi omedetō!

It literally translates to “birthday (tanjōbi) congratulations (omedetō).” It sounds more polite when you put お (O) in front of tanjōbi.

When you want to say it during a formal occasion, or to an older person, add ございます (gozaimasu) to the end, which makes it even more polite.

2- Belated happy birthday!

Japanese: 遅くなったけど、(お)誕生日おめでとう!
Pronunciation: Osoku natta kedo, (o)tanjōbi omedetō!

You can still wish your friends a happy birthday, even if you weren’t able to do so on the actual day!

Osoku natta kedo means “It’s late, but…” To make it more polite and formal, say Osoku narimashita kedo.

3- Wish you enjoy a special day!

Japanese: 特別な日を楽しんでね!
Pronunciation: Tokubetsu na hi o tanoshinde ne!

A birthday is a special day, and when you want the birthday girl/boy to enjoy it, you can tell her/him this phrase.

To say it politely in a formal way, change ね (ne) to ください (kudasai).

Birthday Party

It’s common to sing Happy Birthday to You in Japan.

2. Japanese Congratulations: Graduation

Basic Questions

Whether it’s a kindergarten or university, completing school is worth a happy celebration. Japanese schools have both entrance and graduation ceremonies at the schools, which family members also attend.

Graduation from a university is often a big celebration, especially for the graduate’s parents who get to experience the fulfilling feeling of having finished raising their child. Graduates also celebrate with friends for their achievements and the good memories they made together.

Here are phrases for celebrating graduation.

1- Congratulations for your graduation!


Japanese: 卒業おめでとう!
Pronunciation: Sotsugyō omedetō!

It literally translates to “graduation (sotsugyō) congratulations (omedetō).” For formal occasions, such as when a school principal is addressing students, add ございます (gozaimasu) to the end. This makes it polite and respectful.

2- Well done for striving for four years!

Japanese: 大変な4年間よく頑張ったね!
Pronunciation: Taihen na yo-nenkan yoku ganbatta ne!

You can say this phrase to family members or friends. When you just want to say “well done,” it’s yoku ganbatta ne.

3- Lead your way step by step to make your dream come true.


Japanese: 夢に向かって一歩一歩進んでください。
Pronunciation: Yume ni mukatte ippo ippo susunde kudasai.

This phrase is often used by parents or seniors to a new graduate to encourage his/her new path in life.

It literally means “toward a dream (yume ni mukatte),” “step by step (ippo ippo),” and “go forward (susunde kudasai),” in a polite way.

Crowd of Graduates

Graduation of Japanese schools is in March.

3. Japanese Congratulations: New Job / Promotion

When a new university graduate gets a new job, family and friends celebrate him/her, usually by going out for a nice dinner. Some parents give a gift that will be useful for their work, such as a watch or a set of suits. In return, the child takes his or her parents out for a nice dinner once he/she gets their first salary.

When someone has a job promotion, family, friends, and sometimes his/her boss and team, celebrate him/her. It doesn’t necessarily involve giving a gift, but people go out for a drink or dinner, in most cases.

Here are phrases to celebrate getting a new job/promotion in Japanese.

1- Congratulations for your new job / promotion!

Japanese: 就職 / 昇進おめでとう!
Pronunciation: Shūshoku / Shōshin omedetō!

It literally translates to “employment (shūshoku) / promotion (shōshin),” and “congratulations (omedetō).” You can use this phrase to congratulate your friends, family, and younger colleagues.

Coworkers Celebrating

In Japan, the start of work for newly employed graduates is usually in April.

2- Good luck in your new workplace.

Japanese: 新しい職場で頑張ってね。
Pronunciation: Atarashī shokuba de ganbatte ne.

This is a very useful phrase to use when your friend or family member gets a new job.

It breaks down to “at new workplace (atarashii shokuba de),” and “strive well (ganbatte ne).” If you want to say it more politely for a formal setting, change ね (ne) to ください (kudasai).

3- I’m looking forward to your success.

Japanese: あなたの活躍を楽しみにしています。
Pronunciation: Anata no katsuyaku o tanoshimi ni shite imasu.

This is a polite phrase that a family member or boss/elder colleague can tell someone who gets a new job or a promotion. It breaks down to “your success (anata no katsuyaku),” and “I’m looking forward to (tanoshimi ni shite imasu).”

4. Retirement + Turning 60 Years Old

Talking About Age

Traditionally, the age of retirement in Japan is sixty. In the traditional Japanese employment system, called 終身雇用 (Shūshin koyō), or “life-time employment,” retirement means that someone has finished working by serving a company for some decades. It’s considered honorable and respectable.

Not only family, but also his/her company and colleagues, often have a celebration party with flowers and gifts. Nowadays, due to an increase in the aging population, active and healthy seniors continue to work after they turn sixty years old, sometimes until their sixty-fifth of seventieth birthday.

On the other hand, turning sixty years old is considered good fortune and a cause to celebrate; this celebration is called 還暦 (Kanreki). Following the traditional sixty-year calendar cycle of the lunar calendar, turning sixty means accomplishing its cycle. Thus, it’s the beginning of another cycle in his/her life. The person’s family celebrates him/her by giving gifts in red, which is the color of fortune.

Below are phrases to celebrate retirement/sixtieth birthdays in Japanese.

1- Congratulations for your retirement!

Japanese: 定年退職おめでとう!
Pronunciation: Teinen taishoku omedetō!

This is a very common phrase of congratulations. It literally translates to “retirement age resignation (teinen taishoku) congratulations (omedetō).”

When you want to say it for a formal occasion, add ございます (gozaimasu) to the end; this makes it even more polite.

2- Well done for 30 years of contribution.

Japanese: 30年間の献身お疲れ様でした。
Pronunciation: San-jū-nenkan no kenshin otsukare-sama deshita.

お疲れ様 (Otsukare-sama) is one of the most common Japanese untranslatable words. It has various meanings, depending on the situation. But in this case, it means “Well done.”

3- Please enjoy your new stage of life.

Japanese: 次の新しい人生を楽しんでください。
Pronunciation: Tsugi no atarashii jinsei o tanoshinde kudasai.

Retired people often spend plenty of their new free time for hobbies and enjoyment. This polite phrase is useful when you wish for someone to have a nice life after retirement.

5. Japanese Congratulations: Wedding & Marriage

Marriage Proposal

The average age of a person’s first marriage nowadays is older (around thirty) than it was some decades ago; people’s views on marriage are becoming more diverse and flexible, as well. However, getting married and having a wedding is still a big life event in Japan.

Japanese marriage traditions typically include the following:

  • 結納 (yuinō), or “engagement ceremony”
  • 入籍 (nyūseki), or “official marriage register”
  • 挙式 (kyoshiki), or “wedding ceremony”
  • 披露宴 (hirōen), or “wedding party”

The western style of wedding ceremonies is becoming very popular in Japan, although there are some people who prefer the traditional Japanese style with the 着物 (kimono).

So, how do you congratulate a wedding in Japanese? Below are phrases for celebrating marriage in Japanese.

1- Congratulations for your marriage!

Japanese: 結婚おめでとう!
Pronunciation: Kekkon omedetō!

This is a very common phrase for congratulations in Japanese when someone is getting married. It literally translates to “marriage (kekkon) congratulations (omedetō).”

When you want to say it in a formal occasion, add ございます (gozaimasu) to the end; this makes it even more polite.

2- I wish you happiness for many years to come.

Japanese: 末長くお幸せに。
Pronunciation: Suenagaku o-shiawase ni.

It literally translates to “for a long time (suenagaku), be happy (o-shiawase ni).” This phrase is also commonly used together with Kekkon omedetō.

3- Have a wonderful married life.

Japanese: 素敵な結婚生活を送ってね。
Pronunciation: Suteki na kekkon seikatsu o okutte ne.

This is another common message for a newly married couple. When you want to say it in a formal occasion, change ね (ne) to ください (kudasai).

Man Putting Wedding Ring on Woman's Finger

Japanese weddings are conducted in either the western style or the Japanese traditional style.

6. Japanese Congratulations: Pregnancy and Birth

Pregnancy and birth are auspicious events in someone’s life. Traditionally, people give congratulation messages when a pregnant woman announces her pregnancy, and send her gifts after the baby is born. Japanese culture doesn’t have a “baby shower” celebration traditionally; however, the baby shower is becoming popular among young people due to the influence of western culture.

Below are phrases to celebrate pregnancy/birth in Japanese.

1- Congratulations for your pregnancy!

Japanese: 妊娠おめでとう!
Pronunciation: Ninshin omedetō!

For a formal occasion, change 妊娠 (ninshin), meaning “pregnancy,” to ご懐妊 (go-kainin), which is a more respectful form of the word “pregnancy,” and add ございます (gozaimasu) to the end to make it more polite and respectful. However, this form is very formal and not commonly used.

2- I wish a healthy baby will be born.

Japanese: 元気な赤ちゃんが生まれますように。
Pronunciation: Genki na aka-chan ga umaremasu yō ni.

It literally means “lively baby (genki na aka-chan), be born (umaremasu)” + expression of wish (yō ni).
This phrase is also commonly used together with Ninshin omedetō.

3- Congratulations for a baby’s birth!

Japanese: 赤ちゃんの誕生おめでとう!
Pronunciation: Aka-chan no tanjō omedetō!

Tell this message when your friend has their baby. For a formal occasion, add ございます (gozaimasu) to the end; this makes it more polite and respectful.

7. Bad News

Life isn’t always full of happy events and celebrations, and sometimes bad things can happen in our lives. In Japanese culture, it’s very important to have empathy and give consideration to other people’s feelings. This is because the culture puts values on 和 (Wa), or harmony in our society.

When someone tells you bad news, it’s good to listen carefully first, show that you understand him/her, and then say something to cheer him/her up.

Here are some Japanese condolences messages that you can say to those who have bad news.

1- I’m sorry to hear that.

Japanese: それは残念です。
Pronunciation: Sore wa zannen desu.

It literally translates to “it is regrettable (sore wa zannen)” + polite way to finish a sentence (desu).

Say this to your colleague, for example, if he confides in you that he couldn’t pass a promotion exam, or his pet has passed away.

2- I understand your feelings.

Japanese: あなたのお気持ち分かります。
Pronunciation: Anata no o-kimochi wakarimasu.

It literally translates to “your feeling [polite] (anata no o-kimochi), I understand (wakarimasu).” This is a typical message to show that you understand him/her and that you’re with him/her.

3- Cheer up!

Japanese: 元気出して!
Pronunciation: Genki dashite!

This is a very straightforward phrase to cheer someone up. Say this phrase to your friends or someone who has a close relationship with you.

8. Injured/Sick

An unexpected injury or sickness can happen anytime and to anyone. Whether it happened to your grandparent, friend, or colleague, it’s always nice to offer him or her some warm messages.

Here are some useful phrases you can say to those who get injured/sick.

1- How are you feeling?


Japanese: 気分はどうですか。
Pronunciation: Kibun wa dō desu ka.

This is a typical question you can ask when someone falls ill. If it’s a family member or someone very close to you, you can also say kibun wa dō? in a casual manner. Japanese people often make おかゆ (O-kayu), or “rice porridge,” for a sick person as an easy-to-digest and stomach-friendly meal.

2- I hope you get well soon.

Japanese: 早く良くなりますように。
Pronunciation: Hayaku yoku narimasu yō ni.

This is a very common and important phrase that you can tell any injured or sick person.

3- Please take care.

Japanese: お大事に。
Pronunciation: O-daiji ni.

This is another very important phrase you should tell an injured/sick person. This is usually said at the end of a conversation before you leave.

For a more polite form, add なさってください (nasatte kudasai) when speaking to someone elderly or respectable.

Children Giving Their Sick Mother a Gift

Healthcare in Japan provides universal-care based on the national health insurance program.

9. Death/Funerals: Offering Condolences in Japanese Culture

While a newborn life is blessed and celebrated, any life is destined to experience death sooner or later. Death is considered a serious matter, and a funeral is usually held solemnly. Even if it happened to a person who is very close, Japanese people use formal and respectful language for messages to the deceased’s family and relatives.

Below are condolence phrases in Japanese that you can use.

1- Please accept my sincere condolences.

Japanese: お悔やみ申し上げます。
Pronunciation: O-kuyami mōshiagemasu.

This phrase is formal and commonly used to show your condolences, usually at a funeral. It literally translates to “condolence (o-kuyami), [I] say (mōshiagemasu).” Note that the last word here is the most respectful and humble expression for the word “say.”

2- I pray that his/her soul may rest in peace.

Japanese: ご冥福をお祈りいたします。
Pronunciation: Go-meifuku o oinori itashimasu.

This phrase is formal and very commonly used. It literally translates to “happiness in the next world (go-meifuku), [I] pray (oinori), do (itashimasu).” Note that the last word here is a humble expression.

3- I’m so sorry, I don’t know what to say.

Japanese: 御愁傷様です。なんと言っていいかわかりません。
Pronunciation: Go-shūshō-sama desu. Nan to itte ii no ka wakarimasen.

You can use this polite phrase when someone tells you that someone you know has passed away. Go-shūshō-sama refers to a thing or status that people lament and grieve.

10. Holidays

Do you know whether Japanese people celebrate Christmas in Japan? Yes, they do! However, most Japanese people don’t have any religious feeling for Christmas celebrations; it’s rather regarded as a special and romantic event for couples, or as a happy event for friends and family to eat cakes and give gifts. Christmas Day isn’t a national holiday in Japan.

On the other hand, お正月 (o-shōgatsu), or New Year’s Day, is a traditional annual festive holiday. It’s one of the most important events of the year, and family and relatives get together and celebrate the coming new year. January 1 is the actual holiday, and many companies are off from the end of the year until the first few days of January.

Here are phrases for holiday greetings in Japanese, including how to say Merry Christmas in Japanese and Japanese New Year congratulations!

1- Merry Christmas!

Japanese: メリークリスマス!
Pronunciation: Merī kurisumasu!

How to say Merry Christmas in Japanese is almost the same as in English. It’s directly imported in Japanese, but Japanese people pronounce it in the Japanese way. Also, it’s written merī kurisumasu.

Check out Must-Know Christmas Day Vocabulary for more Christmas-related terms in Japanese.

2- Happy New Year!

Japanese: 明けましておめでとう!
Pronunciation: Akemashite omedetō

“Happy New Year” in Japanese is akemashite omedetō, which literally means “(a new year day has) dawned (明けまして), congratulations (omedetō).” This is the most-used phrase for “happy holidays” in Japanese for the new year.

When you want to say it in a formal occasion or to an older person, add ございます (gozaimasu) to the end; this makes it even more polite.

3- To another good year!

Japanese: 今年もよろしく!
Pronunciation: Kotoshi mo yorosiku!

This phrase is very popular among friends, colleagues, and clients.

Kotoshi mo means “this year, too” and yoroshiku is another one of the most common Japanese untranslatable words. It has various meanings depending on the situation, but in this case, it means “best regards” or “favorably please.”

For more useful holiday greetings in Japanese, check out Holiday Greetings and Wishes for the Holiday Season and Happy New Year! Words & Phrases for the New Year! You’ll learn Japanese winter seasonal greetings and customs.

Traditional Japanese New Year's Food

おせち (osechi) is a special meal for the New Year in Japan, and we eat it with best wishes phrases in Japanese.

11. Conclusion: How JapanesePod101 Can Help You Learn More Japanese

We introduced Japanese life event messages, such as how to say Happy Birthday in Japanese and Merry Christmas in Japanese. I hope this article was useful in improving your Japanese for better communication with your friends!

If you would like to learn more about the Japanese language and holiday greetings in Japanese, you’ll find much more useful content on We provide a variety of free lessons for you to improve your Japanese language skills.

For more about Japanese holidays and Japanese holiday vocabulary, check out Holidays in Japan. To learn about how to express your feelings, you’ll find Words and Phrases to Help You Describe Your Feelings useful; you can even learn and practice your pronunciation with audio. And for conversation practice, Top 15 Questions You Should Know for Conversations and Top 10 Conversational Phrases are very helpful!

Know that your hard work will pay off; with enough practice, you’ll be speaking like a native in no time with!

Before you go, let us know which of these phrases you’ll be able to use first! Are there any life event messages you still want us to cover? Let us know in the comments!

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Talking About the Weather in Japanese


Japan has four beautiful seasons, and every season has its own unique characteristics and weather. Whether you want to know the weather in Japan in April to visit the pretty 桜 (Sakura) or “cherry blossoms,” or research the weather in Kyoto, Japan for world heritage sightseeing, there are some useful words and phrases to know regarding weather in Japan!

Weather is one of the most useful topics for conversation and is also an essential topic in everyday life. When you know how to talk about the weather in Japanese, it will expand both your communication skills and vocabulary skills in Japanese, as there’s a variety of expressions relating to Japanese weather.

Let’s get started! By the time we get done, you’ll be talking about weather in Japanese like it’s nothing!

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Table of Contents

  1. Japanese Weather Vocabulary: The Basics
  2. Japanese Weather Words – Temperature and Seasons
  3. The Most Common Sentence Patterns to Talk about the Weather
  4. Phrases and Patterns Used in the Japan Weather Forecast
  5. The Most Common Ways to Comment on the Weather in Japanese
  6. Conclusion: How JapanesePod101 Can Help You Learn More Japanese

1. Japanese Weather Vocabulary: The Basics


Ready to learn Japanese weather vocabulary? The Japanese have a rich array of words and phrases to describe a variety of weather conditions, so let’s take a look.

1- General Terms for Weather Conditions in Japanese

Reading Kanji Hiragana English
1 Tenki 天気 てんき weather
2 Tenkō 天候 てんこう climate
3 Kishō jōkyō 気象状況 きしょうじょうきょう weather condition
4 Soramoyō 空模様 そらもよう the look of the sky


There’s a wide range of variation to express weather conditions in Japanese.

2- Weather Adjectives in Japanese & More Weather Phrases

As you can see in the vocabulary chart below, there’s many ways to express “rain” in Japanese compared to other weather conditions. This is because Japan has a rainy season, and it also rains often throughout the year with different characteristics according to the season and weather conditions.

In addition, the sky is considered supernal and unreachable by humans according to Japanese tradition, and the weather is also thought to be controlled by supreme beings. For example, “lightning” in Japanese is Kaminari, and by adding the respectful honorific sama, we call the god of lightning Kaminari sama. Ancient people believed that when thunder roared in the sky, it meant the god of lightning was angry.

With this context in mind, here are a few more common ways of how to describe the weather in Japanese!

Reading Kanji Hiragana English
1 Hare 晴れ はれ sunny, clear weather
2 Kaisei 快晴 かいせい clear weather without clouds
3 Kumori 曇り くもり cloudy
4 Kumo くも cloud
5 Ame あめ rain
6 Kosame 小雨 こさめ light rain / drizzle
7 Kirisame 霧雨 きりさめ misty rain / light drizzle
8 Ōame 大雨 おおあめ heavy rain
9 Tōriame 通り雨 とおりあめ passing shower
10 Harusame 春雨 はるさめ spring rain
11 Tenkiame 天気雨 てんきあめ temporary rainfall in the sunshine
12 Gōu 豪雨 ごうう downpour
13 Bōfūu 暴風雨 ぼうふうう rainstorm
14 Raiu 雷雨 らいう thunder-rainstorm
15 Yuki ゆき snow
16 Ōyuki 大雪 おおゆき heavy snow
17 Fubuki 吹雪 ふぶき snowstorm / blizzard
18 Arare あられ hailstone / falling iceball
19 Mizore みぞれ sleet / snow with rain
20 Hyō ひょう hail
21 Kaze かぜ wind
22 Soyokaze そよ風 そよかぜ breeze
23 Kyōfū 強風 きょうふう strong wind
24 Bōfū 暴風 ぼうふう windstorm
25 Taifū 台風 たいふう typhoon
26 Kisetsufū 季節風 きせつふう monsoon / seasonal wind
27 Kaminari かみなり thunder / lightning
28 Kiri きり fog / mist
29 Nōmu 濃霧 のうむ heavy fog / dense mist

Please visit our vocabulary list about Weather and Learn the Top 15 Weather Conditions to listen to the actual Japanese pronunciation of these words.

2. Japanese Weather Words – Temperature and Seasons


It’s also useful to know the vocabulary used to express temperatures and seasons, which are often used in daily conversations and weather news. Below are common words and phrases for discussing the weather in Japanese!

1- Basic Terms

Reading Kanji Hiragana English
1 Kion 気温 きおん temperature
2 Shitsudo 湿度 しつど level of humidity
3 Kiatsu 気圧 きあつ atmospheric pressure
4 Kisetsu 季節 きせつ season
5 Shiki 四季 しき four seasons
6 Haru はる spring
7 Natsu なつ summer
8 Aki あき autumn
9 Fuyu ふゆ winter
10 Uki 雨季 うき rainy season
11 Tsuyu / Baiu 梅雨 つゆ / ばいう rainy season (especially in Japan)
12 Kanki 乾季 かんき dry season

Please also check out Tsuyu: The Rainy Season in Japan on our website for Japanese audio.

2- Seasons in Japan – General Information

春 (Haru) : Spring


Spring in Japan is from March to May. Spring is one of the most beautiful seasons to visit Japan.

When it comes to Japanese weather in spring, temperatures gradually increase to a moderate and comfortable level. Although it’s spring, March has mostly cold days, while May has many sunny days with a clear sky and warm—or sometimes hot—temperatures. April is the most amazing month as cherry blossoms bloom fully, bringing beautiful notice of spring throughout Japan. Weather in Japan in April is literally the symbol of Japanese spring.

In addition, spring is a season full of new meetings, events, and liveliness, because April is the beginning month of both the school year and the business year in Japan. As the temperature becomes warmer, people become more active and it’s considered a good season to start something new.

夏 (Natsu) : Summer

Summer in Japan is from June to August. It starts with the rainy season, called 梅雨 (Tsuyu) which is usually in June and July. During the rainy season, most days are heavily rainy and the amount of precipitation is at its highest point of the year.

The full-blown summer starts after the rain, and once temperatures go up as high as above 40 degrees Celsius (104 degrees Fahrenheit). Japanese weather in summer, particularly in the months of July and August, can be quite uncomfortable due to hot temperatures and the high level of humidity. You can be standing in the shade, and still be sweating so much that you feel gross and sticky.

Summer heat makes people more energetic, making summer a season for many activities, and matsuri or Japanese festivals. Going to beaches, BBQing outside, fireworks, beer gardens, camping, and more, are popular summer activities in Japan.

秋 (Aki) : Autumn


Autumn, from September to November, is another beautiful season in Japan. Cooled down from the uncomfortable summer temperature, Japanese weather in autumn is pleasant. We have a word called 秋晴れ (akibare) which means “clear autumnal weather,” and most autumn days are delightfully sunny.

About 73% of the land in Japan is mountainous, and Japanese people appreciate the spectacular views of mountains which change colors in gradation of yellow, orange, and red. Visiting Kyoto in autumn will amaze you with views of traditional and historical buildings, surrounded by colorful nature. It’s just breathtaking.

Additionally, autumn is also the season of harvest and there’s a variety of tasty foods to indulge in during this time of year.

冬 (Fuyu) : Winter

Winter, from December to February, is a season of fun in Japan, especially if you like winter sports such as skiing, snowboarding, and skating. As for the Japanese weather in winter, the temperature in some of the northern and mountain regions go down below zero and it can get really cold. Mountains get a lot of snowfall.

Also, the Japanese onsen (hot springs) are essential in winter. They make you warm and relaxed after enjoying winter sports outside in the cold weather.

As an example of the weather in Tokyo, it’s quite rare to have snow in December. But when you research Japan weather in December, you’ll notice that northern regions already have snowy weather in December. Even though winter temperatures in Japan can get very cold, there are also many days of sunny weather in Tokyo.

3- Seasons in Japan – Information by Region

Map of Japanese Regional Climate Zones

The land of Japan is stretching from the south to the north and the weather and climate vary according to regions.

The types of weather in Japanese regions varies based on factors such as latitude, with northern areas being colder and southern ones warmer. Learn more about this in the following sections.

Hokkaido / Tohoku

Hokkaido, the rhombus-shaped island in the northernmost part of Japan, and the Tohoku region are known for being cold and snowy, especially in winter. Temperatures go as low as -20, or even -30, degrees Celsius in some areas of Hokkaido. Further, due to the heavy snowfall, Hokkaido is one of the most popular destinations for skiing and snowboarding.

In summer, on the other hand, the climate is comfortable and nice as it doesn’t get as hot as it does in other parts of Japan. It’s also a popular place for summer vacations in order to avoid unbearable heat.

Kanto / Chubu / Kansai

The Kanto, Chubu, and Kansai regions are located in the main island of Japan, and Tokyo is within the Kanto region. Although the characteristics of the climate in each region vary in detail depending on its latitude and geography, these regions have typical Japanese weather in general.

Spring and autumn have comfortable and moderate weather conditions, summer is very hot and humid, and winter has some snowy days (though there are also sunny days, even with cold temperatures).

Kyushu / Okinawa

Kyushu is the most southwest of the four main islands, and Okinawa is the southernmost prefecture of Japan, which is 300km (about 186 miles) further southbound from Kyūshū. These regions are located in the southern part of Japan, and so it doesn’t get severely cold in winter. Due to its geography, summertime is longer and wintertime is shorter than in other regions of Japan.

Okinawa, the southern island surrounded by coral reefs, is the best summer resort destination for beautiful beaches and marine sports, such as scuba diving. Okinawa has a tropical climate and it’s beautiful in the summertime. However, keep in mind that it’s also often struck by typhoons near the end of summer. (There can be some extreme weather in Japanese regions near here!)

3. The Most Common Sentence Patterns to Talk about the Weather

Here are some common terms and sentences to talk about Japanese weather and climate, to enhance your conversation skills. Studying these lists will make you a master of describing the weather in Japanese!

1- Basic Terms for Describing Weather in Japanese

Reading Kanji Hiragana English
1 Atsui 暑い あつい hot
2 Atatakai 暖かい あたたかい warm
3 Samui 寒い さむい cold
4 Suzushii 涼しい すずしい cool / chilly
5 Jimejime shita じめじめした humid
6 Mushiatsui 蒸し暑い むしあつい humid and hot
7 Kansō shita 乾燥した かんそうした dry

Weather Forecast Documents

The weather forecast is an essential part of everyday news.

2- Common Sentences to Talk about the Weather and Climate

Here, you’ll find some practical information on asking about weather in Japanese, and how to talk about weather in Japanese!

Questions for asking about the weather in Japanese:

  • 今日の天気はどうですか。
    Kyō no tenki wa dō desu ka.
    How’s the weather today?
  • 気温は何度ですか。
    Kion wa nan-do desu ka.
    What is the temperature?
  • 外はどうですか。
    Soto wa dō desu ka.
    What’s it like outside?
  • 今日は寒いですか。
    Kyō wa samui desu ka.
    Is today cold?

Answers for talking about the weather in Japanese

You can state not only the weather condition, but also how it feels.

  • 曇りです。
    Kumori desu.
    It’s cloudy.
  • 良い天気です。
    Ii tenki desu.
    It’s nice weather.
  • 晴れですが風が強いです。
    Hare desu ga kaze ga tsuyoi desu.
    It’s sunny, but there’s a strong wind.
  • 大雨でじめじめしています。
    Ōame de jimejime shite imasu.
    It’s raining heavily and humid.
  • 今日は晴れで暑いです。
    Kyō wa hare de atsui desu.
    Today is sunny and it’s hot.
  • 外は雪が降っていて寒いです。
    Soto wa yuki ga futte ite samui desu.
    It’s snowing outside and it’s cold.
  • 今の気温は20度です。
    Ima no kion wa ni-jū-do desu.
    The temperature is 20 degrees now.
  • 気温は1度でとても寒いです。
    Kion wa ichi-do de totemo samui desu.
    The temperature is very cold at one degree.

4. Phrases and Patterns Used in the Japan Weather Forecast

There are particular phrases and expressions which are often used in the weather forecast and news. Here are useful weather expressions in Japanese to help you out!

1- Vocabulary

Reading Kanji Hiragana English
1 Tenki yohō 天気予報 てんきよほう weather forecast
2 Saitei kion 最低気温 さいていきおん minimum temperature
3 Saikō kion 最高気温 さいこうきおん maximum temperature
4 Kiatsu 気圧 きあつ atmospheric pressure
5 Teikiatsu 低気圧 ていきあつ low atmospheric pressure
6 Kōkiatsu 高気圧 こうきあつ high atmospheric pressure
7 Zensen 前線 ぜんせん weather front
8 Baiu zensen 梅雨前線 ばいうぜんせん seasonal rain front
9 Tsuyu iri 梅雨入り つゆいり start of rainy season
10 Harō 波浪 はろう ocean waves
11 Kōzui 洪水 こうずい flood
12 Tsunami 津波 つなみ tsunami / tidal wave
13 Taifū 台風 たいふう typhoon
14 Chūihō 注意報 ちゅういほう advisory
15 Keihō 警報 けいほう warning
16 Hijō keihō 非常警報 ひじょうけいほう emergency warning
17 Hinan kankoku 避難勧告 ひなんかんこく evacuation advisory

Also check out our Typhoon Season vocabulary list so you can listen to relevant Japanese audio.

1. Terms to Express Weather Change Trends and Time Segments

Reading Kanji Hiragana English
1 Ichiji 一時 いちじ at one point (in time)
2 Tokidoki 時々 ときどき occasionally
3 Nochi のち subsequently / after
4 Shidai ni 次第に しだいに gradually

Weather Forecast

Japan uses Celsius for the measurement of temperature.

2- Phrases and Patterns Used in the Japanese Weather Forecast

  • 今週から梅雨入りとなります。
    Konshū kara tsuyu iri to narimasu.
    The rainy season starts this week.
  • 今日の最低気温は7度で、最高気温は15度です。
    Kyō no saitei kion wa nana-do de, saikō kion wa jū-go-do desu.
    Today’s minimum temperature is 7 degrees and the maximum temperature is 15 degrees.
  • 東京の天気予報は晴れのち曇りです。
    Tokyō no tenki yohō wa hare nochi kumori desu.
    The weather forecast of Tokyo is sunny and subsequently cloudy.
  • 明日は曇り時々雨が降る見込みです。
    Ashita wa kumori tokidoki ame ga furu mikomi desu.
    It is likely to be cloudy with occasional rain tomorrow.
  • 午後から雨が降り、一時雪になる予測です。
    Gogo kara ame ga furi, ichiji yuki ni naru yosoku desu.
    It is going to rain from the afternoon, and it is estimated to snow at one point.
  • 台風6号が近づいています。波浪警報に注意してください。
    Taifū roku-gō ga chikazuite imasu. Harō keihō ni chūi shite kudasai.
    Typhoon No. 6 is approaching, please be aware of high wave warning.

5. The Most Common Ways to Comment on the Weather in Japanese

Weather talk is the best conversation starter. Here are some common ways to talk and comment about the weather according to season.

1- Spring

  • 暖かくなってきましたね。もうすぐ桜が咲きそうです。
    Atatakaku natte kimashita ne. Mō sugu sakura ga sakisō desu.
    It’s becoming warmer. Cherry blossoms seem to bloom soon.
  • 気温が上ってきたので、ピクニックに最適な季節ですね。
    Kion ga agatte kita node, pikunikku ni saiteki na kisetsu desu ne.
    The temperature is getting warmer and it’s the best season for a picnic, isn’t it?

2- Summer

  • 気温が高く日差しが強いので、熱中症に気をつけてください。
    Kion ga takaku hizashi ga tsuyoi node, necchūshō ni ki o tsukete kudasai.
    The temperature is high and the sunlight is strong, so please be careful of heat stroke.
  • すごく蒸し暑いですね。冷たいビールが飲みたいです。
    Sugoku mushiatsui desu ne. Tsumetai bīru ga nomitai desu.
    It’s very humid and hot; I want to drink cold beer.

3- Autumn

  • 暑さが落ち着いて涼しくなりましたね。
    Atsusa ga ochitsuite suzushiku narimashita ne.
    The heat has let up and it’s become cool, hasn’t it?
  • 秋晴れで紅葉がとてもきれいです。
    Akibare de kōyō ga totemo kirei desu.
    The leaves changing color is very beautiful with the fine autumn weather.

4- Winter

  • 外は寒いので暖かくしてください。
    Soto wa samui node atatakaku shite kudasai.
    It’s cold outside, please stay warm.
  • 最近はとても寒く風邪が流行っているので、気をつけてください。
    Saikin wa totemo samuku kaze ga hayatte iru node, ki o tsukete kudasai.
    It’s very cold these days and a cold is going around, so please take care.

6. Conclusion: How JapanesePod101 Can Help You Learn More Japanese

I hope this article about Japanese weather is helpful and makes your communication with Japanese people more enjoyable! Do you feel prepared to start talking about Japanese weather? Let us know!

If you would like to learn more about the Japanese language, you’ll find more useful content on We provide a variety of free lessons for you to improve your Japanese language skills. For example, Top 15 Questions You Should Know for Conversations to practice your Japanese with audio.

If you’re traveling to Japan, the following lessons are also helpful: 8 Tips for a Solo Japan Trip, How to Say Hello in Japanese: Practical Japanese Greetings, and The 5 Best Cities to Visit in Japan & Things to Do.

Know that your hard work will pay off. With enough practice, you’ll be speaking like a native in no time!

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Nyūgakushiki: The School Entrance Ceremony in Japan

The school entrance ceremony in Japan, or Nyūgakushiki in Japanese, is one of the most momentous occasions in a student’s life, and it takes place each year as the cherry blossoms bloom.

In this article, you’ll learn all about this celebratory season and gain some new vocabulary along the way.

Let’s get started!

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1. What is the School Entrance Ceremony?

The Japanese school entrance ceremony name is Nyūgakushiki.

Nyūgakushiki is a time of both encouragement and excitement about the coming year for students in every grade, though the Japanese high school entrance ceremony may be the most exciting for new students.

During a school entrance ceremony, Japanese students celebrate their enrollment in a school, and that enrollment is also authorized. A school entrance ceremony, or 入学式 (にゅうがくしき), can take place for enrollment in schools of any education level. Thus, there is a Japanese elementary school entrance ceremony, one for middle school, another for high school, and even enrollment ceremonies for universities and vocational schools.

2. When are the Entrance Ceremonies?

Mt. Fuji During the Springtime

The school entrance ceremonies typically take place in early April, not long after the graduation ceremonies in late March.

3. A Japanese School Entrance Ceremony

Japanese Parents Standing with Their Children for a School Entrance Ceremony

As mentioned, in Japan, school entrance ceremony season takes place after the graduation ceremonies near the end of March. During a graduation ceremony, graduating students are awarded a school certificate; in universities and graduate schools, students receive a diploma. The graduation ceremonies in Japan are very formal; men wear nice suits, while females who are graduating must wear traditional kimono and hakama.

For the school entrance ceremony, Japanese students going into high school wear their brand-new uniforms and participate in the welcoming ceremony. From elementary school to high school, the homeroom teacher calls each new student, who the principal then offers words of encouragement and support. Afterward, a student chosen as a representative makes a pledge concerning their new school life. For sentimental reasons, someone may also take a photograph of the new class together.

Sometimes, there may be a 来賓挨拶 (らいひんあいさつ), or “speech by a guest of honor,” for the ceremony.

4. Two Important Songs

Do you know what Japanese students sing at each school entrance ceremony?

There are actually two things they can sing. During a ceremony, there is a time for 校歌斉唱 (こうかせいしょう), or “singing of school song.” Students also sing the 国歌 (こっか), or “national anthem.”

5. Essential Japanese Vocabulary for School Entrance Ceremonies

Someone Playing the Piano for the Japanese National Anthem

Are you ready to review some of the vocabulary words from this article? Here’s a list of the most important Japanese words and phrases for the school entrance ceremony season!

  • 春 (はる) — “spring”
  • 式 (しき) — “ceremony”
  • 入学式 (にゅうがくしき) — “school entrance ceremony”
  • 学校行事 (がっこう ぎょうじ) — “school event”
  • 新入生 (しんにゅうせい) — “new student”
  • 国旗 (こっき) — “national flag”
  • 国歌 (こっか) — “national anthem”
  • 在校生 (ざいこうせい) — “current student”
  • 歓迎の言葉 (かんげいのことば) — “words of welcome”
  • 来賓挨拶 (らいひんあいさつ) — “speech by a guest of honor”
  • 校歌斉唱 (こうかせいしょう) — “singing of school song”

To hear the pronunciation of each word and phrase, and to read them alongside relevant images, be sure to check out our Japanese School Entrance Ceremony vocabulary list!

Final Thoughts

We hope you enjoyed learning about Nyūgakushiki with us, and that you took away some valuable cultural information.

Do you have a special school entrance ceremony in your country? If so, how do you celebrate or participate in it? We look forward to hearing from you in the comments!

If you’re fascinated with Japanese culture and can’t get enough, we recommend that you check out the following pages on

That should be enough to quench your thirst for Japanese cultural knowledge for a little while, but for the full learning experience and more fun resources, create your free lifetime account today. has tons of learning resources for learners at every level, so there’s something for everyone.

We look forward to having you!

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Learn the Top 100 Essential Japanese Adjectives


Do you realize how many adjectives you use when you describe or express something, such as feeling, personality, weather conditions, and the size and color of things? Adjectives in Japanese are various and rich in expression, so learning the top 100 Japanese adjectives will greatly improve your conversation skills in Japanese!

It’s not very difficult to learn Japanese adjectives rules, as they work in mostly the same way as they do in English grammar. Before we move onto our list, though, it’s prudent to go over Japanese adjectives rules to give you context.

So first things first: Where do Japanese adjectives go?

For example, a Japanese adjective is placed before a noun: 親切な人 (shinsetsu na hito), meaning “kind person.” Or they can follow the noun + be verb + adjective pattern: 外は寒い (soto wa samui), meaning “outside is cold.”

Most Japanese adjectives end with the sound of either Hiragana い (i) or な (na), unless it’s not in past form. An adjective consists of a stem, such as 親切 (shinsetsu), which never changes, and a suffix, such as な (na), which can change.

Ready to expand your Japanese adjectives vocabulary? You’ll enjoy speaking Japanese a lot more once you know the variety of Japanese adjectives! Here’s our top 100 Japanese adjectives list at!

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Table of Contents

  1. Describing Dimension, Size, Distance & Number
  2. Describing Value
  3. Describing Sense
  4. Japanese Adjectives for Personality & Feelings
  5. Describing Speed, Difficulty, Importance, etc.
  6. Describing Colors
  7. Describing Shapes
  8. Describing Weather
  9. Japanese Adjectives for Food: Describing Taste
  10. Describing Situations
  11. Describing Physical Traits or Physical Conditions
  12. Describing Appearance and Condition
  13. Conclusion: How JapanesePod101 Can Help You Learn More Japanese

1. Describing Dimension, Size, Distance & Number

Common Adjectives

1- Vocabulary


Reading Kanji Hiragana English
1 ōkii 大きい おおきい big
2 chiisai 小さい ちいさい small
3 hiroi 広い ひろい wide
4 semai 狭い せまい narrow
5 takai 高い たかい tall
6 hikui 低い ひくい short; low
7 omoi 重い おもい heavy
8 karui 軽い かるい light
9 chikai 近い ちかい close
10 tōi 遠い とおい far
11 ōi 多い おおい many
12 sukunai 少ない すくない few

Hangers of Different Sizes

2- Example Sentences

  • 部屋に大きいベッドと小さい椅子があります。
    Heya ni ōkii beddo to chiisai isu ga arimasu.
    There is a big bed and a small chair in the room.
  • このカバンは重いです。
    Kono kaban wa omoi desu.
    This bag is heavy.
  • 駅はここから遠いです。
    Eki wa koko kara tōi desu.
    The station is far from here.
  • あそこに高いビルがあります。
    Asoko ni takai biru ga arimasu.
    There is a tall building there.

2. Describing Value

1- Vocabulary


Reading Kanji Hiragana English
13 yoi 良い よい good
14 warui 悪い わるい bad
15 subarashii 素晴らしい すばらしい great
16 hidoi ひどい ひどい awful; terrible
17 utsukushii 美しい うつくしい beautiful
18 minikui 醜い みにくい ugly
19 kōka na 高価な こうかな expensive
20 yasui 安い やすい cheap

2- Example Sentences

  • 私はテストで良い結果を出した。
    Watashi wa tesuto de yoi kekka wo dashita.
    I got a good result on the test.
  • そこから素晴らしい眺めが見えます。
    Soko kara subarashii nagame ga miemasu.
    You can see a great view from there.
  • あの女性はとても美しいです。
    Ano josei wa totemo utsukushii desu.
    That lady is very beautiful.
  • この安いカメラはすぐに壊れました。
    Kono yasui kamera wa sugu ni kowaremashita.
    This cheap camera broke instantly.

3. Describing Sense

1- Vocabulary


Reading Kanji Hiragana English
21 yawarakai 柔らかい やわらかい soft
22 katai 硬い・固い かたい hard
23 tsuyoi 強い つよい strong
24 yowai 弱い よわい weak
25 nameraka na 滑らかな なめらかな smooth
26 arai 荒い あらい rough
27 fukuzatsu na 複雑な ふくざつな complicated

2- Example Sentences

  • この西陣織は柔らかい素材です。
    Kono Nishijin-ori wa yawarakai sozai desu.
    This Nishijin-ori is soft material.
  • 彼女は強い男性が好きです。
    Kanojo wa tsuyoi dansei ga suki desu.
    She likes strong men.
  • ダイヤモンドは硬い石です。
    Daiyamondo wa katai ishi desu.
    Diamond is a hard stone.
  • その問題は複雑です。
    Sono mondai wa fukuzatsu desu.
    The problem is complicated.

4. Japanese Adjectives for Personality & Feelings

Improve Pronunciation

Looking for Japanese adjectives to describe a person? Here are the best Japanese adjectives to describe someone’s personality or feelings.

1- Vocabulary


Reading Kanji Hiragana English
28 omoshiroi 面白い おもしろい funny; interesting
29 shitashimiyasui 親しみやすい したしみやすい friendly
30 otonashii 大人しい おとなしい quiet
31 ganko na 頑固な がんこな stubborn
32 yasashii 優しい やさしい amiable; thoughtful
33 ureshii 嬉しい うれしい happy
34 kanashii 悲しい かなしい sad
35 shakōteki na 社交的な しゃこうてきな sociable
36 kodoku na 孤独な こどくな lonely
37 okotta 怒った おこった angry

Also visit “Which Adjective Describes Your Personality Best?” to check Japanese pronunciation, and see some more related vocabulary.

Man and Woman Having Coffee Together

2- Example Sentences

  • 彼女は頑固な人です。
    Kanojo wa ganko na hito desu.
    She is a stubborn person.
  • 私は面白い人が大好きです。
    Watashi wa omoshiroi hito ga daisuki desu.
    I really like a funny person.
  • 試験に合格したので嬉しいです。
    Shiken ni gōkaku shita node ureshii desu.
    I am happy because I passed the exam.
  • 彼は社交的な学生です。
    Kare wa shakōteki na gakusei desu.
    He is a sociable student.

To learn more about Personalities and Feelings, please read this article.

5. Describing Speed, Difficulty, Importance, etc.

1- Vocabulary


Reading Kanji Hiragana English
38 hayai 速い はやい fast
39 osoi 遅い おそい slow
40 kantan na 簡単な かんたんな easy
41 muzukashii 難しい むずかしい difficult
42 jyūyō na 重要な じゅうような important
43 atarashii 新しい あたらしい new
44 furui 古い ふるい old
45 majime na 真面目な まじめな serious

Man Running Quickly

2- Example Sentences

  • インターネットが遅いのでビデオ電話ができません。
    Intānetto ga osoi node bideo-denwa ga dekimasen.
    I can’t make a video-call because the internet is slow.
  • これは簡単な問題です。
    Kore wa kantan na mondai desu.
    This is an easy problem.
  • 私は新しい携帯電話が欲しいです。
    Watashi wa atarashii keitai denwa ga hoshii desu.
    I want a new mobile phone.
  • 彼は真面目な会議で笑い出しました。
    Kare wa majime na kaigi de waraidashimashita.
    He started laughing at a serious meeting.

6. Describing Colors

1- Vocabulary

“Color” is iro in Japanese.


Reading Kanji Hiragana English
46 akai 赤い あかい red
47 aoi 青い あおい blue
48 midori no 緑の みどりの green
49 kiiroi 黄色い きいろい yellow
50 kuroi 黒い くろい black
51 shiroi 白い しろい white
52 kurai 暗い くらい dark
53 akarui 明るい あかるい light; bright
54 azayaka na 鮮やかな あざやかな vivid
55 bon’yari shita ぼんやりした dull

Cluster of Colorful Legos

2- Example Sentences

  • りんごは赤い種類と緑の種類があります。
    Ringo wa akai shurui to midori no shurui ga arimasu.
    Apples have a red kind and a green kind.
  • 白いライオンを見たことがありますか。
    Shiroi raion o mita koto ga arimasu ka.
    Have you seen white lions?
  • 私は暗い色の服が好きです。
    Watashi wa kurai iro no fuku ga suki desu.
    I like clothes with dark colors.
  • その浴衣は鮮やかな色が特徴です。
    Sono yukata wa azayaka na iro ga tokuchō desu.
    That Yukata is characterized by vivid colors.

7. Describing Shapes

1- Vocabulary

“Shape” is katachi in Japanese.


Reading Kanji Hiragana English
56 marui 丸い・円い まるい round
57 shikakui 四角い しかくい square
58 sankaku no 三角の さんかくの triangular
59 chōhōkei no 長方形の ちょうほうけいの rectangular
60 kyūtai no 球体の きゅうたいの spherical
61 rippōtai no 立方体の りっぽうたいの cubic

Cards with Colored Shapes on Them

2- Example Sentences

  • その丸い鏡を見てください。
    Sono marui kagami o mite kudasai.
    Please look at the round mirror.
  • ゴミはあの四角い箱に入れてください。
    Gomi wa ano shikakui hako ni irete kudasai.
    Please put trash in that square garbage bin.
  • 地球は球体の形をしています。
    Chikyū wa kyūtai no katachi o shite imasu.
    The earth has a spherical shape.
  • この建築は立方体の形が有名です。
    Kono kenchiku wa rippōtai no katachi ga yūmei desu.
    This architecture is famous for its cubic shape.

8. Describing Weather


1- Vocabulary


Reading Kanji Hiragana English
62 atsui 暑い あつい hot
63 samui 寒い さむい cold
64 mushimushi shita 蒸し蒸しした むしむしした humid
65 atatakai 暖かい あたたかい warm
66 hadazamui 肌寒い はだざむい chilly

Also, check out our lesson Learn the Top 15 Weather Conditions to learn how to express even more weather conditions in Japanese.

2- Example Sentences

  • 今日は寒いので手袋を持って行ってください。
    Kyō wa samui node tebukuro o motte itte kudasai.
    Please take gloves with you because today is cold.
  • 夏は30度を超える暑い日が続きます。
    Natsu wa 30-do o koeru atsui hi ga tsuzukimasu.
    Hot days with over 30 degrees continue in summer.
  • 春は暖かい気候で花見ができます。
    Haru wa atatakai kikō de hanami ga dekimasu.
    Spring has a warm climate, and flowers bloom.
  • 昨日は肌寒い日でした。
    Kinō wa hadazamui hi deshita.
    Yesterday was chilly.

To learn more about weather, please visit our article all about Japanese Weather.

9. Japanese Adjectives for Food: Describing Taste

Here are the most common and important Japanese adjectives for describing food and taste!

1- Vocabulary



Reading Kanji Hiragana English
67 amai 甘い あまい sweet
68 shiokarai 塩辛い しおからい salty
69 suppai 酸っぱい すっぱい sour
70 nigai 苦い にがい bitter
71 karai 辛い からい spicy; hot
72 oishii 美味しい おいしい delicious; tasty
73 mazui 不味い まずい tastes bad

Variety of Donuts

2- Example Sentences

  • 私は甘いものが大好きです。
    Watashi wa amai mono ga daisuki desu.
    I like sweets very much.
  • この梅干しは塩辛いので食べられません。
    Kono umeboshi wa shiokarai node taberaremasen.
    I can’t eat this Umeboshi because it’s salty.
  • 彼は苦いコーヒーが好きです。
    Kare wa nigai kōhī ga suki desu.
    He likes bitter coffee.
  • 明日は記念日なので美味しいものを食べたい。
    Ashita wa kinenbi na node oishii mono o tabetai.
    I want to eat something delicious because tomorrow is an anniversary.

10. Describing Situations

1- Vocabulary


Reading Kanji Hiragana English
74 tanoshii 楽しい たのしい fun
75 tsumaranai つまらない boring
76 anzen na 安全な あんぜんな safe; secure
77 kiken na 危険な きけんな dangerous
78 kinkyū no 緊急の きんきゅうの urgent
79 ochitsuita 落ち着いた おちついた calm
80 tadashii 正しい ただしい correct; right
81 ayamatta 誤った あやまった wrong

People Partying at Night Club

2- Example Sentences

  • これは安全な調理器具です。
    Kore wa anzen na chōri kigu desu.
    This is safe cooking equipment.
  • 私はつまらない映画で寝落ちしました。
    Watashi wa tsumaranai eiga de neochi shimashita.
    I fell asleep during the boring movie.
  • 彼は危険な橋を渡りました。
    Kare wa kiken na hashi o watarimashita.
    He crossed a dangerous bridge.
  • いつも正しい行いをしなさい。
    Itsumo tadashii okonai o shinasai.
    Always do the right things.

11. Describing Physical Traits or Physical Conditions

1- Vocabulary



Reading Kanji Hiragana English
82 wakai 若い わかい young
83 toshioita 年老いた としおいた old
84 genki na 元気な げんきな lively
85 byōki no 病気の びょうきの sick
86 kirei na 綺麗な きれいな clean; beautiful
87 kitanai 汚い きたない dirty
88 suteki na 素敵な すてきな nice
89 hen na 変な へんな strange; odd
90 seijō na 正常な せいじょうな normal
91 ijō na 異常な いじょうな abnormal

Grandfather Walking with Grandchildren

2- Example Sentences

  • 「若い時の苦労は買ってでもせよ」ということわざがある。
    Wakai toki no kurō wa katte demo seyo” to iu kotowaza ga aru.
    There is a proverb saying “Heavy work in youth is quiet in old age.”
  • 彼女の部屋はいつも綺麗です。
    Kanojo no heya wa itsumo kirei desu.
    Her room is always clean.
  • あの女性は素敵な靴を履いています。
    Ano josei wa suteki na kutsu o haite imasu.
    That lady wears nice shoes.
  • 異常な症状が出たらすぐに電話してください。
    Ijō na shōjō ga detara sugu ni denwa shite kudasai.
    If abnormal symptoms appear, please call me immediately.

12. Describing Appearance and Condition

1- Vocabulary


Reading Kanji Hiragana English
92 kawaii 可愛い かわいい pretty; cute
93 kichin to shita きちんとした neat
94 miryokuteki na 魅力的な みりょくてきな attractive
95 miryoku no nai 魅力のない みりょくのない unattractive
96 futotta 太った ふとった fat
97 yaseta 痩せた やせた lean; thin
98 okanemochi na お金持ちな おかねもちな rich
99 mazushii 貧しい まずしい poor
100 heikinteki na 平均的な へいきんてきな average

2- Example Sentences

  • 彼女はいつもきちんとした服を着ています。
    Kanojo wa itsumo kichin to shita fuku o kite imasu.
    She always wears neat clothes.
  • 私は平均的な家出身です。
    Watashi wa heikinteki na ie shusshin desu.
    I am from an average family.
  • 貧しい子供達のために募金をしてください。
    Mazushii kodomo-tachi no tame ni bokin o shite kudasai.
    Please donate for poor children.

13. Conclusion: How JapanesePod101 Can Help You Learn More Japanese

In this Japanese adjectives lesson, we introduced the top 100 Japanese adjectives with examples. We hope this article is helpful for you, and has given you more footing to improve your Japanese vocabulary! Do you feel prepared to describe your personality and feelings?

If you would like to learn more about the Japanese language, you’ll find a lot more useful content on We provide a variety of free lessons for you to improve your Japanese language skills. For more Japanese adjectives practice, Most Common Adjectives and Words and Phrases to Help You Describe Your Feelings are useful to help you learn pronunciation with audio. Further, Top 15 Questions You Should Know for Conversations and Top 10 Conversational Phrases are essential for your conversation practice.

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Celebrating Hinamatsuri: The Japanese Doll Festival

Hinamatsuri (Japanese Doll Festival) is a special Japanese holiday dedicated to praying for the well-being of little girls. This holiday is unique to the Japanese culture, and is steeped in both traditional and modern cultural values and beliefs.

In this article, you’ll learn many interesting Japanese Doll Festival facts, from the holiday’s origins to how it’s celebrated today. Are you ready? Let’s get started!

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1. What is the Japanese Traditional Doll Festival?

The Japanese Doll Festival (Hinamatsuri), unique to Japan, is a festival that prays for the healthy growth of little girls.

The history of Hinamatsuri goes back a long way. It’s said that the hihina (or hiina) play, which involved making little dolls out of paper or earth and dressing them in clothes, and which went on over a thousand years ago, was the prototype of the modern-day Hinamatsuri.

Gradually, this evolved into a custom called Nagashibina, which was to pray for sound health. During Nagashibina, these dolls were used as substitutes for real people, had people’s bad luck transferred to them, and were sent floating down the river.

After this, with the passing of time, it became typical for the dolls to be displayed and admired indoors, as they are today, as mamori-hina. The mamori-hina watch over the happiness and growth of the daughter of the house.

A girl’s first Doll Festival is referred to as 初節句 (hatsuzekku). For this celebration, the maternal grandparents often give a set of dolls. With this gift, they place a wish that the doll will be used as a scapegoat so that their cute granddaughter will not suffer from disaster.

2. Japanese Doll Festival Date

Peach Blossoms

Each year, the Doll’s Festival takes place on March 3. If you match it to the old Japanese calendar, Hinamatsuri takes place when the peach trees are blooming.

3. Japanese Doll Festival Activities and Displays

People display a set of graceful dolls in ancient court costumes on a tier of five to seven shelves, which is called 雛人形 (Hina Ningyō). The dolls are arranged as follows:

  • Emperor and Empress Dolls: Called 内裏雛 (だいりびな), these are displayed on the top shelf. Generally, the emperor doll is placed on the left side and the empress doll on the right. This custom also influences weddings—the groom sits on the left, and the bride on the right. Gold folding screens are arranged behind the emperor and empress dolls on a red felt carpet.
  • Three Court Ladies: Called 三人官女 (さんにんかんじょ), these are displayed on the second tier from the top. The court ladies care for the emperor and empress.
  • Five Court Musicians: Called 五人囃子 (ごにんばやし), these are displayed on the third tier from the top. The musicians are often depicted playing different musical instruments for the amusement of the emperor and empress.

People usually display the dolls a few weeks in advance of March 3. Some dolls are exquisite and have seven or eight layers of decoration. The value of such dolls can be more than 500,000 yen (or over $4,500). There are also popular compact types that can be decorated easily and stored in apartments and rental housing.

On the Doll Festival, these dolls are offered 菱餅 (hishimochi), or “diamond-shaped rice cakes,” and ひなあられ (hina-arare), or “sweet rice crackers.” A celebration is then held in front of the dolls, during which people consume lots of Japanese Doll Festival food and drinks. These include 白酒 (しろざけ), or “white sake,” and a meal of chirashizushi and clam soup.

It is said that it’s best to put away the dolls as soon as the festival is over. This is because of the saying “late to clear away then late to marry.” Some believe that “a daughter who cannot clean will not become a good bride.”

4. Momo no Sekku

Do you know which flower is used for Doll’s Festival decorations, and why?

The correct answer is a “peach blossom.” Peach blossoms bloom from the end of March to the beginning of April of the lunar calendar, just around the time of the Doll’s Festival. For this reason, the festival is also known as 桃の節句 (Momo no Sekku) or “Peach Seasonal Festival.”

In the past, peaches were believed to have the power to purge evil spirits. Therefore, peach blossoms are used as decorations for the Doll’s Festival to obtain the protection of peaches and help girls grow up healthy. 

5. Must-Know Vocab for the Japanese Doll’s Festival

Japanese Emperor and Empress Dolls

Ready to review some of the vocabulary words from this article? Here’s a list of the essential vocabulary words you’ll need to talk about the Doll Festival in Japanese!

  • ひな祭り (ひなまつり) — “Doll Festival”
  • 白酒 (しろざけ) — “white sake”
  • 三人官女 (さんにんかんじょ) — “three court ladies”
  • 桃の花 (もものはな) — “peach blossom”
  • ぼんぼり (ぼんぼり) — “paper lamp”
  • 右大臣 (うだいじん) — “minister of the right”
  • 左大臣 (さだいじん) — “minister of the left”
  • お雛様 (おひなさま) — “hina doll”
  • 雛あられ (ひなあられ) — “hina arare
  • 金屏風 (きんびょうぶ) — “gold screen”
  • 五人囃子 (ごにんばやし) — “five court musicians”
  • 女雛 (めびな) — “empress doll”
  • 男雛 (おびな) — “emperor doll”
  • 内裏雛 (だいりびな) — “emperor and empress dolls”
  • 菱餅 (ひしもち) — “diamond-shaped rice cake”
  • 蛤のお吸い物 (はまぐりのおすいもの) — “clear broth soup with clams”
  • ちらし寿司 (ちらしずし) — “chirashi-zushi”

To hear the pronunciation of each word, and to read them alongside relevant images, visit our Japanese Doll’s Festival vocabulary list!

Final Thoughts

We hope you enjoyed learning about the Japanese Doll Festival with us! Are there any similar holidays in your country, or is this holiday very new to you? Let us know in the comments!

If you’re interested in learning more about the unique Japanese culture and holidays, you can visit the following pages on

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