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Japanese Animal Names

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Like many other countries, Japan is blessed with beautiful nature and all kinds of animals. 

When you start learning the Japanese language, picking up the most common Japanese animal names will be an inevitable part of the process! Animals play a central role in our lives, so learning what to call them is important. Doing so will not only allow you to talk about your pets or favorite animals with native speakers, but also help you understand Japanese idioms and stories related to them. 

The good news is that learning Japanese animal names is actually very easy! Do you know why? It’s because animal names in Japanese are often short and simple, and we also use plenty of loanwords from other languages (usually English) to label foreign animals.

While the Kanji for many Japanese animal names is difficult, don’t let this worry you. Even ordinary Japanese people don’t know how to write or read them, so the much simpler Hiragana and Katakana are more commonly used. 

In this article from JapanesePod101.com, you’ll learn popular animal names in Japanese, from pets and farm animals to sea animals and insects. We’ll also introduce animal sounds in Japanese and animal-related Japanese proverbs.

Ready to boost your vocabulary and cultural knowledge? Let’s go!

Several Common Housepets
Log in to Download Your Free Cheat Sheet - Beginner Vocabulary in Japanese Table of Contents
  1. Pets
  2. Farm Animals
  3. Wild Animals
  4. Sea Animals
  5. Bugs and Insects
  6. Birds
  7. Reptiles
  8. Animal Body Parts
  9. Animal Sounds
  10. Animal-Related Proverbs
  11. Conclusion

1. Pets

The Japanese word for “animal” is 動物 (dōbutsu). Literally, this breaks down to 動 (“moving”) + 物 (“thing”). 

Japanese does not distinguish between singular and plural nouns, so the word 動物 (dōbutsu) and all of the animals listed in this article can refer to one animal or many.

To talk about baby animals in Japanese, we add the word for “child” to the beginning of the animal name in question: 子 こ (ko).

  • うさぎ (usagi) – “rabbit” → うさぎ (kousagi) – “baby bunny”

The most common Japanese counter word for animals is 匹 ひき (hiki), which we place after the number. Or, if we’re counting larger animals, we can use the word 頭 とう (), meaning “head.” 

For example:

  • 私は犬を2飼っています。
    Watashi wa inu o ni-hiki katte imasu.
    “I have two dogs.”

To learn more about numbers in Japanese, please check out our article Japanese Numbers: Let’s Master the Basic Japanese Numbers!

Following is a list of popular pet animals in Japan.

EnglishKanjiHiragana / KatakanaReading
“dog”いぬinu
“puppy”子犬こいぬkoinu
“cat”ねこneko
“kitten”子猫こねこkoneko
“rabbit”うさぎusagi
“hamster”ハムスターhamusutā
“mouse” / “rat”ねずみnezumi
“budgerigar”インコinko
“parrot”オウムōmu
“goldfish”金魚きんぎょkingyo
“hedgehog”ハリネズミharinezumi * literally “needle mouse” in Japanese.

* The Kanji for “rabbit” (兎) and “mouse” (鼠) are difficult and uncommon. We normally use Hiragana or Katakana for these words.

Several Dogs and Cats, as Well as a Bunny, Bird, and Mouse

Like many other countries, dogs and cats are popular pets in Japan.

2. Farm Animals

Popular farm animals in Japan include cows, pigs, sheep, chickens, and horses. Ducks and swans are commonly seen in the countryside. 

In addition to the counter words 匹 ひき (hiki) and 頭 とう(), meaning “head,” there’s also a counter used for birds: 羽 わ (wa), meaning “feather.”

For example:

  • この農場には馬が4います。
    Kono nōjō ni wa uma ga yon- imasu.
    “There are four horses on this farm.”
  • この湖には白鳥が10います。
    Kono mizūmi ni wa hakuchō ga jū-wa imasu.
    “There are ten swans in this lake.”

Here’s a list of animals in Japanese you’re likely to find on a farm or in the countryside: 

EnglishKanjiHiragana / KatakanaReading
“cow”牛  うしushi
“calf”子牛こうしkoushi
“pig”ぶたbuta
“piglet”子豚こぶたkobuta
“horse”うまuma
“foal”子馬こうまkouma

“sheep”
ひつじhitsuji
“baby sheep”子羊こひつじkohitsuji
“goat”山羊やぎyagi
“donkey”ロバroba
“chicken”にわとりniwatori*literally “garden bird” in Japanese.
“chick”ひよこhiyoko
“duck”かもkamo

“goose”
ガチョウgachō
“swan”白鳥はくちょうhakuchō* literally: “white bird” in Japanese

You can also hear the pronunciation of these words on our Animal Names vocabulary list.

Two Sheep Standing in a Field

Sheep farms are famous in Hokkaido.

3. Wild Animals

Now that we’ve looked at a few domesticated creatures, it’s time to learn the names of different wild animals in Japanese. Below, you’ll also find some interesting facts about indigenous animals in Japan and how mythology influenced our naming of the giraffe! 

A- In the Forest

Did you know that Japan is actually a country of forests, despite the image foreigners often have of a sushi-eating island country surrounded by the sea? Around 73% of the land in Japan is mountainous, 66% of which is forested.

This means there are a lot of forest animals! Some of you might have seen pictures of Japanese monkeys enjoying natural hot springs (温泉 Onsen) in the snowy weather, for example. 

Forest animals often appear in Japanese folktales, idioms, and proverbs. Monkeys are considered clever and are thought to be the closest animal to humans. Raccoon dogs and foxes are often seen as animals that have mysterious powers and the ability to play tricks on humans.

Since many of the following forest animals are indigenous to Japan, they have original names in Japanese (including their own Kanji). 

EnglishKanjiHiragana / KatakanaReading
“deer”鹿しかshika
“bear”くまkuma
“monkey”さるsaru
“wild boar”いのししinoshishi
“raccoon dog”たぬきtanuki
“fox”きつねkitsune
“squirrel”栗鼠 *りすrisu
“wolf”おおかみōkami

* The Kanji for “squirrel” (栗鼠) is difficult and uncommon. We normally use Hiragana or Katakana instead.

Japanese Monkeys in Onsen Hot Springs

Japanese monkeys love Onsen hot springs.

B- Safari Animals (and Others)

There is no Kanji for animals that originate from places that are very far away from Japan, such as safari animals or those from Oceania. They’re typically expressed in Katakana as loanwords or named in Japanese after their characteristics.

Some animals—such as elephants, tigers, and leopards—have Kanji because they’re indigenous to Asian countries (China, India, etc.), and they became known to Japan through trading. Such Kanji were directly imported from the Chinese language, but the names (phonetic readings) are original to Japanese.

EnglishKanjiHiragana / KatakanaReading
“elephant”ゾウ
“giraffe”キリンkirin
“lion”ライオンraion
“tiger”トラtora
“panda bear”パンダpanda
“zebra”シマウマshimauma*literally “striped horse” in Japanese.
“hippopotamus”カバkaba
“rhinoceros”サイsai
“ostrich”ダチョウdachō*It means “camel bird” in Japanese.
“baboon”ヒヒhihi
“hyena”ハイエナhaiena
“cheetah”チーターchītā
“leopard”ヒョウhyō
“koala bear”コアラkoara
“kangaroo”カンガルーkangarū
“camel”ラクダrakuda

A Giraffe and Its Baby

The キリン (kirin), or “giraffe,” was named after the Chinese dragon-like mythical animal called 麒麟 (qílín). 

4. Sea Animals

A recent study revealed that there are about 34,000 species of sea animals living in the oceans near Japan, including everything from plankton to mammals. This means that about 13.5% of all confirmed marine life abound in less than 1% of the world’s ocean. 

As a country blessed with lots of ocean, Japan has an abundance of words related to fish, called 魚 さかな (sakan), and sea animals. However, most of their Kanji are difficult, so Hiragana and Katakana are more commonly used to express their names.

Again, loanwords are used for sea animals that are not indigenous to Japan, such as ペンギン (pengin), or “penguin.”

EnglishKanjiHiragana / KatakanaReading
“whale”くじらkujira
“dolphin”海豚イルカiruka
“shark”サメsame
“seal”海豹アザラシazarashi
“sealion”海馬トドtodo
“penguin”ペンギンpengin
“sea turtle”海亀うみがめumigame
*literally “sea turtle” in Japanese
“jellyfish”海月くらげkurage
“pufferfish”河豚ふぐfugu
“octopus”たこtako
“squid”烏賊いかika
“crab”かにkani
“shrimp” / “prawn”海老えびebi
“shell”かいkai
“starfish”人手ヒトデhitode
* literally “human hand” in Japanese

You can also hear the pronunciation of these words (and more) in our vocabulary list Marine Animals & Fish.

All Kinds of Aquatic Life in the Ocean

鮫 サメ (same) – “shark”

5. Bugs and Insects

As with sea animals, there is a lot of vocabulary related to bugs and insects in Japan. Most of their Kanji are very difficult, so Hiragana and Katakana are more commonly used to express their names. 

Considering the abundance of mountains and forests in Japan, it’s said that there could be as many as 100,000 insect species in the country. It’s possible that only about 10,000 of these species have been published in books.

Below are the names of some well-known bugs and insects that are commonly seen in Japan.

EnglishKanjiHiragana / KatakanaReading
“bugs” / “insects”むしmushi
“bee”ハチhachi
“fly”ハエhae
“mosquito”ka
“butterfly”チョウchō
“moth”ga
“cicada”セミsemi
“dragonfly”蜻蛉トンボtonbo
“ant”アリari
“spider”蜘蛛クモkumo
“ladybug”天道虫てんとうむしtentōmushi
“beetle”甲虫かぶとむしkabutomushi
“grasshopper”飛蝗バッタbatta
“mantis”蟷螂カマキリ kamakiri

ladybugs

てんとう虫 (tentōmushi) – “ladybug”

6. Birds 

Thanks to the wealth of nature in Japan, the country is home to a diverse range of birds. There are 658 species of birds here, 22 of which are foreign.

Despite the rich variety of birds in Japan, the ones we see most often are pigeons, crows, sparrows, and swallows. In Japan, swallows are said to be “summer birds.” This is because seeing them is a sign that summer is coming, as swallows spend winter in the warmer southern areas (such as Taiwan, the Philippines, and Malaysia) before flying back to Japan in spring to raise their chicks.

There are also Japanese superstitions related to birds. For example, it’s believed that sparrows bring good luck and that crows bring bad luck. 

EnglishKanjiHiragana / KatakanaReading
“bird”とりtori

“small (baby) bird”
小鳥ことりkotori
“pigeon”はとhato
“crow”からすkarasu
“sparrow”すずめsuzume
“swallow”つばめtsubame
“seagull”かもめkamome
“eagle”わしwashi
“crane”つるtsuru
“owl”ふくろうfukurō

Owl

The フクロウ (fukurō), or “owl,” is considered an animal of good omen.

7. Reptiles

In Japanese, reptiles are called 爬虫類 はちゅうるい (hachūrui). 

There are 142 reptile species in Japan (19 species of newt, 39 species of frog, 10 species of turtle, 32 species of lizard, and 42 species of snake). Some reptiles, such as turtles and snakes, are popular as pets in Japan. 

Reptiles are normally expressed in Katakana, even though most of them have Kanji. 

EnglishKanjiHiragana / KatakanaReading
“turtle”カメkame
“crocodile” / “alligator”ワニwani
“snake”ヘビhebi
“frog”カエルkaeru
“lizard”蜥蜴トカゲtokage
“chameleon”カメレオンkamereon

A Crocodile

ワニ (wani) – “crocodile” / “alligator”

8. Animal Body Parts  

Now that you’ve learned the names of several different animals in Japanese, you should take some time to study the words for animal body parts. Keep in mind that many of the basic body parts listed below are the same for humans and animals. You can learn even more useful words, along with their pronunciation, on our vocabulary list Body Parts in Japanese

EnglishKanjiHiragana / KatakanaReading
“horn”つのtsuno
“beak”口ばしくちばしkuchibashi
“wing” (birds)つばさtsubasa
“wing” (insects) / “feather”はねhane
“tusk”きばkiba
“mane”立て髪たてがみtategami
“fur”毛皮けがわkegawa
“claw”鉤爪かぎつめkagitsume
“tail”尾 / 尻尾お / しっぽo / shippo
“hoof”ひづめhizume
“fin”ひれhire
“gill”えらera
“scale”うろこuroko

A Ram

角 つの (tsuno) – “horn”

9. Animal Sounds

The Japanese language has a wide range of onomatopoeia, and animal sounds are one of the most common 擬声語 (gisei-go), or “animate phonomimes” we use. 

Here are the sounds animals make in Japanese:

AnimalKatakanaReading
dogワンワンwanwan
catニャーニャーnyānyā
mouseチューチューchūchū
pigブーブーbūbū
sheepメーメーmēmē
cowモーモーmōmō
horseヒヒーンhihīn
small birdチュンチュンchunchun
crowカーカーkākā
chickenコケコッコーkokekokkō
pigeonポッポーpoppō
owlホーホーhōhō
lionガオーgaō
elephantパオーンpaōn
cicadaミーンミーンmīnmīn

A Growling Lion

Lions say ガオー (Gaō) in Japanese.

10. Animal-Related Proverbs

There are many Japanese proverbs and sayings that mention animals. Here are some of the most common ones: 

  •  猿も木から落ちる  
    Saru mo ki kara ochiru.
    “Even monkeys fall off trees.”

    Meaning: Even Homer sometimes nods. / Even someone who is the best at what they do can make mistakes.

    Example:

    気にすることないよ。猿も木から落ちると言うし、誰でも失敗することがあるよ。
    Ki ni suru koto nai yo. Saru mo ki kara ochiru to iu shi, dare de mo shippai suru koto ga aru yo.
    “Don’t worry. It says ‘Even monkeys fall off trees,’ and anyone can make mistakes.”

  • 飼い犬に手を噛まれる
    Kaiinu ni te o kamareru
    “To have one’s hand bitten by one’s own dog”

    Meaning: To be betrayed by one’s trusted follower

    Example: 

    ずっと面倒をみていた部下に裏切られて、飼い犬に手を噛まれた気分だ!
    Zutto mendō o mite ita buka ni uragirarete, kaiinu ni te o kamareta kibun da!
    “I feel like I got my hand bitten by my dog, as my subordinate, whom I have been taking care of, betrayed me!”

  • 猫の手も借りたい  
    Neko no te mo karitai
    “Wanting even the help of a cat”

    Meaning: Being extremely busy, so that you need every little bit of help you can get

    Example:

    昨日は猫の手も借りたいほど、とても忙しかったです。
    Kinō wa neko no te mo karitai hodo, totemo isogashikatta desu.
    “Yesterday was so busy that I even wanted to get help from a cat.”

  • 捕らぬ狸の皮算用  
    Toranu tanuki no kawazanyō
    “Counting fur of raccoon dogs which you haven’t caught yet”

    Meaning: Don’t count your chickens before they hatch. / Do not count on something that has not yet happened. / Do not expect all your hopes to come true.

    Example:

    昇給とボーナスを期待して家を買うのは、捕らぬ狸の皮算用だよ。
    Shōkyū to bōnasu o kitai shite ie o kau no wa, toranu tanuki no kawazanyō da yo.
    “Buying a house because you expect a pay-raise and a bonus is like counting the fur of raccoon dogs which you haven’t caught yet.”

To learn more Japanese proverbs, please visit our blog post Japanese Proverbs – Gain Japanese Wisdom and Insight.

A Cute Raccoon

捕らぬ狸の皮算用
Toranu tanuki no kawazanyō 
“counting fur of raccoon dogs which you haven’t caught yet” = “Don’t count your chickens before they hatch.”

11. Conclusion

In this article, we introduced Japanese animal words for a number of categories: 

  • Pets
  • Farm animals
  • Wild animals
  • Sea animals
  • Birds
  • Insects
  • Reptiles

In addition, we covered the most important animal body parts, Japanese animal sounds, and proverbs related to animals. If you happen to know of any other animal words, sounds, or idioms we didn’t include, please share them in the comments! 

Do you want to continue learning about the Japanese language and culture? Then create your free lifetime account on JapanesePod101.com today! We provide a variety of free lessons designed to help improve your Japanese language skills. Also, with our Premium PLUS service, MyTeacher, you’ll have personal 1-on-1 coaching with your own private teacher.

If you want to increase your Japanese vocabulary even further, you’ll find the following articles quite useful:  

And there’s so much more! Learn Japanese faster (and enjoy every second of it) at JapanesePod101.com!

Before you go, let us know in the comments if there are any topics or situations you’d like to learn Japanese words for! We’d be glad to help, and we look forward to hearing from you.

Log in to Download Your Free Cheat Sheet - Beginner Vocabulary in Japanese

The 10 Most Useful Japanese Questions and Answers

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Have you ever tried to use a newly learned Japanese phrase, only to panic when you couldn’t understand your interlocutor’s reply? 

Whether you’re making new Japanese friends or traveling in Japan, knowing how to give questions and answers in Japanese will allow for smoother communication. Learning how to ask Japanese questions will also help you better understand Japanese, and improve your speaking and listening skills. The keys to mastering these skills early on are to speak a lot and practice!  

In this article, we’ll introduce the ten most useful Japanese question & answer patterns. Even if you’re just getting started, you can start having basic conversations with these phrases! Learn how to speak Japanese here at JapanesePod101.com!

First things first, though: How do you form questions in Japanese?

Japanese questions are easy to recognize because the question particle か (ka) always appears at the end (formal / polite form), and questions are asked with a rising tone.

Log in to Download Your Free Cheat Sheet - Beginner Vocabulary in Japanese Table of Contents
  1. What’s your name?
  2. Where are you from?
  3. Do you speak Japanese?
  4. How long have you been studying Japanese?
  5. Have you been to [location]?
  6. How is ___?
  7. Do you like [country’s] food?
  8. What are you doing?
  9. What’s wrong?
  10. How much is this?
  11. How JapanesePod101 Can Help You Learn More Japanese

1. What’s your name?

Introducing Yourself

Question:

  • Japanese: (あなたの)名前は何ですか。
  • Reading: (Anata no) namae wa nan desu ka.  
  • English: “What is (your) name?”

This is one of the most common phrases that’s used when meeting someone new. The Japanese possessive case あなたの (anata no), meaning “your,” can be omitted when the context makes it clear whose name you’re talking about. Especially in casual conversations, the subject and possessive case (noun + possessive particle の) are often omitted; this sounds more natural.

Answer:

(1) Polite

  • Japanese: 私の名前は___です。
  • Reading: Watashi no namae wa ___ desu. 
  • English: “My name is ___.”

This is the most common way to give someone your name. 

(2) Casually Polite

  • Japanese: (私は)___です。
  • Reading: (Watashi wa) ___ desu. 
  • English: “(I) am ___.”

This is another common phrase for giving someone your name. In a casual conversation, you can omit the subject 私は (Watashi wa), meaning “I.”

(3) Very Polite

  • Japanese: ___と申します。
  • Reading: ___ to mōshimasu. 
  • English: “I am ___.” (honorific language – humble expression) 

Japanese uses honorific language, called 敬語 (Keigo), which has various expressions that connote different levels of politeness and respect. 

This phrase is a humble expression that’s used in official occasions where you should speak very politely, or when you’re talking to someone who is very honorable.

Example:

Q: 名前は何ですか。  
Namae wa nan desu ka.
“What is your name?”

A: 私の名前はかおりです。
Watashi no namae wa Kaori desu.
“My name is Kaori.”

Japanese Colleagues Shaking Hands

Q: あなたの名前は何ですか。(What is your name?) 

A: はじめまして、私はゆりです。(Nice to meet you. I’m Yuri.)

2. Where are you from?

Question:

  • Japanese: (あなたの)出身はどこですか。
  • Reading: (Anata no) shusshin wa doko desu ka.
  • English: “Where are you from?”

This is one of the most popular Japanese questions that foreigners may be asked. あなたの出身はどこですか。literally translates as “Where is your hometown?”

The possessive case あなたの (anata no), meaning “your,” can be omitted in casual situations. In order to ask more politely, use the word どちら (dochira) instead of どこ (doko).

Answer:

(1)

  • Japanese: (私は)___出身です。 
  • Reading: (Watashi wa) ___ shusshin desu. 
  • English: “(I) am from (my origin is) ___.”

This is a typical way to answer the question.

The word 出身 (shusshin) refers to a person’s origin, such as his or her hometown, city, or country. If you’re a foreigner in Japan, you can put your country name in the blank.

The subject 私は (Watashi wa), or “I,” can be omitted in casual situations.

(2)

  • Japanese: (私は)___から来ました。 
  • Reading: (Watashi wa) ___ kara kimashita. 
  • English: “(I) come from ___.”

This is another common way to answer, and once again, the subject can be omitted in casual situations.

Example:

Q: あなたの出身はどこですか。 
Anata no shusshin wa doko desu ka.
“Where are you from?”

A: 私は東京出身です。
Watashi wa Tōkyō shusshin desu.
“I’m from Tokyo.”

First Encounter

3. Do you speak Japanese?

These basic questions and answers in Japanese will be extremely helpful for you while in Japan. 

Question:

(1)

  • Japanese: (あなたは) ___を話しますか。
  • Reading: (Anata wa) ___ o hanashimasu ka.
  • English: “Do you speak ___?”

The subject あなたは (Anata wa), meaning “you,” can be omitted in casual situations.

(2)

  • Japanese: (あなたは) ___を話せますか。
  • Reading: (Anata wa) o hanasemasu ka.
  • English: “Can you speak ___?”

This question sounds similar to the one above, but it indicates “speaking ability” by changing 話ます (hanashimasu) into 話ます (hanasemasu).

The subject can be omitted in casual situations.

Language Vocabulary

In Japanese, the name of a language is expressed with the word 語 (-go), meaning “language,” attached after the name of a language or country.

English JapaneseReading
English 英語Eigo
Japanese日本語Nihon-go
Frenchフランス語Furansu-go
Italianイタリア語Itaria-go
Germanドイツ語Doitsu-go
Spanishスペイン語Supein-go
Russianロシア語Roshia-go
Chinese中国語Chūgoku-go
Korean韓国語Kankoku-go
Thaiタイ語Tai-go
Vietnameseベトナム語Betonamu-go

Answer:

(1)

  • Japanese: 私は___を話します。
  • Reading: Watashi wa ___ o hanashimasu.
  • English: “I speak ___.”

(2)

  • Japanese: 私は___を話せます。 
  • Reading: Watashi wa ___ o hanasemasu. 
  • English: “I can speak ___.”

(3)

  • Japanese: 私は___を話せません。 
  • Reading: Watashi wa ___ o hanasemasen. 
  • English: “I can’t speak ___.”

This is a negative form you can use to say that you can’t speak the language.

Example:

Q: あなたは日本語を話しますか。  
Anata wa Nihon-go o hanashimasu ka.
“Do you speak Japanese?”

A: はい、私は少し日本語を話します。
Hai, watashi wa sukoshi Nihon-go o hanashimasu.
“Yes, I speak Japanese a little.”

Different Language-learning Books

Q: 日本語を話せますか。(Can you speak Japanese?)

A: 私は日本語を話せます。(I can speak Japanese.)

4. How long have you been studying Japanese?

Question:

  • Japanese: どのくらい___を勉強していますか。
  • Reading: Dono kurai ___ o benkyō shite imasu ka.
  • English: “How long have you been studying ___?”

どのくらい (Dono kurai) literally translates as “to what extent,” but in this case, it refers to “how long.”

If you come from abroad and speak a bit of Japanese while in Japan, Japanese people will be very curious and ask you this question.

Answer:

(1)

  • Japanese: ___か月です。 
  • Reading: ___-kagetsu desu. 
  • English: “For ___ month(s).”

If you’ve been learning Japanese for a few months, you can use this phrase to answer. Put the number of months in the blank.

___-kagetsu desu literally means “It’s ___ month(s).”

There’s no difference in expression for singular and plural in Japanese. So whether you’ve been learning for one month or several, the phrase remains the same.

(2)

  • Japanese: ___年です。 
  • Reading: ___-nen desu. 
  • English: “For ___ year(s).”

Use this phrase if you’ve been studying for one or more years.

___-nen desu literally means “It’s ___ year(s).”

Example:

Q: どのくらい日本語を勉強していますか。   
Dono kurai Nihon-go o benkyō shite imasu ka.
“How long have you been studying Japanese?”

A: 1年5か月です。
Ichi-nen go-kagetsu desu.
“For a year and five months.”

5. Have you been to [location]?

Question:

  • Japanese: ___に行ったことがありますか。
  • Reading: ___ ni itta koto ga arimasu ka.
  • English: “Have you been to ___?”

-ことがあります (-koto ga arimasu) is an expression meaning “to have done (something),” and it’s used after the past tense form of a verb. In this case, that would be 行った (itta), meaning “went.” It’s translated as “Have you been to ___?”

You can put the name of any place in the blank.

Answer:

(1)

  • Japanese: はい、行ったことがあります。
  • Reading: Hai, itta koto ga arimasu.
  • English: “Yes, I have been.”

(2)

  • Japanese: いいえ、行ったことがありません。 
  • Reading: Iie, itta koto ga arimasen.
  • English: “No, I have never been.”

This is a negative sentence for answering “no.”

Example:

Q: 皇居に行ったことがありますか。   
Kōkyo ni itta koto ga arimasu ka.
“Have you been to the Imperial Palace?”

A: いいえ、行ったことがありません。
Iie, itta koto ga arimasen.
“No, I have never been.”

Tokyo Imperial Palace

Q: 皇居に行ったことがありますか。  (Have you been to the Imperial Palace?)

A: はい、行ったことがあります。  (Yes, I have been.)

6. How is ___?

Question:

  • Japanese: ___ はどうですか。 
  • Reading: ___ wa dō desu ka.
  • English: “How is ___?”

This is a common phrase to ask about the condition, situation, or status of something.

What Can You Ask About?

    ➢ 調子はどうですか。 (Chōshi wa dō desu ka.) – “How is the condition?”
    調子 means “condition,” and in this case, it means “How are you doing?” or “How is it going?”
    ➢ 勉強はどうですか。 (Benkyō wa dō desu ka.) – “How is studying?”
    ➢ 仕事の進み具合はどうですか。(Shigoto no susumiguai wa dō desu ka.) – “How is the progress of work?”

Answer:

(1)

  • Japanese: 良いです。
  • Reading: Ii desu. 
  • English: “It’s good.”

うまく行っています (umaku itte imasu), meaning “It’s going good,” is another common expression you can use to say that something’s going well.

(2)

  • Japanese: まあまあです。 
  • Reading: Mā-mā desu
  • English: “So-so.”

This phrase is very common, and it’s used to say that something is relatively good.

(3)

  • Japanese: あまり良くないです。 
  • Reading: Amari yokunai desu.
  • English: “It’s not so good.”

You can use this phrase when things aren’t going very well. Japanese people tend to avoid straightforward words like “bad,” even if something is bad; they prefer to use euphemistic expressions.

Example:

Q: 体調はどうですか。 
Taichō wa dō desu ka.
“How is your body condition?” / “How are you feeling?”

A: まあまあです。 
Mā-mā desu.
“So-so.”

A Woman Taking a Test

Q: 勉強はどうですか。 (How is studying?)

A: うまく行っています。(It’s going good.)

7. Do you like [country’s] food?

Question:

  • Japanese: ___ 料理は好きですか。
  • Reading: ___ ryōri wa suki desu ka.
  • English: “Do you like ___ food?”

To express a country’s food, put the name of the country in the blank and add 料理 (ryōri) after it. 料理 (ryōri) means “cuisine” or “cooking.”

Cuisine Vocabulary:

English Japanese Reading
Japanese food日本料理Nihon ryōri
Chinese food中華料理Chūka ryōri
Korean food韓国料理Kankoku ryōri
French foodフランス料理Furansu ryōri
Italian foodイタリア料理Itaria ryōri
Spanish foodスペイン料理Supein ryōri
Indian foodインド料理Indo ryōri
Thai foodタイ料理Tai ryōri

Answer:

(1)

  • Japanese: はい、好きです。
  • Reading: Hai, suki desu. 
  • English: “Yes, I like it.”

(2)

  • Japanese: まあまあ好きです。 
  • Reading: Mā-mā suki desu
  • English: “I somewhat like it.”

This phrase is a very common way to say that you relatively like something. 

(3)

  • Japanese: いいえ、好きではありません。 
  • Reading: Iie, suki de wa arimasen.
  • English: “No, I don’t like it.”

This is a simple phrase to answer that you don’t like something. However, some Japanese people tend to use more euphemistic expressions to avoid saying “no.”

In such cases, you can also say ___料理は苦手です (___ ryōri wa nigate desu), which means “I’m not good with ___.”

Example:

Q: フランス料理は好きですか。 
Furansu ryōri wa suki desu ka.
“Do you like French food?”

A: はい、好きです。 
Hai, suki desu.
“Yes, I like it.”

8. What are you doing?

Question:

  • Japanese: 何をしていますか。
  • Reading: Nani o shite imasu ka.
  • English: “What (are you) doing?”

There’s also a shorter version you can say: 何してますか。(Nani shite masu ka.) It’s still polite, but it sounds more casual.

This Japanese expression doesn’t have a particular subject. Therefore, if you add a subject, such as 彼女は (kanojo wa) meaning “she” or 彼は (kare wa) meaning “he,” to the beginning of the sentence, it becomes “What is she / he doing?”

Answer:

Answers can vary, but here are some general answers to the question.

(1)

  • Japanese: ___ をしています。
  • Reading: ___ o shite imasu. 
  • English: “(I’m) doing ___.”

To answer the question, put a suitable noun in the blank. Some Japanese nouns belong to a group that allows the noun to turn into a verb when attached with the verb する (suru), meaning do. For example:

演技する (engi suru) = 演技 (engi), meaning “acting” + する (suru), meaning “do” —–> “to act”

This phrase works well with this kind of noun.

This Japanese expression doesn’t have a particular subject, so if you add a subject, such as 彼女は (kanojo wa) meaning “she” or 彼は (kare wa) meaning “he,” to the beginning of the sentence, it becomes: “She / he is doing ___.”

How to Use:

    ➢ 仕事をしています。(Shigoto o shite imasu.) – “I’m doing work.” = “I’m working.”
    ➢ 勉強をしています。(Benkyō o shite imasu.) – “I’m doing study.” = “I’m studying.”
    ➢ 食事をしています。(Shokuji o shite imasu.) – “I’m doing meal.” = “I’m having a meal.”

(2)

  • Japanese: ___ています。 
  • Reading: ___-te imasu.  
  • English: “(I’m) ___ing.”

This is another common phrase for telling someone what you’re doing. You can put any Japanese verb in the blank. The verb must be conjugated in a form that -ている(-te iru) can follow.

How to Use:

    ➢ 見ています。(Mite imasu.) – “I’m watching/looking.”
    ➢ 歩いています。(Aruite imasu.) – “I’m walking.”
    ➢ 食べています。(Tabete imasu.) – “I’m eating.”

Example:

Q: 何をしていますか。  
Nani o shite imasu ka.
“What are you doing?”

A: 映画を見ています。 
Eiga o mite imasu.
“I’m watching a movie.”

Children Enjoying Good Books

Q:何をしていますか。 (What are you doing?)

A: 本を読んでいます。 (I’m reading a book.)

9. What’s wrong?

Question:

  • Japanese: どうしましたか。 
  • Reading: Dō shimashita ka.
  • English: “What’s wrong?” / “What’s the matter?”

A similar phrase is どうかしましたか。(Dō ka shimashita ka.) which means the same thing.

Answer:

Answers can vary, but here are some examples.

(1)

  • Japanese: 何でもないです。
  • Reading: Nan demo nai desu.
  • English: “It’s nothing.” / “There’s nothing wrong.”

何でもない (Nan demo nai) means “nothing.”

(2)

  • Japanese: 疲れています。 
  • Reading: Tsukarete imasu
  • English: “I’m tired.”

(3)

  • Japanese: 気分が悪いです。 
  • Reading: Kibun ga warui desu.
  • English: “I don’t feel good.”

This literally translates as “feeling is bad,” but in this case, it means “I don’t feel good/well.”

Example:

Q: どうしましたか。 顔色が悪いですよ。 
Dō shimashita ka. Kaoiro ga warui desu yo.
“What’s wrong? You look pale.”

A: 少し疲れています。 
Sukoshi tsukarete imasu.
“I’m a bit tired.”

10. How much is this?

Question:

  • Japanese: これはいくらですか。
  • Reading: Kore wa ikura desu ka.
  • English: “How much is this?”

This is a must-know phrase if you plan on shopping during your trip to Japan.

Answer:

  • Japanese: これは___円です。
  • Reading: Kore wa ___-en desu. 
  • English: “It’s ¥___.”

The Japanese currency is 円, which is actually pronounced as えん (en). The currency symbol is ¥.

Example:

Q: この本はいくらですか。  
Kono hon wa ikura desu ka.
Kono hon wa ikura desu ka.

A: この本は1000円です。 
Kono hon wa sen-en desu.
“This book is ¥1000.”

For more useful shopping phrases with audio, please check out this lesson on 15 Shopping Phrases: Exchanges, Refunds, and Complaints!

11. How JapanesePod101 Can Help You Learn More Japanese

In this article, we introduced the ten most useful Japanese question & answer patterns. After learning these, you’ll have strong survival Japanese communication skills! 

If you would like to learn more about the Japanese language, you’ll find even more helpful content on JapanesePod101.com. We provide a variety of free lessons that will help you improve your Japanese language skills. 

Here are some more lessons with audio about the basics of Japanese:

For beginners, our lesson on the Top 25 Must-Know Phrases is a must-read! 

And there’s so much more! Learn faster and enjoy studying Japanese at JapanesePod101.com!

Before you go, let us know in the comments if there are any Japanese questions and answers you still want to know! We’d be glad to help, and look forward to hearing from you!

Log in to Download Your Free Cheat Sheet - Beginner Vocabulary in Japanese

The 10 Most Useful Japanese Sentence Patterns

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Learning a new language is fun, but it requires a lot of effort—studying the complicated grammar rules and memorizing thousands of words. But we have a tip for you! The fastest and easiest way to learn Japanese is to just focus on the most useful and common Japanese sentence patterns and start speaking them!

The most frequently used Japanese sentence patterns are useful for survival communication and day-to-day interactions. When you know the essential sentence patterns in Japanese, you can arrange and create more sentences to express yourself and have conversations. 

In this article, we’ll introduce the ten most useful Japanese sentence patterns, which cover the most basic statements and questions. Boost your Japanese conversation skills here at JapanesePod101.com!

Log in to Download Your Free Cheat Sheet - Beginner Vocabulary in Japanese Table of Contents
  1. A is B – AはBです
  2. Asking Simple Questions: Is A B? AはBですか。
  3. I Want (to)…  …が欲しいです/…たいです 
  4. I Need (to)…  …が必要です/…(する)必要があります 
  5. I like …  …が好きです
  6. Please (do) … ….(して)ください
  7. May I / Can I (Do) …? ….(しても)いいですか。/a>
  8. What is …? ….は何ですか? 
  9. When is …? ….はいつですか? 
  10. Where is …? ….はどこですか? 
  11. Conclusion: How JapanesePod101.com Can Help You Learn More Japanese
A Woman Deep in Thought in Front of a Blackboard

With the top 10 Japanese sentence patterns, you can easily have simple conversations!

1. A is B – AはBです

A is B = A (wa) B (desu) or  A は B です

This is the simplest Japanese sentence construction for describing something. A is usually a noun and B can be a noun or an adjective.

です (desu) is the basic predicate that represents politeness; it’s placed at the end of a Japanese sentence. 

The Japanese sentence structure is SOV (Subject + Object + Verb), while English has an SVO structure (Subject + Verb + Object).

Examples:

  • 私は学生です。(Watashi wa gakusei desu.) — “I am a student.”
  • 彼は私の友達です。(Kare wa watashi no tomodachi desu.) — “He is my friend.”
  • このご飯は美味しいです。(Kono gohan wa oishii desu.) — “This meal is delicious.”
  • あのレストランは海鮮料理で有名です。(Ano resutoran wa kaisen ryōri de yūmei desu.) — “That restaurant is famous for seafood.”
  • 今年の夏は去年より暑いです。 (Kotoshi no natsu wa kyonen yori atsui desu.) — “This summer is hotter than the one last year.”

For more about Japanese nouns and adjectives, please check out our pages on the 50 Most Common Nouns and 50 Most Common Adjectives.

Sentence Patterns

2. Asking Simple Questions:  Is A B? AはBですか。

Is A B ? = A (wa) B (desu ka) or  A は B ですか。

Here’s the most common question sentence pattern in Japanese. 

To make a Japanese interrogative sentence, simply add the question marker か (ka) to the end of an affirmative sentence and pronounce it with a rising intonation. 

Examples:

  • あなたは学生ですか。(Anata wa gakusei desu ka.) — “Are you a student?”
  • 彼らはあなたの友達ですか。(Kare-ra wa anata no tomodachi desu ka.) — “Are they your friends?”
  • その本は難しいですか。(Sono hon wa muzukashii desu ka.) — “Is that book difficult?”
  • 今日の天気は雨のち曇りですか。(Kyō no tenki wa ame nochi kumori desu ka.) — “Is the weather today cloudy after rain?”
  • 駅の隣のビルは銀行ですか。(Eki no tonari no biru wa ginkō desu ka.) — “Is the building next to the station a bank?”
Mt. Fuji in Japan

Ashita wa hare desu ka. = “Is tomorrow sunny?”

3. I Want (to)…  …が欲しいです/…たいです 

I want  … = [noun] …が欲しい です  (ga hoshii desu)

I want to … =  [verb] …たい です  (-tai desu)

These are the simplest Japanese sentence patterns for expressing “want.”

These Japanese phrases differ depending on whether you want something [noun] or want to do something [verb], as indicated above.

Keep in mind that the subject can be omitted from a Japanese sentence when it’s clear from the context who the subject is.

Japanese verb conjugation is NOT affected by the person (I, you, he, she, we, they), number (singular/plural), or gender (female/male) of the subject.

Examples using a noun:

  • (私は)水が欲しいです。([Watashi wa] mizu ga hoshii desu.) — “I want water.”
  • (私は)新しい車が欲しいです。([Watashi wa] atarashii kuruma ga hoshii desu.)  “I want a new car.”
  • 誕生日にダイヤの指輪が欲しいです。(Tanjōbi ni daiya no yubiwa ga hoshii desu.) — “I want a diamond ring for (my) birthday.”

Examples using a verb:

  • (私は)今日は和食が食べたいです。([Watashi wa] kyō wa washoku ga tabetai desu.) — “I want to eat Japanese food today.”
  • 来年は沖縄に行きたいです。(Rainen wa Okinawa ni ikitai desu.) — “I want to go to Okinawa next year.”
  • 太ったので運動をしたいです。(Futotta node undō o shitai desu.) — “I want to do exercises because I got fat.”

For more information about Japanese verbs, please check out our Japanese Verbs and 50 Most Common Verbs pages.

4. I Need (to)…  …が必要です/…(する)必要があります 

I need … = [noun] …が必要です (ga hitsuyō desu)

I need to … = [verb] …(する)必要があります (hitsuyō ga arimasu)

These are the simplest Japanese sentence patterns for expressing “need.”

As you can see above, the Japanese sentence structure changes depending on whether you need something [noun] or need to do something [verb].

Examples using a noun:

  • (私は)あなたが必要です。([Watashi wa] anata ga hitsuyō desu.) — “I need you.”
  • その車は電気の充電が必要です。(Sono kuruma wa denki no jūden ga hitsuyō desu.) — “That car needs to charge with electricity.”
  • この店での支払いはクレジットカードが必要です。(Kono mise de no shiharai wa kurejitto kādo ga hitsuyō desu.) — “You need a credit card to pay at this store.”

Examples using a verb:

  •  週末に働く必要があります。(Shūmatsu ni hataraku hitsuyō ga arimasu.) — “I need to work on the weekend.”
  • あなたは病院に行く必要があります。(Anata wa byōin ni iku hitsuyō ga arimasu.) — “You need to go to a hospital.”
  • 学生は卒業試験に合格する必要があります。(Gakusei wa sotsugyō shiken ni gōkaku suru hitsuyō ga arimasu.) — “The students need to pass the graduation exam.”
Students Taking a Test in a Classroom

Watashi wa shiken ni gōkaku suru hitsuyō ga arimasu. = “I need to pass the exam.”

5. I like …  …が好きです 

I like … = [noun] …が好きです (ga suki desu)

This is one of the easiest and most useful sentences in Japanese. You can use it the same way you would in English when you’re fond of something or someone.

Examples:

  • 私は動物が好きです。(Watashi wa dōbutsu ga suki desu.) — “I like animals.”
  • 彼は食べることが好きです。(Kare wa taberu koto ga suki desu.) — “He likes eating.”
  • 私の猫は昼寝が好きです。(Watashi no neko wa hirune ga suki desu.) — “My cat likes taking a nap.”
  • かおりは背が高い男性が好きです。(Kaori wa se ga takai dansei ga suki desu.) — “Kaori likes tall guys.”
  • 私は山より海が好きです。(Watashi wa yama yori umi ga suki desu.) — “I like the sea more than the mountains.”
Sentence Components

6. Please (do) …   ….(して)ください 

“Please (do) …” = … [verb]  …ください (kudasai)

This is a simple sentence pattern in Japanese for asking someone to do something; here, the word ください(Kusadai) is used with a verb. 

Also note that when a noun and the postpositional particle を (o) come before kudasai, it becomes a polite way of saying “Please give (me) [noun].”  For example: りんごを一つください (ringo o hitotsu kudasai), meaning “Please give me one apple.”

Examples:

  •  静かにしてください。(Shizuka ni shite kudasai.) — “Please be quiet.”
  • お座りください。(O-suwari kudasai.) — “Please be seated/sit down.”
  • そのペンを取ってください。(Sono pen o totte kudasai.) — “Please take the pen.”
  • 食事の前に手を洗ってください。(Shokuji no mae ni te o aratte kudasai.) — “Please wash your hands before the meal.”
  • 次の電車が来るまでしばらくお待ちください。(Tsugi no densha ga kuru made shibaraku o-machi kudasai.) — “Please wait some time until the next train comes.”

7. May I / Can I (Do) …?   ….(しても)いいですか。

“May I / Can I (do) …?”  = … [verb] …(しても)いいですか。(mo ii desu ka.)  

This is a very common Japanese language sentence structure to ask for permission in a polite way. It literally means: “(Is it/Am I) good to (do)…?”

Examples:

  • 今から行ってもいいですか。(Ima kara itte mo ii desu ka.) — “Can I go now?”
  • 水を飲んでもいいですか。(Mizu o nonde mo ii desu ka.) — “Can I drink water?”
  • 明日提出してもいいですか。(Ashita teishutsu shite mo ii desu ka.) — “May I submit it tomorrow?”
  • ここで楽器を演奏してもいいですか。(Koko de gakki o ensō shite mo ii desu ka.) — “Can I play instruments here?”
  • この切符でこの電車に乗ってもいいですか。(Kono kippu de kono densha ni notte mo ii desu ka.) — “Can I take this train with this ticket?”
The

Kono kippu de kono densha ni notte mo ii desu ka. = “Can I take this train with this ticket?”

8. What is …?   ….は何ですか? 

“What is …?” = … [noun] ….は何ですか?(wa nan desu ka?) 

This is a very simple phrase to ask for information in a polite way.  

Examples:

  • これは何ですか。(Kore wa nan desu ka.) — “What is this?”
  • あなたの名前は何ですか。(Anata no namae wa nan desu ka.) — “What is your name?”
  • 今年の和暦は何ですか。(Kotoshi no wareki wa nan desu ka.) — “What is the year of the Japanese era this year?”
  • この下着の素材は何ですか。(Kono shitagi no sozai wa nan desu ka.) — “What is the material of this underwear?”
  • あなたの一番好きな映画は何ですか。(Anata no ichi-ban suki na eiga wa nan desu ka.) — “What is your favorite movie?”
A Man Watching Soccer on TV

Anata no ichi-ban suki na eiga wa nan desu ka. = “What is your favorite movie?”

9. When is …?   ….はいつですか? 

“When is …?” = … [noun] ….はいつですか。(wa itsu desu ka.)

This is a common Japanese sentence pattern to ask about time in a polite way.  

Examples:

  • 次の会議はいつですか。(Tsugi no kaigi wa itsu desu ka.) — “When is the next meeting?”
  • あなたの誕生日はいつですか。(Anata no tanjōbi wa itsu desu ka.) — “When is your birthday?”
  • 桜の満開時期はいつですか。(Sakura no mankai jiki wa itsu desu ka.) — “When is the best season of full-bloom cherry blossoms?”
  • 初めて海外旅行したのはいつですか。(Hajimete kaigai ryokō shita no wa itsu desu ka.) — “When was the first time you traveled overseas?”
  • 大学の卒業式はいつですか。(Daigaku no sotsugyōshiki wa itsu desu ka.) — “When is the graduation ceremony of the university?”
A Diploma, Graduation Cap, and Stack of Books

Sotsugyōshiki wa itsu desu ka. = “When is the graduation ceremony?”

10. Where is …?   ….はどこですか? 

“Where is …?” = … [noun] ….はどこですか。(wa doko desu ka.)

This is a common Japanese sentence pattern for asking about location in a polite way.  

Examples:

  • 明日の会議はどこですか。(Ashita no kaigi wa doko desu ka.) — “Where is the meeting tomorrow?”
  •  あなたの地元はどこですか。(Anata no jimoto wa doko desu ka.) — “Where is your hometown?”
  • 渋谷駅はどこですか。(Shibuya Eki wa doko desu ka.) — “Where is Shibuya Station?”
  • ここから一番近いトイレはどこですか。(Koko kara ichi-ban chikai toire wa doko desu ka.) — “Where is the nearest toilet from here?”
  • 東海道新幹線の乗り場はどこですか。(Tōkaidō Shinkansen no noriba wa doko desu ka.) — “Where is the platform of Tōkaidō Shinkansen?”

For more information (with audio) about the most useful Japanese sentence patterns, please check out the Top 10 Sentence Patterns for Beginners lesson on our website.

11. Conclusion: How JapanesePod101.com Can Help You Learn More Japanese

In this article, we introduced the ten most useful sentence patterns in Japanese. Once you learn these Japanese sentence patterns, you can create many more variations for better communication! The good thing about Japanese is that verbs don’t conjugate in terms of the number (singular/plural), person (I, you, he, she, we, they, it), or gender of the subject/object! So don’t hesitate to practice speaking today!

If you would like to learn more about the Japanese language, you’ll find much more helpful content on JapanesePod101.com. We provide a variety of free lessons to help you improve your Japanese language skills. Here’s some more information about Japanese basics, with audio to enrich your conversations:

And there’s so much more! Learn faster and enjoy studying Japanese at JapanesePod101.com!

Before you go, let us know in the comments if there are any Japanese sentence patterns you still want to know! We’d be glad to help, and look forward to hearing from you!

Log in to Download Your Free Cheat Sheet - Beginner Vocabulary in Japanese

Japanese Keyboard: How to Install and Type in Japanese

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You asked, so we provided—easy-to-follow instructions on how to set up your electronic devices to write in Japanese! We’ll also give you a few excellent tips on how to use this keyboard, as well as some online and app alternatives if you prefer not to set up a Japanese keyboard.

Log in to Download Your Free Japanese Alphabet Worksheet Table of Contents
  1. Why it’s Important to Learn to Type in Japanese
  2. Setting up Your Computer and Mobile Devices for Japanese
  3. How to Activate an Onscreen Keyboard on Your Computer
  4. How to Change the Language Settings to Japanese on Your Computer
  5. Activating the Japanese Keyboard on Your Mobile Phone and Tablet
  6. Japanese Keyboard Typing Tips
  7. How to Practice Typing Japanese

1. Why it’s Important to Learn to Type in Japanese

A keyboard

Learning a new language is made so much easier when you’re able to read and write/type it. This way, you will:

  • Get the most out of any dictionary and Japanese language apps on your devices
  • Expand your ability to find Japanese websites and use the various search engines
  • Be able to communicate much better online with your Japanese teachers and friends, and look super cool in the process! 

2. Setting up Your Computer and Mobile Devices for Japanese

A phone charging on a dock

It takes only a few steps to set up any of your devices to read and type in Japanese. It’s super-easy on your mobile phone and tablet, and a simple process on your computer.

On your computer, you’ll first activate the onscreen keyboard to work with. You’ll only be using your mouse or touchpad/pointer for this keyboard. Then, you’ll need to change the language setting to Japanese, so all text will appear in Japanese. You could also opt to use online keyboards instead. Read on for the links!

On your mobile devices, it’s even easier—you only have to change the keyboard. We also provide a few alternatives in the form of online keyboards and downloadable apps.

3. How to Activate an Onscreen Keyboard on Your Computer

1- Mac

1. Go to System Preferences > Keyboard.

2. Check the option “Show Keyboard & Character Viewers in Menu Bar.”

3. You’ll see a new icon on the right side of the main bar; click on it and select “Show Keyboard Viewer.”

A screenshot of the keyboard viewer screen

2- Windows

1. Go to Start > Settings > Easy Access > Keyboard.

2. Turn on the option for “Onscreen Keyboard.”

3- Online Keyboards

If you don’t want to activate your computer’s onscreen keyboard, you also have the option to use online keyboards. Here are some good options:

4- Add-ons of Extensions for Browsers

Instead of an online keyboard, you could also choose to download a Google extension to your browser for a language input tool. The Google Input Tools extension allows users to use input tools in Chrome web pages, for example.

4. How to Change the Language Settings to Japanese on Your Computer

Man looking at his computer

Now that you’re all set to work with an onscreen keyboard on your computer, it’s time to download the Japanese language pack for your operating system of choice:

  • Windows 8 (and higher)
  • Windows 7
  • Mac (OS X and higher)

1- Windows 8 (and higher)

1. Go to Settings > Change PC Settings > Time & Language > Region & Language.

2. Click on “Add a Language” and select “Japanese.” This will add it to your list of languages. It will appear as 日本語 with the note “language pack available.”

3. Click on 日本語 > “Options” > “Download.” It will take a few minutes to download and install the language pack.

4. As a keyboard layout, you’ll only need the one marked as “Japanese – 日本語.” You can ignore other keyboard layouts.

2- Windows 7

1. Go to Start > Control Panel > Clock, Language, and Region.

2. On the “Region and Language” option, click on “Change Keyboards or Other Input Methods.”

3. On the “Keyboards and Languages” tab, click on “Change Keyboards” > “Add” > “Japanese.”

4. Expand the option of “Japanese” and then expand the option “Keyboard.” Select the keyboard layout marked as “Japanese.” You can ignore other keyboard layouts. Click “OK” and then “Apply.”

3- Mac (OS X and higher)

If you can’t see the language listed, please make sure to select the right option from System Preferences > Language and Region

1. From the Apple Menu (top left corner of the screen) go to System Preferences > Keyboard.

2. Click the Input Sources tab and a list of available keyboards and input methods will appear.

3. Click on the plus button, select “Japanese,” and add the “Japanese” keyboard.

Adding a system language

5. Activating the Japanese Keyboard on Your Mobile Phone and Tablet

Texting and searching in Japanese will greatly help you master the language! Adding a Japanese keyboard on your mobile phone and/or tablet is super-easy.

You could also opt to download an app instead of adding a keyboard. Read on for our suggestions.

Below are the instructions for both iOS and Android mobile phones and tablets.

1- iOS

1. Go to Settings > General > Keyboard.

2. Tap “Keyboards” and then “Add New Keyboard.”

3. Select “Japanese” from the list.

4. When typing, you can switch between languages by tapping and holding on the icon to reveal the keyboard language menu.

2- Android

1. Go to Settings > General Management > Language and Input > On-screen Keyboard (or “Virtual Keyboard” on some devices) > Samsung Keyboard.

2. Tap “Language and Types” or “ + Select Input Languages” depending on the device and then “MANAGE INPUT LANGUAGES” if available.

3. Select 日本語 from the list.

4. When typing, you can switch between languages by swiping the space bar.

3- Applications for Mobile Phones

If you don’t want to add a keyboard on your mobile phone or tablet, these are a few good apps to consider:

6. Japanese Keyboard Typing Tips

Typing in Japanese can be very challenging at first! Therefore, we added here a few useful tips to make it easier to use your Japanese keyboard.

A man typing on a computer

1- Computer

1. To toggle your IME on/off, you just need to hit “Alt + Tilde (~).” 

2. You can just type in Japanese words on your keyboard, if you know how they’re spelled in Romanization. (Like “a” = あ, “ko” = こ, and “re” = れ)But there are some points to be noticed:

 – To type ん, you need to type “nn” (double “n”). When you hit just “n,” you may have the chance to hit vowels (a, e, i, o, u) and it will make な, に, ぬ, ね, の. So you need that extra “n” to type ん.

 – To type small-sized vowel characters, as in ねぇ or あぁ, you need to hit “l” or “x + vowel.” For example, to type ぁ, you hit “la” or “xa.”

 – To get っ, the small “tsu.” However, you don’t have to type “ltsu” or “xtsu.” You just type it using a double consonant. For example, to type きっと, you hit “kitto.”

3. If you want to use Katakana instead of Hiragana, in most cases all you need to do is hit “spacebar” after you’ve typed the word in Hiragana. Then, your IME will most likely recommend that word in Katakana. But if this isn’t the case for you, or if you instead want a Katakana input mode, just hit “Ctrl + Caps Lock” to find it.

4. To convert to Kanji, you need to use the “spacebar” just like you do with Katakana words. Your IME will suggest a candidate Kanji list for the word. So hit the “spacebar” until you find the one you’re looking for, and then hit the “Enter” to determine the conversion candidate.

2- Mobile Phones

1. You can type Japanese words on a Kana-style keyboard as well as a Romanization-style keyboard. As for the Romanization-style typing, it’s almost the same as it is on the PC.

2. You’ll have only ten Hiragana letter keys, plus a punctuation key and a text face key to input with a Kana-style keyboard. The letter keys are arranged by consonant and each of them has three or more letters inside it. To select a letter, quickly tap the key to go through the different letters. Alternatively, you can simply hold down the key, which will bring up the options visually, and then slide your finger to the intended letter. 

3. The 改行 key is the equivalent to the Enter key, and the 空白 key is the equivalent to the space key.

7. How to Practice Typing Japanese

As you probably know by now, learning Japanese is all about practice, practice, and more practice! Strengthen your Japanese typing skills by writing comments on any of our lesson pages, and our teacher will answer.
If you’re a JapanesePod101 Premium PLUS member, you can directly text our teacher via the My Teacher app—use your Japanese keyboard to do this!

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Ultimate Japanese Verb Conjugation Guide

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How many verbs do you think you use everyday? Verbs are the second-most frequently used part of speech in Japanese (after nouns), making it crucial to know and understand Japanese verb conjugation.

Compared to English, Japanese verb conjugation has distinct rules which might be difficult to understand at first. However, the good news is that Japanese verbs do not conjugate according to the speaker. Instead, the Japanese verb conjugation rules are the same for every grammatical person, or 人称 (ninshō), and any number of subjects (singular or plural). Therefore, you won’t be easily confused on how to conjugate Japanese verbs in this respect. In addition, there are very few irregular verb conjugations!

In this article, we’ll introduce the basics of Japanese verbs and Japanese verb conjugation, including verb groups and conjugation patterns. We’ll also provide examples for you.
Once you learn the conjugation patterns, you only have to apply the rules to any new verbs you learn! Let’s get started here at JapanesePod101.com!

Table of Contents
  1. What is Conjugation?
  2. Japanese Verb Conjugation Groups
  3. Conjugation Patterns
  4. Conjugation Patterns for Irregular Verbs
  5. Let’s Practice!
  6. Conclusion: How JapanesePod101 Can Help You Learn More Japanese
Log in to Download Your Free Cheat Sheet - Useful Verbs in Japanese

1. What is Conjugation?

Top Verbs

1 – What Does Conjugation Mean?

Conjugation in Japanese is described as the variation of the form of a certain part of speech—such as verbs—which is influenced by certain elements. These include: voice, mood, tense, and politeness level.

In Japanese, there are four parts of speech which have conjugation: 

In this article, we’ll just be focusing on Japanese verb conjugations so we can explain in better detail. 

2 – What Affects Conjugation? 

As we mentioned above, the voice, mood, tense, and politeness level are identified by the form of Japanese verb conjugation used.

  • Voice

There are two types of voice: 能動態 (nōdōtai), or “active voice,” and 受動態 (judōtai), or “passive voice.”

  • The basic form of a verb is usually the active voice, where the subject performs the action.

    私は日記を書く
    Watashi wa nikki o kaku.
    “I write a journal.”
  • In Japanese, the passive voice is mainly used when the action is performed on the subject, or 受け身 (ukemi). However, it’s also used for other cases, such as:

    可能 (kanō) — to denote ability
    自発 (jihatsu) — spontaneous
    使役 (shieki) — causative
    尊敬 (sonkei) — respectful language

The Japanese passive voice is expressed in either れる (reru) or られる (rareru), which are auxiliary verbs used together with other verbs.

-Passive action: 
先生によく叱-られる
Sensei ni yoku shika-rareru.
“I’m often scolded by the teacher.”

-Ability:              
たくさん食べ-られる
Takusan tabe-rareru.
“I can eat a lot.”

-Spontaneous:  
毎年あの災害が思い出さ-れる
Maitoshi ano saigai ga omoidasa-reru.
“That disaster is remembered every year.”

-Respectful:      
講師が話さ-れる
Kōshi ga hanasa-reru.
“A lecturer is talking.” [In a respectful manner]

Someone Writing in a Journal

Active: Watashi wa nikki o kaku. (“I write a journal.”)

Passive: Nikki wa watashi ni yori kakareru. (“The journal is written by me.”)

  • Mood 

There are different types of moods that are identified in the conjugation forms. Grammatical mood  refers to the attitude of the speaker toward the action of the verb. For example, it indicates whether  that person is giving an order, making an assumption, giving a suggestion, etc.

Example:

Dictionary form : 食べる (taberu) “to eat”

Verb stem: 食べ- (tabe-)  

Mood / UsageConjugationKanji
Negative Formtabenai食べない
Attributive Form taberu(toki)食べ(とき)
Conditional Formtabereba食べれば
Imperative Formtabero食べ
Volitional Form ( “Let’s-“)tabe食べよう
  • Tense  

Japanese verb conjugation by tense is actually very simple when compared to English and romance languages such as French, Spanish, and Italian.

There are just two main tenses for the Japanese verb forms: present and past tense. The form of the present tense is used for future and habitual action, and therefore there is no particular future tense. 

The past tense always ends with た。 (ta).  

  • Japanese verb conjugation (Present Tense):

    私は今出かける
    Watashi wa ima dekakeru.
    “I go out now.”

    私は来週出かける
    Watashi wa raishū dekakeru.
    Literal translation: “I go out next week,” or “I will go out next week.”
  • Japanese verb conjugation (Past Tense):

    私は出かけた
    Watashi wa dekaketa.
    “I went out.”
  • Level of Politeness   

In Japanese conjugation, politeness level is another factor to consider. Verbs in the dictionary form are casual and informal, while verbs in the formal form end with ます (-masu), as do verbs in the ordinary polite form 丁寧語 (Teineigo).

In addition to verb conjugation, the Japanese language (especially verbs) has three types of 敬語 (keigo), or “honorific language,” which affect the Japanese conjugation forms. They also show different levels of respect: 

丁寧語 (teineigo) — polite

尊敬語 (sonkeigo) — respectful

謙譲語 (kenjōgo) — humble / modest

They’re used to express social distance and intimacy, as well as disparity or similarity in rank. For more details on Japanese 敬語 (keigo), please visit Japanese Honorifics.

It’s necessary for adults to be able to use 敬語 (keigo) properly in formal situations in Japan. However, you can use at least the formal/polite form without being rude.

Here’s a Japanese conjugation table for 言う (iu), or “to say,” by politeness level.

FormReadingKanji
Dictionary / Informali-u言-う
Formal / Teineigo / Politeii-masu言い-ます
Sonkeigo / Respectfulossharuおっしゃる
Kenjōgo / Humblemōsu申す
Two Japanese Businessmen Bowing to each Other

Appropriate use of 敬語 (keigo) is a must in the Japanese business world.

2. Japanese Verb Conjugation Groups

Japanese verbs always end with u or ru, and verbs are categorized into three groups: 

Class 1: U-verb

Class 2 : Ru-verb

Class 3: Irregular verb

Japanese verbs consist of two parts: a verb base (“stem”) and a suffix.  

A stem doesn’t change and a suffix conjugates according to the voice, mood, tense, and forms (casual vs. polite, and plain vs. negative).

1 – Class 1: U-verbs

More Essential Verbs

U-verbs always end with –u. However, please note that this refers to the last vowel being u when it’s written in reading form. Therefore, U-verbs can end with Hiragana う(u), く (ku), す(su), つ(tsu), ぬ (nu), む (mu), and sometimes る (ru). 

Examples of U-verbs

EnglishReadingKanjiHiragana
“listen” / “hear”kiku聞くきく
“wait”matsu待つまつ
“write”kaku書くかく
“go”iku行くいく

2 – Class 2: Ru-Verbs

Ru-verbs always end with –ru which is Hiragana る. Some verbs that end with る (ru) are categorized as U-verbs, such as 取る (toru), meaning “take,” but they’re just a few exceptions that you’ll easily start to recognize.

Examples of Ru-verbs

EnglishReadingKanjiHiragana
“eat”taberu食べる食べる
“wake up” /
“get up”
okiru起きるおきる
“sleep”neru寝るねる
“teach”oshieru教えるおしえる

3 – Class 3: Irregular Verbs

Surprise! There are only two irregular Japanese verbs, which are 来る (kuru), meaning “come,” and する (suru), meaning “do.”

Unlike U-verbs and Ru-verbs, the stem of the irregular verbs change according to the conjugation forms. 

The Japanese verb する (suru), meaning “do,” is one of the most frequently used verbs. It’s also very handy because it can often turn a noun into a verb when it’s added after a noun. Here’s how Japanese irregular verb conjugation works for this word:

  • 回転 (kaiten)  + する (suru)  = “to rotate” / “to spin around”
    [“rotation” / “spin”]             [“do”]  
  • 出席 (shusseki)  + する (suru)  = “to attend”
    [“attendance”]                    [“do”]
  •  謝罪 (shazai) +  する (suru)  = “to apologize”
                [“apology”]                         [“do”]

For more Japanese verb vocabulary, please visit our article on The 100+ Most Common Japanese Verbs.

Two People jogging on the Road Together

運動 (undō) “exercise” +  する (suru) “to do” = Undō-suru (“to exercise”)

3. Conjugation Patterns

In the Japanese verb conjugation system, a suffix (which is often an auxiliary verb) plays an important role in conjugation, together with the main verb.

1 – Class 1: U-verb Conjugation

U-verbs conjugate as in this example:

  • Dictionary form: はなす・話す (hanasu) “to talk” / “to speak”
  • Verb stem: はな- (hana-)  

The verb 話す (hanasu), which means “to talk” or “to speak,” has the stem はな (hana) and the suffix す (su). 

In Japanese conjugation, suffixes conjugate and change like in the example below, according to the forms.

FormInformalFormal
Presentはな-す 
hana-su 
はな-します
hana-shimasu
Negative-presentはな-さない
hana-sanai
はな-しません
hana-shimasen
Pastはな-した
hana-shita
はな-しました
hana-shimashita
Negative-pastはな-さなかった
hana-sanakatta
はな-しませんでした
hana-shimasen deshita
Volitionalはな-そう
hana-sō
はな-しましょう
hana-shimashō
Passiveはな-される
hana-sareru
はな-されます
hana-saremasu
Causativeはな-させる
haha-saseru
はな-させます
haha-sasemasu
Conditionalはな-せば
hana-seba
Imperativeはな-せ
hana-se
はな-しなさい
haha-shinasai

Example Sentences

  • 私は彼と話しませんでした。
    Watashi wa kare to hana-shimasen deshita
    “I didn’t talk with him.” [past / formal / polite]
  • 彼らと一緒に話そう。
    Kare-ra to issho ni hana-sō.   
    “Let’s talk with them.” [volitional / informal]
  • 本当のことを話せ!
    Hontō no koto o hana-se!  
    “Tell the truth!” [imperative / informal]
Negative verbs

2 – Class 2: Ru-verb Conjugation

Ru-verb conjugation is similar to U-verb conjugation, but slightly different. Please pay attention to the suffix after the stem. 

  • Dictionary form:  たべる・食べる (taberu) “to eat”
  • Verb stem: たべ- (tabe-)  

The verb 食べる (taberu), meaning “to eat,” has the stem たべ (tabe) and the suffix る (ru). 

The suffix conjugates and changes as follows:

FormInformalFormal
Presentたべ-る
tabe-ru
たべ-ます
tabe-masu
Negative-presentたべ-ない
tabe-nai
たべ-ません
tabe-masen
Pastたべ-た
tabe-ta
たべ-ました
tabe-mashita
Negative-pastたべ-なかった
tabe-nakatta
たべ-ませんでした
tabe-masen deshita
Volitionalたべ-よう
tabe-yō
たべ-ましょう
tabe-mashō
Passiveたべ-られる
tabe-rareru
たべ-られます
tabe-raremasu
Causativeたべ-させる
tabe-saseru
たべ-させます
tabe-sasemasu
Conditionalたべ-れば
tabe-reba
Imperativeたべ-ろ
tabe-ro
たべ-なさい
tabe-nasai

Example Sentences

  • 彼女は肉を食べません。
    Kanojo wa niku o tabe-masen.  
    “She does not eat meat.” [present / formal / polite]
  • 私は子供達に野菜を食べさせます。
    Watashi wa kodomo-tachi ni yasai o tabe-sasemasu.   
    “I make my children eat vegetables.” [causative / formal]
  • これを食べれば良くなるよ!
    Kore o tabe-reba yoku naru yo!  
    “If you eat this, you’ll get better!” [conditional]
Woman signaling that She doesn’t want Meat on Her Plate

Watashi wa niku o tabe-masen. = “I don’t eat meat.”

4. Conjugation Patterns for Irregular Verbs 

Contrary to U-verbs and Ru-verbs, the two irregular verbs 来る (kuru), meaning “come,” and する (suru), meaning “do,” conjugate even the stems. These two irregular verbs are frequently used, so let’s simply memorize them!

1. 来る

  • Dictionary form: くる・来る (kuru) “to come”
  • Verb stem: く (ku-) /  こ (ko-) / き (ki-
FormInformalFormal
Presentく-る
ku-ru
き-ます
ki-masu
Negative-presentこ-ない
ko-nai
き-ません
ki-masen
Pastき-た
ki-ta
き-ました
ki-mashita
Negative-pastこ-なかった
ko-nakatta
き-ませんでした
ki-masen deshita
Volitionalこ-よう
ko-yō
き-ましょう
ki-mashō
Passiveこ-られる
ko-rareru
こ-られます
ko-raremasu
Causativeこ-させる
ko-saseru
こ-させます
ko-sasemasu
Conditionalく-れば
ku-reba
Imperativeこ-い
ko-i
き-なさい
ki-nasai

Example Sentences

  • 彼女は昨日学校に来なかった。
    Kanojo wa kinō gakkō ni ko-nakatta.
    “She did not come to school yesterday.” [past / informal]
  • こちらへ来れば安全です。
    Kochira e ku-reba anzen desu. 
    “You will be safe if you come here.” [conditional]
  • 今すぐここへ来なさい!
    Ima sugu koko e ki-nasai!  
    “Come here right now!” [imperative / formal / polite]

2. する

  • Dictionary form: する (suru) “to do”
  • Verb stem: す (su-)  / し (shi-) / さ (sa-)
FormInformalFormal
Presentす-る
su-ru
し-ます
shi-masu
Negative-presentし-ない
shi-nai
し-ません
shi-masen
Pastし-た
shi-ta
し-ました
shi-mashita
Negative-pastし-なかった
shi-nakatta
し-ませんでした
shi-masen deshita
Volitionalし-よう
shi-yō
し-ましょう
shi-mashō
Passiveさ-れる
sa-reru
さ-れます
sa-remasu
Causativeさ-せる
sa-seru
さ-せます
sa-semasu
Conditionalす-れば
su-reba
Imperativeし-ろ
shi-ro
し-なさい
shi-nasai

Example Sentences

  • 彼はそんなことしません。
    Kare wa sonna koto shi-masen.
    “He does not do such things.” [present / formal / polite]
  • 一緒に勉強しよう。
    Issho ni benkyō shi-yō.    
    “Let’s study together.” [volitional / informal]
      * benkyō + suru (studying + do = to study)
  • 早くしなさい!
    Hayaku shi-nasai!  
    “Do it quickly!” [imperative / formal / polite]

5. Let’s Practice! 

Now it’s time for a Japanese conjugation quiz to practice! 

Try to conjugate each verb in the ( ), following the instructions, and write your answer in the blank. Even if you don’t know, try to guess and check the answers below!

  1. Write the verb in the past tense and informal form:

    Watashi wa kinō ringo o (taberu) ______ .
    (“I ate an apple yesterday.”)

  1. Write the verb in the volitional and formal form:

    Watashi-tachi to issho ni  (hanasu) ______ .
    (“Let’s talk with us.”)

  1. Write the verb in the negative-present and formal form:

    Kyō wa shiken no hi desu ga, dare mo (kuru) ______ .
    (“Although today is the exam day, nobody comes.”)

  1. Write the verb in the imperative and formal form:

    Kanojo ni (shazai suru) ______!
    (“Apologize to her!”)

  1. Write the verb in the volitional and formal/polite form: 

    Issho ni (iku) ______.
    (“Let’s go together.”)
Large Serving Tray of Sushi

Sushi o tabeyō! = “Let’s eat Sushi!”

Let’s check the answers!

  1. The past tense and informal form of taberu is tabemashita.
    It’s the conjugation pattern of Class 2: Ru-verbs.

    Watashi wa kinō ringo o tabemashita.
    (“I ate an apple yesterday.”)

  1. The volitional and formal form of hanasu is hanashimashō.
    It’s the conjugation pattern of Class 1: U-verbs.

    Watashi-tachi to issho ni hanashimashō.
    (“Let’s talk with us.”)

  1. The negative-present and formal form of kuru is kimasen.
    It’s the conjugation pattern of the Class 3 irregular verb 来る (kuru), meaning “to come.”

    Kyō wa shiken no hi desu ga, dare mo kimasen.
    (“Although today is the exam day, nobody comes.”)

  1. The imperative and formal form of shazai suru is shazai shinasai.
    It’s the conjugation pattern of the Class 3 irregular verb する (suru), meaning “to do.”
    * shazai (“apology”) + suru (“to do”) = “to apologize”

    Kanojo ni shazai shinasai!
    (“Apologize to her!”)

  1. The volitional and formal/polite form of iku is ikimashō.
    It’s the conjugation pattern of Class 1: U-verbs.

    Issho ni ikimashō.
    (“Let’s go together.”)

6. Conclusion: How JapanesePod101 Can Help You Learn More Japanese

In this article, we introduced you to Japanese verbs conjugation. Japanese verb conjugation has unique rules, but it’s simpler than you think. For example, you don’t have to worry about conjugating for person or number.

Once you master the conjugation patterns, you’ll be able to increase your verb vocabulary much easier!

If you would like to learn more about the Japanese language and other useful Japanese phrases by situation, you’ll find a lot more helpful content on JapanesePod101.com. We provide a variety of free lessons for you to help improve your Japanese language skills. To start, here’s some more information about the basics of Japanese with audio: 

To learn more about Japanese verbs and other grammar-related topics, check out Basic Kanji for Verbs and The 50 Most Common Japanese Verbs You’ll Find in Textbooks. How to Improve Your Speaking Skills and Must-Know Adverbs and Phrases for Connecting Thoughts are also useful if you want to brush up on your Japanese conversation skills.

And there’s so much more! Be a faster learner and enjoy studying Japanese at JapanesePod101.com!

Before you go, let us know in the comments if there are any Japanese verbs you still want to know! We’d be glad to help, and look forward to hearing from you! 

Log in to Download Your Free Cheat Sheet - Useful Verbs in Japanese

The 100+ Most Common Japanese Verbs

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How many Japanese verbs do you know? When you know the 100 most common Japanese verbs and understand basic Japanese verb conjugation, you can express and understand Japanese much better!

Verbs are one of the most important parts of speech, and it’s said that verbs are the second most frequently used words (26%, next to nouns at 42%) among all other categories of words in daily Japanese conversations. 

It’s always a bit tiring to learn grammatical rules, such as the conjugation patterns of verbs. However, it’s easier than you think! Once you have the rules down and become used to using them, all you have to do is apply those rules to new Japanese verbs you learn.

Japanese verb conjugation has unique rules from those in English. But don’t worry! Some features are simpler—there’s no verb conjugation based on the speaker, such as singular vs. plural, gender, or the category of that person grammatically, called 人称 (ninshō). This means that in English, verbs change based on who’s speaking:

  • I am
  • She is
  • You are
  • I go
  • He goes

However, Japanese verbs remain the same regardless of who the speaker is.
In this article, we’ll introduce the top 100 Japanese verbs for beginners, which are most frequently used. We’ll also give you some tips about Japanese verb conjugation, though we’ll have a more in-depth article on this topic later on. Let’s master Japanese verbs here at JapanesePod101!

Log in to Download Your Free Cheat Sheet - Useful Verbs in Japanese Table of Contents
  1. Verb Groups: Different Types of Japanese Verbs
  2. Action Verbs: Physical
  3. Action Verbs: Mental
  4. Other Verbs
  5. Japanese Auxiliary Verbs: 助動詞 (Jodōshi)
  6. Verb Usage: How Japanese Verbs Work
  7. Conclusion: How JapanesePod101 Can Help You Learn More Japanese

1. Verb Groups: Different Types of Japanese Verbs

Top Verbs

Japanese verbs always end with u or ru, and verbs are categorized into three groups: 

  • Class 1: U-verb
  • Class 2: Ru-verb
  • Class 3: Irregular verb

As the conjugation system itself is very simple, memorizing the patterns and rules will help you learn how to use Japanese verbs properly.

Japanese verbs consist of two parts: a verb base (“stem”) and a suffix. A stem doesn’t change, and a suffix conjugates according to the forms. These forms include casual vs. polite and plain vs. negative.

Class 1: U-Verbs

書く (kaku):writeCasualPolite
Stemkak
Basic Form書-く
kak-u
書-きます
kak-imasu
Negative Form書-かない
kak-anai
書-きません
kak-imasen

The verb 書く (kaku), meaning “write,” has the stem kak and the suffix u. As you can see from the Japanese verbs chart above, the suffix conjugates and changes according to the forms. 

However, you have to keep in mind that if a verb ends with u, it means that the last vowel is u. Therefore,  u-verbs can end with Hiragana:

  • う(u)
  • く (ku)
  • す(su)
  • つ (tsu)
  • ぬ (nu)
  • む (mu)
  • る (ru
Woman Writing Something in a Journal

U-verb Examples

EnglishReadingKanjiHiragana
meetau会うあう
learnmanabu学ぶまなぶ
pushosu押すおす
pullhiku引くひく

Class 2: Ru-Verbs

出る (deru) :come outCasualPolite
Stemde
Basic Form出-る
de-ru
出-ます
de-masu
Negative Form出-ない
de-nai
出-ません
de-masen

The verb 出る (deru), meaning “come out,” has the stem de and the suffix ru. The suffix conjugates and changes as it did above. It’s similar to u-verbs, but slightly different.

Ru-verb Examples

EnglishReadingKanjiHiragana
teachoshieru教えるおしえる
exist
(living things)
iruいるいる
sleepneru寝るねる
answerkotaeru答えるこたえる

Class 3: Irregular Verbs

Don’t worry too much! There are only two Japanese irregular verbs.

The stems of the verbs change according to the conjugating forms. There are only two verbs, so let’s memorize them!

  • 来る (kuru):come
来る (kuru) :comeCasualPolite
Stemku / ko / ki
Basic Form来-る
く-る
ku-ru
来-ます
き-ます
ki-masu
Negative Form来-ない
こ-ない
ko-nai
来-ません
き-ません
ki-masen
  • する (suru):do
する (suru) :doCasualPolite
Stemsu / shi
Basic Formす-る
su-ru
し-ます
shi-masu
Negative Formし-ない
shi-nai
し-ません
shi-masen

The Japanese verb する (suru), meaning “do,” is a very handy word which can often turn a noun into a verb when it’s added next to the noun. 

For example:

  • 勉強 (benkyō)   + する (suru)  = to study

studying                (do)  

  • 参加 (sanka)  + する (suru)  = to participate

participation           (do)  

  • 感謝 (kansha)   + する (suru)  = to thank/appreciate

  appreciation/gratitude      (do)  

Now that you have a better idea of how to conjugate different types of verbs, let’s move on to our Japanese verbs list! 

Pencil and Notebook Pages that have been Written In

2. Action Verbs: Physical 

To start, here are the most common Japanese verbs of motion.

EnglishJapanese ReadingKanjiHiragana
see / look / watchmiru見るみる
hear / listenkiku聞くきく
sayiu言ういう
walkaruku歩くあるく
runhashiru走るはしる
eattaberu食べるたべる
drinknomu飲むのむ
taketoru取るとる
usetsukau使うつかう
moveugoku動くうごく
hold / grabtsukamu掴むつかむ
standsuwaru座るすわる
standtatsu立つたつ
wearkiru着るきる
take off (clothes/shoes)nugu脱ぐぬぐ
workhataraku働くはたらく
wake upokiru起きるおきる
goiku行くいく
comekuru来るくる
bendmageru曲げるまげる
searchsagasu探すさがす
readyomu読むよむ
playasobu遊ぶあそぶ
get on (vehicle)noru乗るのる
get off (vehicle)oriru降りるおりる
starthajimeru始めるはじめる
finishoeru終えるおえる
openakeru開けるあける
closeshimeru閉めるしめる
stoptomeru止めるとめる
putoku置くおく
waitmatsu待つまつ
restyasumu休むやすむ
learnmanabu学ぶまなぶ
giveataeru与えるあたえる
visitotozureru訪れるおとずれる
leavesaru去るさる
departshuppatsu suru出発するしゅっぱつする
arrivetōchaku suru到着するとうちゃくする
selluru売るうる
buykau買うかう
liveikiru生きるいきる
dieshinu死ぬしぬ
Group of People Running on a Field

3. Action Verbs: Mental 

These everyday Japanese verbs are essential for expressing actions that aren’t physical or immediately tangible. Take a look!

knowJapanese ReadingKanjiHiragana
knowshiru知るしる
thinkkangaeru考えるかんがえる
imaginesōzō suru想像するそうぞうする
feelkanjiru感じるかんじる
likekonomu好むこのむ
dislikekirau嫌うきらう
loveaisuru愛するあいする
hatenikumu憎むにくむ
believeshinjiru信じるしんじる
expectkitai suru期待するきたいする
understandrikai suru理解するりかいする
rememberomoidasu思い出すおもいだす
agreedōi suru同意するどういする
laughwarau笑うわらう
crynaku泣くなく
get angryokoru怒るおこる
feel sadkanashimu悲しむかなしむ
wish / hopenegau願うねがう
get surprisedodoroku驚くおどろく
forgetwasureru忘れるわすれる
satisfymanzoku suru満足するまんぞくする
doubtutagau疑ううたがう
decidekimeru決めるきめる
noticekizuku気づくきづく

To check your pronunciation of Japanese verbs with audio, see our page about the 25 Most Commonly Used Verbs.

4. Other Verbs 

More Essential Verbs

You’re almost done! There are just a few more Japanese language verbs you should know.

EnglishJapanese ReadingKanjiHiragana
appeararawareru現れるあらわれる
remainkieru消えるきえる
remainnokoru残るのこる
returnkaeru帰るかえる
checkkakunin suru確認するかくにんする
increasefueru増えるふえる
decreaseheru減るへる
carryhakobu運ぶはこぶ
get drykawaku乾くかわく
get wetnureru濡れるぬれる
washarau洗うあらう
get dirtyyogoreru汚れるよごれる
indicateshimesu示すしめす
enjoytanoshimu楽しむたのしむ
fallochiru落ちるおちる
winkatsu勝つかつ
losemakeru負けるまける
breakkowasu壊すこわす
fixnaosu直すなおす
crosswataru渡るわたる
changekawaru変わるかわる
sendokuru送るおくる
receiveuketoru受け取るうけとる
Someone Washing Hands with Soap and Water

5. Japanese Auxiliary Verbs: 助動詞 (Jodōshi)

The Japanese 助動詞 (Jodōshi), which translates as “auxiliary verb,” is a functional type of word with some variations. By adding an auxiliary verb, the meaning of the preceding word will be modified. 

For example:

  • 感じる (kanjiru) : “feel”   +   させる (saseru) [causative verb]

           = 感じさせる (kanjisaseru) : “make (you) feel”

  • 食べる (taberu) : “eat”   +   られる (rareru) [ability]

           = 食べられる (taberareru) : edible

Here are some of the Japanese auxiliary verbs:

Japanese ReadingHiraganaUsage / Meaning / Example
(sa)seru(ら)れるCausation

食べさせる 
tabesaseru
to make (one) eat
(ra) reru(ら)れるPassive / Ability, etc.

食べられる
taberareru  
edible / being eaten
nai / nu / n(よ)うNegation

食べない
tabenai  
(I do) not eat
(よ)うVolition

食べよう
tabe  
I will eat / Let’s eat
tai / tagaruたい / たがるDesire

食べたい
tabetai 
I want to eat
yō daようだSimilarity

食べるようだ
taberu yō da  
it looks like (she/he) eats
sō daそうだHearsay

食べるそうだ
taberu sō da 
they say that (she/he) eats
rashiiらしいHearsay / Behavior

食べるらしい
taberu rashii
they say that (she/he) may eat
da / desu・masuだ / です・ますPredication / Politeness (copula)

食べます
tabemasu 
(I) eat
One Woman Whispering in Another Woman’s Ear

6. Verb Usage: How Japanese Verbs Work

Japanese language verb conjugation patterns differ for u-verbs, ru-verbs, and irregular verbs. 

Because many frequently used Japanese words are in this category, let’s take a look at an example for u-verbs.

The conjugation pattern for the verb 書く (kaku), meaning “write,” is as follows:

ConjugationKanjiUsage / Meaning
kakAnai書かないNegative Form
kakImasu書きますPolite Form
kaIta書いたTa- Form
kakU書くDictionary Form
kakU toki書くときAttributive Form 
kakEba書けばConditional Form
kakE書けImperative Form
kakO書こうSuggestion Form (“Let’s-“)

For more detail on the grammar of Japanese verbs and other conjugation patterns, please visit Verb Conjugation.

We also have other articles you may like to check out: Top 100 Japanese Adjectives, Top 100 Japanese Nouns, and Japanese Pronouns.

7. Conclusion: How JapanesePod101 Can Help You Learn More Japanese

Negative Verbs

In this article, we introduced the most common Japanese verbs and explained the basics of Japanese verb conjugation. Once you know the conjugation patterns, you’ll be able to more quickly expand your Japanese verbs vocabulary and take better command of the language.

If you would like to learn more about the Japanese language and other useful Japanese phrases for a variety of situations, you’ll find a lot of helpful content on JapanesePod101.com. We provide an array of free lessons for you to improve your Japanese language skills. To get you started, here’s some more information on Japanese basics with audio: 

To learn how to converse with others in Japanese, check out Top 15 Questions You Should Know for Conversations and Top 10 Conversational Phrases. If you want to learn Japanese kanji, you’ll also enjoy Basic Kanji for Verbs and Basic Kanji for Adjectives.

And there’s so much more! Learn faster and enjoy studying Japanese at JapanesePod101.com!

Before you go, let us know in the comments if there are any Japanese verbs you still want to know! We’d be glad to help, and look forward to hearing from you!

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Your Ultimate Guide to Japanese Pronouns

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Pronouns are used to substitute nouns, such as people or things, in a sentence. Using pronouns allows you to avoid repetitive usage of a particular word in a sentence, which would sound awkward. Japanese pronouns are very different from those in English because Japanese pronouns can be omitted from a sentence when they’re implied through the context.

Unlike in English, there are many different variations of Japanese personal pronouns that translate as “I/me” and “you,” although only a few are commonly used. This expression of Japanese pronouns comes from Japanese culture, which puts importance on respect, seniority, and social order. 

Each Japanese pronoun variation denotes the different characteristics of the speaker. These include gender, age, social status, level of respect, and their relationship with the person they’re speaking to.
Ready to learn Japanese pronouns? In this Japanese pronoun guide, we introduce Japanese pronouns that will boost your language skills, and teach you how to use them. JapanesePod101 makes it simple and easy to understand!

Log in to Download Your Free Cheat Sheet - Beginner Vocabulary in Japanese Table of Contents
  1. Japanese Personal Pronouns
  2. Japanese Demonstrative Pronouns
  3. Japanese Interrogative Pronouns
  4. Japanese Indefinite Pronouns
  5. Examples
  6. Conclusion: How JapanesePod101 Can Help You Learn More Japanese

1. Japanese Personal Pronouns

Introduce Yourself

Personal pronouns in Japanese are rich in expression, and there are dozens of first- and second-person pronouns. However, most of them aren’t commonly used so we’ll introduce frequently used Japanese personal pronouns here.

1. 1st, 2nd, 3rd Person Singular

1. How to Say “I”

ReadingKanjiHiraganaLevel of FormalityGenderCharacteristics
watakushiわたくしvery formalbothVery formal and polite personal pronoun often used in very official occasions.
watashiわたしformal / informalbothUsed by both genders in formal occasions, such as at the workplace. This is the most commonly used word for “I,” but it’s often omitted in a sentence. In informal situations, this is typically used by women.
atashiあたしinformalfemaleThis is the casual version of watashi and it’s used by younger females in conversations. However, it can sound a bit childish and unsophisticated.
bokuぼくinformalmaleUsed by males of all ages, but very often by kids and younger men. It gives an impression of  humbleness. This can also be used as a second-person pronoun toward little boys (English equivalent: “kid”).
oreおれvery informalmaleFrequently used by men in informal settings, such as among family and friends. It sounds very masculine. This can be very rude when it’s used in formal occasions or in front of respectable/senior people.

2. How to Say “You”

ReadingKanjiHiraganaLevel of FormalityGenderCharacteristics
anata貴方あなたformal / informalbothThis is almost equivalent to the English word “you.” However, it’s not often used as the subject in a sentence, and it’s often omitted. It’s more common to use a person’s name with a Japanese honorific, such as 様 (sama) or さん (san), to express “you” in formal contexts. In addition, wives often call their husbands by this Japanese pronoun. When used this way, it’s comparable to the English words “dear” or “darling.” Kanji is rarely used.
kimiきみinformalbothOften used to call subordinates and peers in informal settings. It can also be affectionate and polite when used by a boyfriend/husband to call his girlfriend/wife. It’s impolite and inappropriate when used with respectable/senior people or strangers. The Kanji 君 can also be read as kun when it’s added next to a male’s name as a casual and affectionate honorific word.
omaeお前おまえvery informalboth / maleOften used by men. It expresses that the speaker has a superior status or age, and it’s very rude to use this toward senior people and in formal settings. It’s also used among close friends to call peers. In addition, husbands frequently call their wives by this pronoun, which is comparable to the female use of anata.
antaあんたvery informalbothIt’s a short version of anata, but it sounds very impolite and implies a sense of contempt. It can also be used between people in a very close relationship. It’s very rude and inappropriate to use toward  senior people and in formal settings.
kisama貴様きさまvery rude and hostilebothThe historical origin of this word was very formal, but it’s used today as a very rude way to call another person. It has a sense of extreme hostility from the speaker. You’ll often hear this in  時代劇 (jidaigeki) (samurai warrior) drama shows.
Two Women Having a Casual Chat.

3. How to Say “He” and “She”

Does Japanese have gendered pronouns? Sort of. Here’s what we mean:

ReadingKanjiHiraganaLevel of Formality
kareかれformal / informal
kanojo彼女かのじょformal / informal

The Japanese pronouns for the third person are above. However, they’re not used like they are in English.

Native Japanese people prefer to use the person’s name, or to describe them as あの人 (ano hito), meaning “that person,” which makes it unnecessary to indicate gender.

In informal settings, 彼 (kare) means “boyfriend” and 彼女 (kanojo) means “girlfriend.”

2. 1st, 2nd, 3rd Person Plural

In order to make Japanese personal pronouns plural, a suffix is added to them.
The suffix can be ~達 (-tachi ), ~方 (-gata), or ~ら (-ra), depending on which word comes in front.

MeaningSuffixReadingLevel of Formality
We-tachiwatashi-tachineutral / formal
You [plural]-tachianata-tachineutral / formal
You [plural]-gataanata-gataformal
They [he, plural]-rakare-raneutral / formal
They [she, plural]-rakanojo-raneutral / formal

The suffix 達 (-tachi) can be added to most of the nouns that refer to people and animals. For example, 動物達(dōbutsu-tachi) means “animals.”

Old Japanese Couple Drinking Tea Together.

3. Possessive Forms

To make Japanese possessive pronouns, add the suffix の (〜no) to the pronouns.

MeaningReading
minewatashi no
yoursanata no
hiskare no
herskanojo no
ourswatashi-tachi no
theirskare-ra no

4. Reflective or Intensive Forms

To make Japanese reflexive pronouns or intensive forms, add the suffix 自身 (〜jishin) to the pronouns.

MeaningReading
myselfwatashi jishin
yourselfanata jishin
himselfkare jishin
herselfkanojo jishin
ourselveswatashi-tachi jishin
themselveskare-ra jishin

To hear how to pronounce Japanese pronouns, visit Most Useful Pronouns.

2. Japanese Demonstrative Pronouns

Basic Questions

Demonstrative pronouns in Japanese are typically written in Hiragana. Further, Japanese demonstrative pronouns are easy to remember as they’re categorized in groups depending on their degree of distance from the speaker or listener.

Words that:

  • begin with こ (ko-) indicate something close to the speaker. 
  • begin with そ (so-) indicate some distance from the speaker or something close to the listener.
  • begin with あ (a-) indicate far distance.
MeaningReadingHiraganaNotes
thiskoreこれnear speaker
itsoreそれnear listener
thatareあれdistant from both speaker and listener
thesekore-raこれらnear speaker
thosesore-ra /
are-ra
それら/
あれら
near listener /
distant from both speaker and listener
herekokoここnear speaker
theresokoそこnear listener
over thereasokoあそこdistant from both speaker and listener

3. Japanese Interrogative Pronouns

Similar to demonstrative pronouns, most of the Japanese interrogative pronouns begin with ど (do-) or だ (da-).

MeaningReadingKanjiHiragana
whatnaniなに
whichdono / doreどの/どれ
whodareだれ
whomdare ni誰に誰に
whosedare no誰のだれの
whenitsuいつ
whynazeなぜ

Keep in mind that “whose” is a possessive form of “who,” and the rules of the Japanese possessive forms also apply:

誰 (dare) meaning “who” + の (〜no) = 誰の (dare no) meaning “whose.”

Woman with Question Marks above Head

4. Japanese Indefinite Pronouns

In the Japanese language, “everyone/everybody” and “anyone/anybody” are both translated as 誰でも (dare demo) in some contexts.

In a negative sentence using indefinite pronouns such as “no one/nobody,” “nowhere,” and “nothing,” a negative form is typically: も…ない (...mo…nai …).

MeaningReadingKanjiHiragana
everyone /
everybody
minna / dare demo皆/誰でもみんな/だれでも
everywheredoko demo /
doko ni mo
どこでも/どこにも
everythingsubete / zenbu全て/全部すべて/ぜんぶ
someone /
somebody
dare ka誰かだれか
somewheredoko kaどこか
somethingnani ka何かなにか
no one /
nobody
dare mo…nai誰も…ないだれも…ない
nowheredoko ni mo…naiどこにも…ない
nothingnani mo…nai何も…ないなにも…ない
anyone /
anybody
dare demo誰でもだれでも
anywheredoko demo /
doko ni mo
どこでも/どこにも
anythingnan demo何でもなんでも
Looking for Something on TV

5. Examples

Now that we’ve come to the end of this Japanese pronouns list, here are some example sentences using Japanese pronouns.

1. Personal Pronouns

  • あなたと私は東京出身で、彼と彼女は大阪出身です。

Anata to watashi wa Tōkyō shusshin de, kare to kanojo wa Ōsaka shusshin desu. 

You and I are from Tokyo, and he and she are from Osaka.

  • 年上の人に向かって「お前」や「貴様」と呼ぶことはとても失礼です。

Toshiue no hito ni mukatte “omae” ya “kisama” to yobu koto wa totemo shitsurei desu.

It is very rude to call an elder person omae and kisama.

  • 私達は明日、君の誕生日会へ行きます。

Watashi-tachi wa ashita, kimi no tanjōbi kai e ikimasu.

We will go to your birthday party tomorrow.

2. Demonstrative Pronouns

  • それをここに持ってきてください。

Sore o koko ni motte kite kudasai. 

Please bring it here.

  • これらの本はあそこの棚へ戻してください。

Kore-ra no hon wa asoko no tana e modoshite kudasai. 

Please put these books back on the shelf over there.

  • 彼らはここからあなたの家へ出発しました。

Kare-ra wa koko kara anata no ie e shuppatsu shimashita.

They departed to your home from here.

3. Interrogative Pronouns

  • 私はなぜあそこに行かなければならないか分かりません。

Watashi wa naze aoko ni ikanakereba naranai ka wakarimasen. 

I don’t understand why I have to go there.

  • 誰に向かって話しているのですか。

Dare ni mukatte hanashite iru no desu ka.

To whom are you talking?

  • あそこのあの靴は誰のですか。

Asoko no ano kutsu wa dare no desu ka.

Whose shoes are those there?

4. Indefinite Pronouns

  • 彼女はどこかに全てを置いてきました。

Kanojo wa doko ka ni subete o oite kimashita. 

She left everything somewhere.

  • 誰もあのような変な服を持っていないでしょう。

Dare mo ano yō na hen na fuku o motte inai deshō.

No one would have strange clothes like that.

  • 誰かが彼にここで何でも食べていいと伝えました。

Dare ka ga kare ni koko de nan demo tabete ii to tsutaemashita.

Somebody told him that he could eat anything here.

 To learn more useful Japanese vocabulary, check out our 100 Adjectives and 100 Nouns articles.

6. Conclusion: How JapanesePod101 Can Help You Learn More Japanese

Improve Listening

In this article, we introduced you to a variety of common pronouns in Japanese. By now, you should have an enhanced vocabulary and have a better idea of how to use Japanese pronouns. This is something that will definitely improve your overall Japanese language skills! 

Did you learn something new from this article? Do you want to know more about Japanese grammar? Let us know in the comments section below!

If you would like to learn more about the Japanese language and other useful Japanese phrases for any situation, you’ll find more helpful content on JapanesePod101.com. We provide a variety of free lessons to help you improve your Japanese language skills. 

To get you started, here’s some more information about the basics of Japanese, with audio:

To learn how to converse in Japanese, check out Top 15 Questions You Should Know for Conversations and Top 10 Conversational Phrases. Basic Kanji for Verbs and Basic Kanji for Adjectives are also useful if you want to learn Japanese kanji.

And there’s so much more! Learn faster and enjoy studying Japanese at JapanesePod101.com!

Log in to Download Your Free Cheat Sheet - Beginner Vocabulary in Japanese

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I was given a similar task on JapanesePod101.com with the “Ultimate Japanese Pronunciation Guide” pathway. My Japanese language teacher tested my pronunciation of the Japanese characters kana. My completion of the two pathways boosted my confidence in speaking.

Speaking is one of the more challenging components of learning a language. The voice recording tool in particular was a great way for me to improve my speaking skills. Further, because the lesson dialogues are spoken by native speakers, I’m able to practice speaking naturally.

This feature is also available for vocabulary words and sample sentences. Being able to hear these recordings improves my pronunciation skills for languages like Japanese, where intonation can change the meaning of a word entirely. The voice recorder examines my speed and tone. I also follow up by sending a recording to my online language tutor for feedback.

A great way to boost one’s speaking confidence is to shadow native speakers. During the vocabulary reviews, it’s helpful for me to hear the breakdown of each word; doing so makes a word that was originally difficult to even read a breeze to say!

Some lessons create opportunities to speak your own sentences. For example, the “Top 25 Korean Questions You Need to Know” pathway presents opportunities to answer questions personally. This helps you gain the ability to give answers as the unique individual you are.

Example Scenario:

The host asks the following question:

어디에 살고 있습니까?

eodieseo salgo isseumnikka

“Where do you live?”

If you live in Tokyo, you would readily say the following:

도쿄에 살고 있습니다.

Tokyo-e salgo isseumnida.

“I live in Tokyo.”

Increase Your Vocab with Spaced-Repetition Flashcards and More!

A child learning words with flashcards

Imagine having a conversation with a native speaker and hesitating because you lack a solid vocabulary base.

Premium PLUS offers various features to expand learners’ vocabulary, including Free Gifts of the Month. JapanesePod101’s free gifts for April 2020 included an e-book with “400 Everyday Phrases for Beginners,” and the content is updated every month. When I download free resources like this, I find opportunities to use them with co-teachers, friends, or my language tutors.

An effective way to learn vocabulary is with SRS flashcards. SRS is a system designed for learning a new word and reviewing it in varying time intervals.

You can create and study flashcard decks, whether it’s your Word Bank or a certain vocabulary list. For example, if you need to visit a post office, the “Post Office” vocabulary list for your target language would be beneficial to study prior to your visit.

In addition to the SRS flashcards, each lesson has a vocabulary slideshow and quiz to review the lesson’s vocabulary.

There’s also the 2000 Core Word List, which includes the most commonly used words in your target language. Starting from the 100 Core Word List, you’ll gradually build up your knowledge of useful vocabulary. These lists can be studied with SRS flashcards, too.

With the SRS flashcards, you can change the settings to your liking. The settings range from different card types to number of new cards per deck. Personally, I give myself vocabulary tests by changing the settings.

After studying a number of flashcards, I change the card types to listening comprehension and/or production. Then I test myself by writing the translation of the word or the spoken word or phrase.

The change in settings allow me to remember vocabulary and learn how to identify the words. This is especially helpful with Japanese kanji!

Complete Homework Assignments!

A woman studying at home

Homework assignments are advantageous to my language studies. There are homework assignments auto-generated weekly. They range from multiple-choice quizzes to writing assignments.

Language tutors are readily available for homework help. Some writing assignments, for instance, require use of unfamiliar vocabulary. In such cases, my language teachers assist me by forwarding related lessons or vocabulary lists.

In addition to these auto-generated homework tasks, language tutors customize daily assignments. My daily homework assignments include submitting three written sentences that apply the target grammar point of that lesson, and then blindly audio-recording those sentences. My personal language tutor follows up with feedback and corrections, if needed.

Your language tutors also provide assignments upon requests. When I wanted to review grammar, my Korean teacher sent related quizzes and assignments. Thus, you are not only limited to the auto-generated assignments.

Every weekend, I review by re-reading those written sentences. It helps me remember sentence structures, grammar points, and vocabulary to apply in real-world contexts.

Furthermore, I can track my progress with language portfolios every trimester. It’s like a midterm exam that tests my listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills.

Get Your Own Personal Language Teacher!

A woman teaching pronunciation in a classroom

My language teachers cater to my goals with personalized and achievable learning programs. The tangible support of my online language teachers makes it evident that we share common goals.

Once I share a short-term or long-term goal with my teacher, we establish a plan or pathway that will ultimately result in success. I coordinate with my teachers regularly to ensure the personalized learning programs are prosperous. For example, during my JLPT studies, my Japanese language tutor assigned me practice tests.

Your language tutor is available for outside help as well. When I bought drama CDs in Japan, I had difficulty transliterating the dialogue. My Japanese teacher forwarded me the script to read along as I listened.

Additionally, I often practice Korean and Japanese with music. I memorize one line of the lyrics daily. Every time, I learn a new grammar point and new vocabulary. I add the vocabulary to my SRS flashcards, locate the grammar in the Grammar Bank, and study the associated lessons online.

I send my teachers the name of the songs, making them aware of my new goal. One time, my song for Korean was “If You Do” by GOT7. My Korean teacher revealed that she was a huge fan of GOT7 like me! For Japanese, it was “CHA-LA HEAD-CHA-LA,” also known as the Dragonball Z theme song. My Japanese teacher excitedly told me that she sang the song a lot as a kid!

A remarkable thing happened to me in South Korea. I was stressed about opening a bank account with limited Korean. I sought help from my Korean teacher. She forwarded me a script of a bank conversation.

After two days, I visited the local bank. It all started with my opening sentence:

은행 계좌를 만들고 싶어요

eunhaeng gyejwaleul mandeulgo sip-eoyo.

I want to open a bank account.

Everything went smoothly, and I exited the bank with a new account!

The MyTeacher Messenger allows me to share visuals with my teachers for regular interaction, including videos to critique my pronunciation mechanisms. I improve my listening and speaking skills by exchanging audio with my teachers. In addition to my written homework assignments, I exchange messages with my language teachers in my target language. This connection with my teachers enables me to experience the culture as well as the language.

Why You Should Subscribe to Premium PLUS

It’s impossible for me to imagine my continuous progress with Japanese and Korean without Premium PLUS. Everything—from the SRS flashcards to my language teachers—makes learning languages enjoyable and clear-cut.

You’re assured to undergo the same experience with Premium PLUS. You’ll gain access to the aforementioned features as well as all of the Premium features.

Complete lessons and assignments to advance in your target language. Increase your vocabulary with the “2000 Core Word List” for that language and SRS flashcards. Learn on-the-go with the Innovative Language app and/or Podcasts app for iOS users.

Learning a new language takes dedication and commitment. The Premium PLUS features make learning irresistibly exciting. You’ll look forward to learning daily with your language tutor.

As of right now, your challenge is to subscribe to Premium PLUS! Complete your assessment, and meet your new Japanese teacher.

Have fun learning your target language in the fastest and easiest way!

Subscribe to Posted by JapanesePod101.com in Feature Spotlight, Japanese Language, Japanese Online, Learn Japanese, Learn Japanese, Site Features, Speak Japanese, Team JapanesePod101, Team JapanesePod101

Giving and Asking for Directions: “Right” in Japanese & More



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Knowing how to ask for directions in Japanese is very helpful when it comes to getting around in Japan. In particular, finding the right address can be a bit confusing, because smaller streets in Japan aren’t named and addresses are expressed with the name of a small area and numbers.

Along with knowing how to ask directions in Japanese, understanding the directions you were told is even more important. This ensures that you can reach the destination with the information given. (You don’t want to mistake “right” in Japanese for left!)

But don’t worry! Japanese people are kind in general, and they’ll stop to listen and help you when you ask them for directions in Japanese.

Here’s some useful vocabulary and phrases for giving and asking for directions in Japanese. Master directions in Japanese at JapanesePod101.com and find your way to exciting destinations!

Log in to Download Your Free Cheat Sheet - Around Town in Japanese
Table of Contents
  1. On the Map: Cardinal Directions in Japanese
  2. On the Road
  3. Giving Directions in Japanese Using Landmarks
  4. Must-Know Phrases for Asking for Directions in Japanese
  5. Must-Know Phrases for Giving Directions in Japanese
  6. Other Useful Phrases for Asking Directions with Map/Phone
  7. Conclusion: How JapanesePod101 Can Help You Learn More Japanese

1. On the Map: Cardinal Directions in Japanese

Directions
Let’s master the basic compass directions in Japanese for reading the map.

1- Basic Vocabulary


ReadingKanjiHiraganaEnglish
kitaきたnorth
minamiみなみsouth
nishi西にしwest
higashiひがしeast
hokusei北西ほくせいnorthwest
hokutō北東ほくとうnorthwest
nantō南東なんとうsoutheast
nansei南西なんせいsouthwest
chizu地図ちずmap
genzaichi現在地げんざいちcurrent location


2- Examples

  • 皇居は現在地から北東へ5kmの場所にあります。
    Kōkyo wa genzaichi kara hokutō e go-kiromētoru no basho ni arimasu.
    The Imperial Palace is located 5km northeast from the current location.

  • 日本の地理は、北の北海道、東の関東、西の関西、南の九州が特徴です。
    Nihon no chiri wa, kita no Hokkaidō, higashi no Kantō, nishi no Kansai, minami no Kyūshū ga tokuchō desu.
    The geography of Japan is characterized by Hokkaidō of the North, Kantō of the East, Kansai of the West, and Kyūshū of the south.

  • 横浜は、東京の南に位置しています。
    Yokohama wa Tōkyō no minami ni ichi shite imasu. 
    Yokohama is located in the south of Tokyo.

Person Looking through a Map Book The Japanese map shows the major roads with names, but small streets don’t have names. It’s useful to know the word kita, meaning “north” in Japanese, for reading the map.

2. On the Road

Knowing how to say directions in Japanese for the road, such as right and left in Japanese, is very useful. The vocabulary below is essential for giving and receiving driving directions in Japanese!

1- Basic Vocabulary


ReadingKanjiHiraganaEnglish
maeまえfront
ushiro後ろうしろback
hidariひだりleft
migiみぎright
tōi遠いとおいfar
chikai近いちかいclose
kokoここhere
asokoあそこthere
massuguまっすぐstraight
tonariとなりnext
watatta渡ったわたったacross
kōsaten交差点こうさてんintersection
kado o magaru角を曲がるかどをまがるturn the corner


2- Examples

  • 東京タワーは東京プリンスホテルの隣にあります。次の角を右に曲がって、まっすぐ進んでください。
    Tōkyō Tawā wa Tōkyō Prince Hotel no tonari ni arimasu. Tsugi no kado o migi ni magatte, massugu susunde kudasai.
    Tokyo Tower is located next to Tokyo Prince Hotel. Please turn right at the next corner and go straight.

  • 明治神宮は原宿駅から200mくらいの場所で、近いです。
    Meiji Jingū wa Harajuku Eki kara ni-hyaku-mētoru kurai no basho de, chikai desu.
    Meiji Jingū is located around 200m away from Harajuku Station and it is close.

  • 都庁のビルは、新宿中央公園から交差点を渡った場所にあります。
    Tochō no biru wa, Shinjuku Chūō Kōen kara kōsaten o watatta basho ni arimasu. 
    The Tokyo Metropolitan Government Building is located across the intersection from Shinjuku Central Park.

  • あそこの交差点を左に曲がって道をまっすぐ行くと、前に駅が見えます。
    Asoko no kōsaten o hidari ni magatte michi o massugu iku to, mae ni eki ga miemasu. 
    When you turn left at the intersection there, go straight on the street; you will see the station in front.

Traffic at an Intersection

When you’re at an intersection or on a road, migi, meaning “right” in Japanese, and hidari, meaning “left” in Japanese, are essential words to use for giving/asking directions.

3. Giving Directions in Japanese Using Landmarks


A landmark is an object or feature of a landscape or city that’s easily seen and recognized from a distance. Know the basic vocabulary for landmarks will help you understand when you’re getting directions in Japanese.

1- In the City: Basic Vocabulary


ReadingKanjiHiragana / KatakanaEnglish
kūkō空港くうこうairport
chikatetsu no ek地下鉄の駅ちかてつのえきsubway station
machi no chūshinchi街の中心地まちのちゅうしんちcenter of the city
kōen公園こうえんpark
hoteruホテルhotel
byōin病院びょういんhospital
ginkō銀行ぎんこうbank


Examples

  • 地下鉄の駅は、この道をまっすぐ進むと、銀行の隣にあります。
    Chikatetsu no eki wa, kono michi o massugu susumu to, ginkō no tonari ni arimasu.
    The subway station is located next to the bank when you go straight on this road.

  • この街の中心地は駅の近くで、あそこの病院を右に曲がって500mくらいの場所にあります。
    Kono machi no chūshinchi wa eki no chikaku de, asoko no byōin o migi ni magatte go-hyaku-mētoru kurai no basho ni arimasu.
    The center of this city is located near the station, and it’s 500m away after you turn right at the hospital there.

  • この交差点を左に曲がると、地下鉄の駅があります。
    Kono kōsaten o hidari ni magaru to, chikatetsu no eki ga arimasu. 
    When you turn left at this intersection, the subway station is there.


2- On the Road: Basic Vocabulary


ReadingKanjiHiragana / KatakanaEnglish
shingō信号しんごうtraffic light
ōdanhodō横断歩道おうだんほどうcrosswalk
kadoかどcorner
tatemono / biru建物 / ビルたてもの / ビルbuilding
kōban / keisatsusho交番 / 警察署こうばん / けいさつしょpolice station
ekiえきtrain station
basuteiバス停バスていbus stop
hashiはしbridge


A 交番 こうばん (kōban) is a small police station in a community, and is the smallest unit of the police structure in Japan. On the other hand, a 警察署 けいさつしょ (keisatsusho) is a large police station which is usually the headquarters of the police station in a city or area.

Examples

  • 駅は、あの横断歩道を渡って右にある高い建物の後ろにあります。
    Eki wa, ano ōdanhodō o watatte migi ni aru takai tatemono no ushiro ni arimasu.
    The train station is located at the back of the tall building on the right after crossing that crosswalk.

  • この道をまっすぐ進むと、左に交番が見えます。交番の角を右に曲がるとバス停があります。
    Kono michi o massugu susumu to, hidari ni kōban ga miemasu. Kōban no kado o migi ni magaru to basutei ga arimasu.
    When you go straight on this street, you will see the police station on your left. There is the bus stop after you turn right at the corner of the police station.

  • あの橋を渡って見える大きい建物は横浜ホテルです。
    Ano hashi o watatte mieru ōkii tatemono wa Yokohama Hotel desu.
    The big building you see across that bridge is Yokohama Hotel.


Tokyo Tower at Night Tokyo Tower is one of the most famous landmarks in Tokyo.

3- In a Structure/Building: Basic Vocabulary


ReadingKanjiHiragana / KatakanaEnglish
iriguchi入口いりぐちentrance
deguchi出口でぐちexit
keshōshitsu / toire化粧室 / トイレけしょうしつ / トイレrestroom
kaidan階段階段stairs
erebētāエレベーターelevator
monもんgate
chūshajō駐車場ちゅうしゃじょうparking lot


Examples

  • 地下鉄の駅の入口は、この階段を降りた右側にあります。
    Chikatetsu no eki no iriguchi wa, kono kaidan o orita migigawa ni arimasu.
    The entrance of the subway station is located at the right side after going down the stairs.

  • トイレはこのビルの3階にあります。あのエレベーターで3階に行けます。
    Toire wa kono biru no san-kai ni arimasu. Ano erebētā de san-kai ni ikemasu.
    There is a toilet on the third floor in this building. You can go to the third floor with that elevator.

  • あの駐車場の門の隣に出口があります。
    Anochūshajō no mon no tonari ni deguchi ga arimasu.
    There is an exit next to that gate in the parking lot.

Train station in Japan There are many exit gates in the large stations in Japan’s larger cities.

4. Must-Know Phrases for Asking for Directions in Japanese


Asking Directions

Here’s a list of useful phrases and examples for how to ask for directions in Japanese.

1- Polite Phrases to Begin Your Question


すみません (sumimasen) — Excuse me

すみません、この駅の入口はどこですか。
Sumimasen, kono eki no iriguchi wa doko desu ka.  
Excuse me, where is the entrance to this station?

ちょっといいですか。(Chotto ii desu ka.) — Can I talk to you? / May I ask a bit?

ちょっといいですか。渋谷駅はどこですか。
Chotto ii desu ka. Shibuya Eki wa doko desu ka.
Can I talk to you a bit? Where is Shibuya station?

助けてもらえますか。(Tasukete moraemasu ka.) — Will you help me?

助けてもらえますか。空港までの行き方を教えてくれませんか。
Tasukete moraemasu ka. Kūkō made no ikikata o oshiete kuremasen ka.
Will you help me? Can you show me the way to go to the airport?

2- Example Phrases Using “Where is…?”


…はどこですか。(… wa doko desu ka.) — Where is …?
  • すみません、トイレはどこですか。
    Sumimasen, toire wa doko desu ka.
    Excuse me, where is the toilet?

  • ちょっといいですか。代々木公園はどこですか。
    Chotto ii desu ka. Yoyogi Kōen wa doko desu ka.
    Can I talk to you? Where is Yoyogi Park?

  • すみません、お台場はどこですか。
    Sumimasen, Odaiba wa doko desu ka.
    Excuse me, where is Odaiba?


3- Example Phrases Using “How do I get to…?”


…にはどうやって行けばいいですか。 (… ni wa dō yatte ikeba ii desu ka.) — How do I get to…?  
  • 浅草にはどうやって行けばいいですか。
    Asakusa ni wa dō yatte ikeba ii desu ka.
    How do I get to Asakusa?

  • 皇居方面の出口にはどうやって行けばいいですか。
    Kōkyo hōmen no deguchi ni wa dō yatte ikeba ii desu ka.
    How do I get to the exit toward the Imperial Palace?


4- Example Phrases Using “How far is …?” / “Is … far from here?”


…はどの位遠いですか。 (…wa dono kurai tōi desu ka.) — How far is …?

…はここから遠いですか。(…wa koko kara tōi desu ka.) — Is … far from here?
  • 東京タワーはどの位遠いですか。
    Tōkyō Tawā wa dono kurai tōi desu ka.
    How far is Tokyo Tower?

  • 駅はここから遠いですか。
    Eki wa koko kara tōi desu ka.
    Is the train station far from here?


5- Example Courtesy Phrases to Thank People


ありがとうございます (arigatō gozaimasu) — Thank you.
  • ありがとうございます、とても助かりました。
    Arigatō gozaimasu, totemo tasukarimashita.
    Thank you, it helped me a lot.

分かりました、ありがとうございます。(wakarimashita, arigatō gozaimasu.) — I see, thank you. 
  • 駅への行き方分かりました、ありがとうございます。
    Eki e no ikikata wakarimashita, arigatō gozaimasu.
    I see how to get to the station, thank you.

親切にありがとうございました (shinsetsu ni arigatō gozaimashita.) — Thank you for your kindness.
  • 建物の入り口まで連れて来てくれて、親切にありがとうございました。
    Tatemono no iriguchi made tsurete kite kurete, shinsetsu ni arigatō gozaimashita.
    Thank you for your kindness by taking me to the entrance of the building.


For more about saying thank you in Japanese, check out Common Ways to Say Thank You.

To learn greetings in Japanese, visit Japanese Greetings.

Foreigner Talking with a Japanese Person Outside Japanese people are very kind in general to show you the way to your destination.

5. Must-Know Phrases for Giving Directions in Japanese

Here’s a list of useful phrases and examples for giving directions in Japanese. You’ll also find taxi directions in Japanese that you can use as needed.

1- go straight

Japanese: まっすぐ進みます
Reading: massugu susumi masu
  • 地下鉄の駅へはこの道をまっすぐ進みます。
    Chikatetsu no eki e wa kono michi o massugu susumimasu.
    Go straight on this road to the subway station.

2- go back

Japanese: 戻ります
Reading: modorimasu
  • 新宿駅へはこの道を、あの信号まで戻ります。
    Shinjuku Eki e wa kono michi o, ano shingō made modorimasu.
    Go back on this road until that traffic light to Shinjuku Station.

3- turn left/right

Japanese: 左 / 右へ曲がります
Reading: hidari / migi e magarimasu
  • あの信号を左へ曲がります。
    Ano shingō o hidari e magarimasu.
    Turn left at that traffic light.

4- turn left / right at corner / intersection

Japanese: 角 / 交差点を左 / 右へ曲がります
Reading: kado / kōsaten o hidari / migi e magarimasu
  • あの高いビルがある交差点を右へ曲がります。
    Ano takai biru ga aru kōsaten o migi e magarimasu.
    Turn right at the intersection where that tall building is.

5- on … floor

Japanese: …階
Reading: …kai
  • トイレは5階にあります。
    Toire wa go-kai ni arimasu.
    The toilet is on the fifth floor.

6- go upstairs / downstairs

Japanese: 階段を上がります / 下がります
Reading: kaidan o agarimasu / sagarimasu
  • トイレへはこの階段を上がります。
    Toire e wa kono kaidan o agarimasu.
    Go upstairs to the toilet.

7- (to a driver) keep going

Japanese: このまま行ってください
Reading: kono mama itte kudasai
  • この道をこのまま行ってください。
    Kono michi o kono mama itte kudasai.
    Keep going on this road.

8- (to a driver) stop here

Japanese: ここで止まってください
Reading: koko de tomatte kudasai
  • ホテルはここです。ここで止まってください。
    Hoteru wa koko desu. Koko de tomatte kudasai.
    The hotel is here. Please stop here.

9- (to a driver) hurry up

Japanese: 急いでください
Reading: isoide kudasai
  • 時間があまりないので急いでください。
    Jikan ga amari nai node isoide kudasai.
    Please hurry up because there’s not much time.

10- (to a driver) slow down

Japanese: 速度を落としてください
Reading: sokudo o otoshite kudasai
  • 急いでないので速度を落としてください。
    Isoide nai node sokudo o otoshite kudasai.
    Please slow down because I’m not in a hurry.

11- (to a driver) short-cut

Japanese: 近道
Reading: chikamichi
  • 駅への近道を知っていますか。
    Eki e no chikamichi o shitte imasu ka.
    Do you know the short-cut to the station?

12- You won’t miss it (you will see it immediately)

Japanese: すぐに分かります
Reading: sugu ni wakarimasu
  • 駅はあの銀行の裏です。すぐに分かりますよ。
    Eki wa ano ginkō no ura desu. Sugu ni wakarimasu yo.
    The station is behind that bank. You won’t miss it.

13- You will see xxx on the right / left side

Japanese: XXXは右 / 左に見えます
Reading: XXX wa migi / hidari ni miemasu 
  • この道をまっすぐ行くと、駅が左に見えます。
    Kono michi o massugu iku to, eki ga hidari ni miemasu.
    When you go straight on this road, you will see the station on the left side.


A Japanese Taxi The door of a Japanese taxi opens automatically for you.

6. Other Useful Phrases for Asking Directions with Map/Phone


Basic Questions

Even if you’re using your phone to search for directions, it’s often confusing and difficult to figure it out in a foreign country. Here’s a list of useful phrases for asking directions in Japanese using a map or phone.

1- Can you indicate … on this map?

Japanese: …をこの地図で示してください。
Reading: …o kono chizu de shimeshite kudasai
  • 西新宿2丁目の2をこの地図で示してください。
    Nishi-Shinjuku ni-chō-me no ni o kono chizu de shimeshite kudasai.
    Can you indicate 2-2 Nishi-Shinjuku, please?

2- Please type the name of XXX on my phone / Google Maps

Japanese: 私の電話 / グーグルマップにXXXの名前を打ってください。
Reading: watashi no denwa / Gūguru Mappu ni XXX no namae o utte kudasai.
  • グーグルマップに両国国技館の名前を打ってください。
    Gūguru Mappu ni Ryōgoku Kokugikan (Kokugikan 国技館) no namae o utte kudasai.
    Please type the name of the Ryōgoku Sumo Hall on Google Maps.

3- Can you find XXX on Google Maps, please?

Japanese: XXXをグーグルマップで探してくれませんか。
Reading: XXX o Gūguru Mappu de sagashite kuremasen ka.
  • この住所をグーグルマップで探してくれませんか。
    Kono jūsho o Gūguru Mappu de sagashite kuremasen ka.
    Can you find this address on Google Maps, please?


Person Using a Smartphone It’s useful to use a smartphone to search for locations, but it’s sometimes difficult to search for things in foreign languages.

7. Conclusion: How JapanesePod101 Can Help You Learn More Japanese


In this article, we introduced the vocabulary and phrases for giving and asking directions in Japanese, including the basic cardinal directions for reading the map. When you ask Chikatetsu no eki wa doko desu ka. (“Where is the subway station?”), you should now be able to understand someone’s reply while giving directions in Japanese: Chikatetsu no eki e wa kono michi o massugu susumimasu. (“Go straight on this road to the subway station”).

I hope you enjoy getting around in Japan smoothly after learning directions in Japanese here!

Are there any phrases or direction vocabulary in Japanese you still want to know? Leave your comments and let us know; we look forward to hearing from you!

If you would like to learn more about the Japanese language and other useful Japanese phrases for various situations, you’ll find a lot more helpful content on JapanesePod101.com. We provide a variety of free lessons for you to improve your Japanese language skills. For example, here’s some more information about directions in Japanese with audio: Direction Words, Kanji for Direction and Position, and Position / Direction.

To learn how to make conversations in Japanese, check out Top 15 Questions You Should Know for Conversations and Top 10 Conversational Phrases. Survival Words & Phrases for Your Next Trip to Japan, Traveling, and Top 30 Travel Phrases You Should Know are also useful if plan on traveling to Japan.

There’s still so much more! Learn faster and enjoy studying Japanese at JapanesePod101.com!

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Guide to the Top 100+ Japanese Nouns

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Expanding one’s vocabulary is one of the most essential elements in improving one’s language skills. Learning Japanese nouns will help you boost your knowledge of the Japanese language because nouns occupy the majority of the language’s words. Knowing the top 100 Japanese nouns is the first step to enhance your Japanese vocabulary.

Japanese nouns are used to name a person, place, thing, or idea. Contrary to English, Japanese nouns don’t accompany any articles, such as “a” and “the.” In addition, there are no certain rules for indicating, in a precise sense, whether a noun is singular or plural. For example, there’s the word 達(たち) [tachi], which indicates a plural form of people or creatures when it’s put next to a noun (e.g. 動物 + 達 = 動物達:animals).

In most cases, however, Japanese nouns don’t have anything added to indicate the difference between singular and plural. In order to show that a certain noun in Japanese is plural, add another word such as たくさんの (takusan no), or “many,” and 二つの (futatsu no), or “two” in the sentence.

In this article, we introduce the 100 most common Japanese nouns. Let’s master the basic Japanese nouns in everyday life here at JapanesePod101! Here are the top Japanese nouns by category.

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Table of Contents
  1. Japanese Nouns: Appliances
  2. Japanese Nouns: Technology
  3. Japanese Nouns: Transportation
  4. Japanese Nouns: Food & Restaurants
  5. Japanese Nouns: School Essentials
  6. Japanese Nouns: Occupations
  7. Japanese Nouns: Family Members
  8. Japanese Nouns: Body Parts
  9. Japanese Nouns: Time
  10. 10. Conclusion: How JapanesePod101 Can Help You Learn More Japanese


1. Japanese Nouns: Appliances



Nouns 1

Before studying this basic Japanese nouns list, keep in mind that some of the imported words from other languages become Japanese words, or 和製英語 (wasei eigo), with a similar sound written in Katakana. For example, “television” is テレビ (terebi) in Japanese.

EnglishKanjiHiragana/KatakanaReading
1refrigerator冷蔵庫れいぞうこreizōko
2freezer冷凍庫れいとうこreitōko
3microwave電子レンジでんしれんじdenshi renji
4air conditioner冷房機/クーラーれいぼうき/クーラーreibōki / kūrā
5heater暖房機だんぼうきdanbōki
6laundry machine洗濯機せんたくきsentakuki
7hair dryerドライヤーdoraiyā
8TVテレビterebi


Examples

冷凍庫から氷と、冷蔵庫から飲み物を出してください。
Reitōko kara kōri to, reizōko kara nomimono o dashite kudasai.
Please take out ice from the freezer and drinks from the refrigerator.

お風呂の後はドライヤーで髪を乾かします。
O-furo no ato wa doraiyā de kami o kawakashimasu.
After taking a bath, I dry my hair with a hair dryer.

私はテレビを見ることが好きです。
Watashi wa terebi o miru koto ga suki desu.
I like watching TV.

電子レンジと洗濯機が壊れたので困っています。
Denshi renji to sentakuki ga kowareta node komatte imasu.
I’m upset because the microwave and laundry machine broke.

You can also check our more useful Japanese nouns for home appliances with Japanese pronunciations at our Home Appliances vocabulary list!

Air Conditioner

Air conditioner in Japanese is also called クーラー (kūrā), which comes from the word “cooler.”



2. Japanese Nouns: Technology



Most important Japanese nouns regarding technology originated from other countries and were imported to Japan. Expressed in Katakana, these imported words have Japanese pronunciation that resembles the original English words.

EnglishKanjiHiragana/KatakanaReading
9computerコンピューターconpyūtā
10laptopノートパソコンnōto pasokon
11tabletタブレットtaburetto
12cellphone携帯電話けいたいでんわkeitai denwa
13headphoneヘッドホンheddohon
14charger充電器じゅうでんきjyūdenki
15wifiワイファイwaifai
16appアプリapuri
17websiteウェブサイトwebusaito
18fileファイルfairu
19accountアカウントakaunto
20passwordパスワードpasuwādo


Examples

私はタブレットよりもノートパソコンの方が好きです。
Watshi wa taburetto yori mo nōto pasokon no hō ga suki desu.
I like laptops more than tablets.

ワイファイのパスワードは何ですか。
Waifai no pasuwādo wa nan desu ka.
What is the wifi password?

あなたの携帯電話の充電器を使ってもいいですか。
Anata no keitai denwa jyūdenki o tsukatte mo ii desu ka.
Can I use your mobile phone charger?

Our vocabulary list about the Top 20 Words You’ll Need for the Internet is also useful to learn Japanese nouns related to technology.

3. Japanese Nouns: Transportation



Transportation is an essential part of daily life. Some of the most useful Japanese nouns are vocabulary words related to transportation. This is especially true for those who travel in Japan, who may need to ask how to get around.

EnglishKanjiHiragana/KatakanaReading
21airplane飛行機ひこうきhikōki
22train電車でんしゃdensha
23subway地下鉄ちかてつchikatetsu
24busバスbasu
25taxiタクシーtakushī
26bicycle自転車じてんしゃjitensha
27stationえきeki
28bus stopバス停ばすていbasutei
29airport空港くうこうkūkō
30traffic light信号しんごうshingō
31intersection交差点こうさてんkōsaten
32road道/道路みち/どうろmichi/dōro


Example

一番近いバス停はどこですか。
Ichi-ban chikai basutei wa doko desu ka.
Where is the nearest bus stop?

私の町には地下鉄はありません。
Watashi no machi ni wa chikatetsu wa arimasen.
There is no subway in my town.

信号のある交差点を左に曲がります。
Shingō no aru kōsaten o hidari ni magarimasu.
Turn left at the intersection which has a traffic light.

Attendant Watching Train Leave

Public transportation is well-developed in Japan, especially in the large cities. Shinkansen is very famous for its super-fast speed and is popular among foreign tourists.



4. Japanese Nouns: Food & Restaurants



Whenever you go out to eat at restaurants, you look at a menu and order what you want to eat and drink. Knowing Japanese nouns and vocabulary related to restaurants makes your dining-out experience much smoother. Japan has a variety of foods and a wide range of ingredients are used in the Japanese food culture. If can’t eat certain things due to your religion, an allergy, or a discipline such as vegetarianism, you have to ask a staff member if your preferred meal is available. Here’s a common Japanese nouns list to help you do so!

EnglishKanjiHiragana/KatakanaReading
33menuメニューmenyū
34waiter/waitress店員てんいんten’in
35bill会計かいけいkaikei
36forkフォークfōku
37knifeナイフnaifu
38spoonスプーンsupūn
39chopsticks箸箸はしhashi
40waterみずmizu
41vegetables野菜やさいyasai
42beef牛肉ぎゅうにくgyūniku
43pork豚肉ぶたにくbutaniku
44chicken鶏肉とりにくtoriniku


Examples

ベジタリアンのメニューはありますか。
Bejitarian no menyū wa arimasu ka.  
Do you have a vegetarian menu?

お箸の使い方を教えてください。
O-hashi no tsukaikata o oshiete kudasai.
Please teach me how to use chopsticks.

私は豚肉を食べられません。
Watashi wa butaniku o taberaremasen.
I can’t eat pork.

For more about Japanese nouns related to food and restaurants, see our Food – Utensils & Tableware and Restaurant vocabulary lists.

Fully Set Dining Table

Japan has great food culture where you can find tasty food from low-end and high-end restaurants.



5. Japanese Nouns: School Essentials



The Japanese school system consists of elementary school, middle school, high school, and higher education such as universities and vocational schools. Compulsory education is six years of elementary school and three years of middle school, and both are free. Here are the most common nouns in Japanese related to school.

EnglishKanjiHiragana/KatakanaReading
45elementary school小学校しょうがっこうshōgakkō
46middle school中学校ちゅうがっこうshōgakkō
47high school高校こうこうkōkō
48college/university大学だいがくdaigaku
49student生徒/学生せいと/がくせいseito/gakusei
50teacher先生/教師せんせい/きょうしsensei/kyōshi
51major専攻せんこうsenkō
52degree学位がくいgakui
53exam試験しけんshiken
54homework宿題しゅくだいshukudai


Examples

あなたの専攻は何ですか。
Anata no senkō wa nan desu ka.
What is your major?

彼女は小学校の先生です。
Kanojo wa shōgakkō no sensei desu.
She is a teacher at an elementary school.

私は宿題を終えた後に遊びに行きます。
Watashi wa shukudai o oeta ato ni asobi ni ikimasu.
I will go and play after finishing my homework.

6. Japanese Nouns: Occupations



Nouns 2

To engage in certain occupations, one must pass the related national examinations. The most difficult occupations to attain in Japan are said to be a doctor, lawyer, and accountant, in terms of how difficult the national examinations are.

EnglishKanjiHiragana/KatakanaReading
55doctor医師いしishi
56nurse看護師かんごしkangoshi
57lawyer弁護士べんごしbengoshi
58chef料理人りょうりにんryōrinin
59businessperson実業家じつぎょうかjitsugyōka
60police officer警察官けいさつかんkeisatsukan
61firefighter消防士しょうぼうしshōbōshi
62engineer技術者ぎじゅつしゃgijutsusha
63civil servant公務員こうむいんkōmuin
64accountant会計士かいけいしkaikeishi


Examples

消防士になるのは難しいですか。
Shōbōshi ni naru no wa muzukashii desu ka.  
Is it difficult to become a firefighter?

私は警察官になりたいです。
Watashi wa keisatsukan ni naritai desu.
I want to become a police officer.

公務員の職業は安定しているので人気です。
Kōmuin no shokugyō wa antei shite iru node ninki desu.
The occupation of civil servant is popular because it is stable.

To hear how to pronounce the words on this Japanese list of nouns, see our Jobs / Work vocabulary list.

Group of Different Professions Some people take many years to pass the national examination to be a lawyer or accountant in Japan.

7. Japanese Nouns: Family Members



It’s useful to know Japanese nouns and vocabulary related to family members when you introduce yourself and describe your family to someone.

EnglishKanjiHiragana/KatakanaReading
65family家族かぞくkazoku
66mother母/お母さんはは/おかあさんhaha/o-kā-san
67father父/お父さんちち/おとうさんchichi/o-tō-san
68parentおやoya
69daughterむすめmusume
70son息子むすこmusuko
71grandma祖母そぼsobo
72grandpa祖父そふsofu


Examples

私の母は看護師です。
Watashi no haha wa kangoshi desu.
My mother is a nurse.

私の家族は5人家族です。
Watashi no kazoku wa go-nin kazoku desu.
My family has five family members.

彼女の息子は6歳です。
Kanojo no musuko wa roku-sai desu.
Her son is six years old.

Compared to English, Japanese has more words to describe family members according to age and style, and also uses both formal and informal forms. For more details on this, please visit our Japanese Family article and our Must-Know Terms for Family Members vocabulary list.

8. Japanese Nouns: Body Parts



Nouns 3

Knowing the Japanese nouns for the parts of the body is very useful, especially when it comes to health (e.g. seeing a doctor at a hospital or working out at the gym).

EnglishKanjiHiragana/KatakanaReading
73bodyからだkarada
74headあたまatama
75shoulderかたkata
76armうでude
77legあしashi
78chestむねmune
79abdomenはらhara
80faceかおkao
81eyeme
82noseはなhana
83mouthくちkuchi
84earみみmimi


Examples

風邪を引いたので頭が痛いです。
Kaze o hiita node atama ga itai desu.  
I have a headache because I caught a cold.

体を動かす運動は健康に良いです。
Karada o ugokasu undō wa kenkō ni ii desu.
Exercise that moves your body is good for health.

彼女は可愛い大きな目を持っています。
Kanojo wa kawaii ōkina me o motte imasu.
She has cute big eyes.

For more Japanese nouns of body parts, and to check their Japanese pronunciation, visit our Body Parts vocabulary list.

Photo of the Upper Bodies of Two Fit People

Many Japanese people are keen on diet and health.



9. Japanese Nouns: Time



Expressing the time is essential for everyday life. Learning the Japanese nouns for time is always useful for things such as scheduling plans, making an appointment, or just checking the time and date. Here’s our Japanese nouns list for words related to time.

EnglishKanjiHiragana/KatakanaReading
85today今日きょうkyō
86yesterday昨日きのうkinō
87tomorrow明日あしたkinō
88Monday月曜日げつようびgetsu-yōbi
89Tuesday火曜日かようびka-yōbi
90Wednesday水曜日すいようびsui-yōbi
91Thursday木曜日もくようびmoku-yōbi
92Friday金曜日きんようびkin-yōbi
93Saturday土曜日どようびdo-yōbi
94Saturday日曜日にちようびnichi-yōbi
95dayにち/ひnichi/hi
96weekしゅうshū
97monthつき/げつtsuki/getsu
98year (as unit)とし/ねんtoshi/nen
99hour時間じかんjikan
100minuteふんfun


Examples

明日は金曜日です。
Ashita wa kin-yōbi desu.
Tomorrow is Friday.

結果を出すまで2年と5ヶ月かかりました。
Kekka o dasu made ni-nen to go-kagetsu kakarimashita.
It took two years and five months to achieve the result.

私は今日3時間歩きました。
Watashi wa kyō san-jikan arukimashita.
I walked three hours today.

There are various expressions regarding dates in Japanese. Visit our article on Japanese Dates to learn more Japanese nouns of time and date, and how to use that information in real life!

10. Conclusion: How JapanesePod101 Can Help You Learn More Japanese



Nouns 4

We’ve now introduced the 100 most useful Japanese nouns. I hope this article helps you improve your Japanese vocabulary and skills!

Did you learn any new words today? Are there any Japanese nouns you still want to know? Let us know in the comments; we look forward to hearing from you!

If you would like to learn more about the Japanese language and other Japanese nouns, you’ll find a lot more useful content on JapanesePod101.com. We provide a variety of free lessons for you to improve your Japanese language skills.

To learn about Japanese nouns and more vocabulary, check out Top 25 Japanese Nouns and Japanese Core 100 Word List. Our vocabulary lists about School, School Subjects, and Body – Describing the Body are also useful; you can learn more about the topics and practice your Japanese pronunciation with audio.

There’s so much more, too! Learn faster and enjoy studying Japanese at JapanesePod101.com!

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