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Archive for the 'Advanced Japanese' Category

Advanced Japanese Phrases to Help You Level Up

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If you’re an advanced learner or starting to move ahead to an upper level, you may soon face a phenomenon known as “diminishing returns.” The learning curve theory indicates that the more you advance, the slower your progress will be. This concept also applies to your Japanese language learning! As such, you’ll need to be patient and make a steady effort in order to achieve the advanced level of Japanese and reach true proficiency.

After learning the grammar and vocabulary of the intermediate level, all you need to do is increase your vocabulary by learning more advanced Japanese phrases. In particular, you’ll want to pick up a variety of idioms, proverbs, expressions, and slang terms. You’ll also benefit from expanding your knowledge of grammatical variations, such as 敬語 (Keigo), or “honorific speech,” as well as the very formal language for particular settings (e.g., only used in official letters or legal texts).

While conquering the advanced Japanese level may feel like an endless journey, remember that a journey of a thousand miles begins with a single step! You have already achieved so much since Day 1 to arrive at your current level. Now you just need to continue filling the holes in your vocabulary and learning new expressions through books, the news, TV, movies, and other media. 

Boost your journey with our list of the most useful advanced Japanese phrases for various occasions!

Business People Discussing Something at a Meeting Table

You can handle any situation if you’re at an advanced level.

Log in to Download Your Free Cheat Sheet - Beginner Vocabulary in Japanese Table of Contents
  1. Useful Phrases for Academic Writing
  2. Power Phrases for Your Cover Letter
  3. Smart Proverbs for Business and Meetings
  4. Advanced Japanese Idioms and Sayings for Everyday Usage
  5. Conclusion

1. Useful Phrases for Academic Writing

The use of logical and structured sentences is a key element in good academic writing. Below, we will introduce advanced Japanese phrases that are frequently used to organize, articulate, and connect thoughts in writing. These phrases are useful not only in writing but also in public speaking, where they allow the audience to more easily follow and understand the content. 

EnglishKanjiHiragana Reading
first of allまず初めにまずはじめにmazu hajime ni

Example:

まず初めに、本研究の趣旨について説明します。

Mazu hajime ni, hon kenkyū no shushi ni tsuite setsumei shimasu.

“First of all, I’d like to explain the purpose of this research.”

EnglishKanjiHiragana Reading
firstly
secondly 
thirdly
第一に
第二に
第三に
だいいちに
だいにに
だいさんに
daiichi ni
daini ni
daisan ni

Example:

小論文を書くために重要なことが三点ある。第一に、論理的であること。第二に、分かりやすいこと。第三に、納得できること、である。

Shōronbun o kaku tame ni, jūyō na koto ga san-ten aru.  Daiichi ni, rironteki de aru koto. Daini ni, wakariyasui koto. Daisan ni, nattoku dekiru koto, de aru.

“There are three important points in writing an essay. Firstly, it is logical. Secondly, it’s easy to understand. Thirdly, it is convincing.”

EnglishKanjiHiragana Reading
in regard to……に関して …にかんして…ni kanshite  

Example:

地球温暖化のトピックに関して意見を交換しましょう。

Chikyū ondanka no topikku ni kanshite iken o kōkan shimashō.

“Let’s exchange views in regard to global warming.”

EnglishKanjiHiragana Reading
according to……によると…ni yoruto

Example:

中小企業白書によると、日本の中小企業数は3,578,176社で全企業数のうち99.7%を占めています。

Chūshō kigyō hakusho ni yoruto, Nihon no chūshō kigyōsū wa 3,578,176 sha de,  zen kigyōsū no uchi  99.7% o shimete imasu.

“According to White Paper on Small and Medium Enterprises, the number of small and medium enterprises in Japan is 3,578,176, accounting for 99.7% of the total number of companies.”

EnglishKanjiHiragana Reading
in other words言い換えればいいかえればiikaereba

Example:

地球温暖化の問題は、言い換えれば、私たちひとりひとりの問題です。

Chikyū ondanka no mondai wa, iikaereba, watashi-tachi hitori hitori no mondai desu.

“The problem of global warming is, in other words, the problem of each one of us.”

EnglishKanjiHiragana Reading
moreover / furthermore / in addition更にさらにsara ni

Example:

パンデミックの発生は、人々の健康に影響を及ぼしました。 更に、国内および世界の経済にも大きな打撃となりました。

Pandemikku no hassei wa, hitobito no kenkō ni eikyō o oyoboshimashita. Sara ni, kokunai oyobi sekaijū no keizai ni mo ōkina dageki to narimashita.

“The outbreak of the pandemic has affected people’s health. In addition, it also had a major impact on the domestic and global economies.”

EnglishKanjiHiragana Reading
on the contrary /on the other hand 一方で いっぽうでippō de

Example:

九州地方では大雨警報が出ています。 一方で、北関東地方では干ばつが連日続いています。

Kyūshū chihō de wa ōame keihō ga dete imasu. Ippō de, kita Kantō chihō de wa kanbatsu ga renjitsu tsuzuite imasu. 

“Heavy rain warnings have been issued in the Kyushu region. On the other hand, droughts continue every day in the northern Kanto region.”

EnglishKanjiHiragana Reading
therefore / consequently 従ってしたがってshitagatte

Example:

日本は火山が多い。従って、天然の温泉も多い。

Nihon wa kazan ga ōi. Shitagatte, tennen no onsen mo ōi. 

“Japan has a lot of volcanic mountains. Therefore, there are also many natural hot springs.”

EnglishKanjiHiragana Reading
to some extent   ある程度あるていどaru teido

Example:

作業過程をある程度自動化してくれるツールがいくつかあります。

Sagyō katei o aru teido jidōka shite kureru tsūru ga ikutsuka arimasu. 

“There are some tools that automate the work process to some extent.”

EnglishKanjiHiragana Reading
as long as… / as far as…   …である限り…いる限り…であるかぎり    …いるかぎり…de aru kagiri…iru kagiri

Example:

津波が発生した時は、高台にいる限り身の安全を確保できます。

Tsunami ga hassei shita toki wa, takadai ni iru kagiri mi no anzen o kakuho dekimasu.

“When a tsunami occurs, you can secure your safety as long as you are on a hill.”

EnglishKanjiHiragana Reading
by / in contrast対照的にたいしょうてきにtaishōteki ni

Example:

日本列島の南に位置する沖縄の年間平均気温は摂氏23.1度です。対照的に、北に位置する北海道では8.9度です。

Nihon rettō no minami ni ichi suru Okinawa no nenkan heikin kion wa sesshi 23.1-do desu. Taishōteki ni, kita ni ichi suru Hokkaidō wa 8.9-do desu.

“The average annual temperature of Okinawa, located south of the Japanese archipelago, is 23.1 degrees Celsius. By contrast, it is 8.9 degrees in Hokkaido, which is located in the North.”

EnglishKanjiHiragana Reading
as a result  結果として けっかとしてkekka to shite

Example:

高速道路での大きな事故によりひどい渋滞に巻き込まれました。結果として、飛行機に乗り遅れました。

Kōsoku dōro de no ōkina jiko ni yori hidoi jūtai ni makikomaremashita. Kekka to shite, hikōki ni noriokuremashita.

“I was caught in a terrible traffic jam due to a big accident on the highway. As a result, I missed the flight.”

A Man Writing in a Library

2. Power Phrases for Your Cover Letter

When it comes to writing an official letter in Japanese, there are some particular rules and style guidelines to follow.

A cover letter (送付状 [sōfujō] or 添え状 [soejō] in Japanese) is a letter of introduction that a job seeker attaches to their resume or CV. In most cases, its function is to greet and to indicate what document(s) you’re sending by clarifying “to whom,” “by whom,” “what,” and “why.” It may also contain a supplementary explanation of what you want to emphasize in the main document.

Most importantly, however, it can be proof that you have business etiquette and common sense. Therefore, it should be a “decent” letter that follows the rules expected of an official document.

Here is a brief list of advanced-level Japanese phrases you should consider including in your cover letter.

Formal Greeting 拝啓、貴社ますますご清栄のこととお慶び申し上げます。 
Haikei, kisha masumasu go-seiei no koto to o-yorokobi mōshiagemasu.
EnglishDear sirs, I would like to express my sincere gratitude to you for considering my application. (in case you’re applying with a CV)
Literal TranslationHumbly (respectfully) I say, I am glad that your company is prospering more and more. 

Explanation: 

This is a common formal greeting that is used only in official writing. It should be used as the first line of your text, especially when you’re writing to a company. 

When beginning with 拝啓 (haikei), meaning “Dear sirs” (literally: “Humbly I say”) you have to finish the letter with 敬具 (keigu), meaning “Sincerely yours” (literally: “Humbly I said”).

Stating Reason for Writingこの度、貴社の___職の採用情報を拝見し、応募書類をお送りいたします。 
Kono tabi, kisha no ___shoku no saiyō jōhō o haiken shi, ōboshorui o o-okuri itashimasu. 
EnglishI saw your company’s employment information about the ___ position, and I’d like to send you the application documents.
Literal TranslationThis time, I humbly saw your company’s employment information for ___, and I will kindly send you the application documents.  

Discussing Interests貴社の求人で特に、___のグローバルプロジェクトについて関心を持ちました。 
Kisha no kyūjin de toku ni, ___ no gurōbaru purojekuto ni tsuite kanshin o mochimashita. 
EnglishIn your company’s job offer advertisement, I am particularly interested in the global projects of ___.

Talking About Your Experience    ___の分野において幅広い経験を持ち、新規顧客の獲得と売り上げの拡大に努めてまいりました。  
___ no bun’ya ni oite habahiroi keiken o mochi, shinki kokyaku no kakutoku to uriage no kakudai ni tsutomete mairimashita. 
EnglishHaving extensive work experience in (the field of) ___,  I have endeavored to acquire new customers and expand sales.

Explaining the Relevance of Your Experience  私のX年における___の経験をこのポジションで即戦力として活かし、貴社の業績拡大に貢献できると思っております。  
Watashi no X-nen ni okeru ___ no keiken o kono pojishon de sokusenryoku to shite ikashi, kisha no gyōseki kakudai ni kōken dekiru to omotte orimasu. 
EnglishI believe I can apply my X years of experience in ___ to this position from day one, and I will be able to contribute to the expansion of your business.

Asking for a Presentation Opportunity  是非私のプレゼンテーションとポートフォリオをご覧になっていただける機会をいただけたら幸いです。  
Zehi watashi no purezentēshon to pōtoforio o goran ni natte itadakeru kikai o itadaketara saiwai desu.
EnglishI would appreciate it if you could give me a chance to show you my presentation and portfolio.

Asking for an Interview   ご検討の上、是非面接の機会をいただけましたら幸いです。  
Go-kentō no ue, zehi mensetsu no kikai o itadakemashitara saiwai desu. 
EnglishI would appreciate it if you could give me a chance to have an interview.

Formal Closing何卒よろしくお願いいたします。
敬具  
[名前] 
Nanitozo yoroshiku onegai itashimasu. 
Keigu 
[Namae]
EnglishThank you very much for your consideration. 
Sincerely yours, 
[Name]
Literal TranslationPlease kindly be favorable.

Explanation: 

よろしくお願いいたします (yoroshiku onegai itashimasu) is an untranslatable Japanese phrase that is often used in business contexts. It’s a useful phrase in that it has many meanings and can be used in various situations to express gratitude, humbleness, and the desire to have a good relationship from that point forward.

And remember: When you use 拝啓 (haikei) at the beginning of your letter, you must finish it with 敬具 (keigu).


Resume, Pen, and Glasses

3. Smart Proverbs for Business and Meetings

In Japanese culture, idiomatic expressions (慣用表現 kan’yō hyōgen) and proverbs (ことわざ kotowaza) are often used in daily conversations in order to enrich statements or to include a moralistic meaning. The following phrases are popular Japanese idioms and proverbs that are frequently used in business contexts. 

Japanese埒があかない  
rachi ga akanai 
Literal Translationthe fence (of a horse riding ground) does not open
Meaningmake no progress / remain unsettled

Example: 

同じ議論を繰り返しても、埒があかない。

Onaji giron o kurikaeshite mo, rachi ga akanai.

“Repeating the same discussion does not make any progress.”

Japanese案ずるより産むが易し  
anzuru yori umu ga yasushi 
Literal TranslationIt’s easier to give birth than to worry about it.
MeaningIt’s easier to do something than to worry about it. / An attempt is sometimes easier than expected.

Example: 

案ずるより産むが易しと言います。まずはリスクを恐れずに実行することが大切です。

Anzuru yori umu ga yasushi to iimasu. Mazu wa risuku o osorezu ni jikkō suru koto ga taisetsu desu.

“It is said that it’s easier to do something than to worry about it; it’s important to take action without fear of risk.”

Japanese善は急げ  
zen wa isoge 
Literal Translationhurry up goodness
MeaningStrike while the iron is hot. / Good deeds (ideas) should be done quickly.

Example: 

それは良い案ですね!善は急げ、早速それをプロジェクトに取り入れましょう。

Sore wa ii an desu ne! Zen wa isoge, sassoku sore o purojekuto ni toriiremashō.

“That’s a good idea! Strike while the iron is hot; let’s adopt it into the project now.”

Japanese損して得取れ  
son shite toku tore
Literal Translationobtain benefit by losing
MeaningEven if you’re at a temporary loss, keep striving for virtue so that you will get a bigger return later. 

Example: 

損して得取れと言うように、設備投資による費用はかかりますが、長期的に見ると生産コストとCO2排出を大幅に削減できます。

Son shite toku tore to iu yō ni, setsubi tōshi ni yoru hiyō wa kakarimasu ga, chōkiteki ni miru to seisan kosuto to CO2 haishutsu o ōhaba ni sakugen dekimasu.

“As the proverb says, ‘Obtain benefit by losing.’ Although there are costs associated with capital investment, production costs and CO2 emissions can be significantly reduced in the long run.”

Japanese苦肉の策  
kuniku no saku 
Literal Translationidea of (from) suffering body
Meaninglast resort / desperate measure taken under pressure of necessity

Example: 

その企業は事業存続のために苦肉の策として、大手企業との業務提携に踏み切りました。

Sono kigyō wa jigyō sonzoku no tame ni kuniku no saku to shite, ōte kigyō to no gyōmu teikei ni fumikirimashita.

“The company has decided to make a business alliance with a major company as a desperate measure for business survival.”

Japanese乗りかかった船  
norikakatta fune
Literal Translationthe ship that already got on 
Meaninghaving started on something that you can’t quit / having gone too far to turn back

Example: 

一度引き受けた案件は、乗りかかった船です。情勢が変化しても全力でやり遂げましょう。

Ichi-do hikiuketa anken wa, norikakatta fune desu. Jōsei ga henka shite mo zenryoku de yaritogemashō.

“The project that we once undertook is the ship we have already gotten on. Even if the situation changes, let’s do our best to complete it.”

Japanese先んずれば人を制す  
sakinzureba hito o seisu
Literal TranslationIf you go ahead, you will get the better of (other) people.
MeaningTake the initiative, and you will win. / The foremost dog catches the hare.

Example: 

先んずれば人を制す。ライバル社が参入する前に新規事業を軌道にのせましょう。

Sakinzureba hito o seisu. Raibarusha ga sannyū suru mae ni shinki jigyō o kidō ni nosemashō.

“The foremost dog catches the hare. Let’s get the new business on track before our rivals enter the market.”

Japanese白羽の矢が立つ  
shiraha no ya ga tatsu
Literal TranslationAn arrow with a feather stands.
Meaningto be singled out / to be selected from among other people

Example: 

新規プロジェクトのリーダーとして、経験豊富な彼に白羽の矢がたった。

Shinki purojekuto no rīdā to shite, keiken hōfu na kare ni shiraha no ya ga tatta.

“As someone who is well experienced, he was chosen to be the leader of the new project.”

Japanese後の祭り 
ato no matsuri   
Literal Translation later festival
Meaninga day after the fair / a stage when it’s too late

Example: 

彼は間違って非常に重要な書類を破棄してしまった。後悔しても所詮、後の祭りだ。

Kare wa machigatte hijō ni jūyō na shorui o haki shite shimatta. Kōkai shitemo shosen, ato no matsuri da.

“He accidentally discarded the very important document. Even if he regrets it, it’s too late after all.”

Japanese  運を天に任せる    
un o ten ni makaseru     
Literal Translation leave luck to heaven 
Meaning to leave one’s fate to a deity / to leave the rest to heaven

Example: 

イベントの準備に最前を尽くしてきました。成功するかどうかは、あとは運を天に任せましょう。

Ibento no junbi ni saizen o tsukushite kimashita. Seikō suru ka dō ka wa, ato wa un o ten ni makasemashō.

“We have been doing our best to prepare for the event. Let’s leave luck to heaven as to whether we succeed or not.”

People in Suits Are Having a Business Meeting

4. Advanced Japanese Idioms and Sayings for Everyday Usage

Idiomatic expressions are frequently used not only in daily conversations but also in the stories that make our lives so rich and colorful. 

Japanese idioms are very fun to learn! They feature unique and sometimes eccentric combinations of words that would make no sense at all if you were to translate them word for word.

What do you imagine when you hear “bite a parent’s shin” (親のすねをかじる oya no sune o kajiru)? It does not refer to someone actually biting their parent’s shin, but rather to an adult who still lives off of their parents. 

Below are several idiomatic phrases in Japanese for advanced learners.

Japanese  油を売る   
abura o uru    
Literal Translation sell oil
Meaning  to loaf (particularly on the job) / to idle one’s time away

Example: 

彼はよく営業の外回り中に、カフェで油を売っている。

Kare wa yoku eigyō no sotomawarichū ni, kafe de abura o utte iru.

“He often idles his time away at a cafe when he’s meeting clients out of office.”

Japanese  顔に泥を塗る   
kao ni doro o nuru  
Literal Translation smear mud on one’s face
Meaning  disgrace somebody / make somebody lose face

Example: 

彼女は犯罪を犯して、誠実な両親の顔に泥を塗った。

Kanojo wa hanzai o okashite, seijitsu na ryōshin no kao ni doro o nutta.

“She committed a crime and disgraced her sincere parents.”

Japanese  口を酸っぱくする   
kuchi o suppaku suru  
Literal Translation make a mouth sour 
Meaning  to repeatedly admonish / to tell over and over

Example: 

口を酸っぱくして何度も言うように、交通事故には気をつけてください。

Kuchi o suppaku shite nan-do mo iu yō ni, kōtsū jiko ni wa ki o tsukete kudasai.

“As I tell you over and over, please be careful of traffic accidents.”

Japanese  さじを投げる    
saji o nageru   
Literal Translation throw a (small) spoon 
Meaning  give up hopelessly

Example: 

彼女はダイエットしようと決めたが、トレーニングと食事制限が辛くてさじを投げた。

Kanojo wa daietto o shiyō to kimeta ga, torēningu to shokuji seigen ga tsurakute saji o nageta.

“She decided to go on a diet, but she gave up because of the painful training and dietary restrictions.”

Japanese  雀の涙   
suzume no namida 
Literal Translation sparrow’s tears
Meaning  very small quantity

Example: 

世界的な不景気の影響で、今年のボーナスは雀の涙ほどでした。

Sekaiteki na fukeiki no eikyō de, kotoshi no bōnasu wa suzume no namida hodo deshita.

“Due to the global recession, this year’s bonus was very little.”

Japanese  喉から手が出る   
nodo kara te ga deru 
Literal Translation hands come out from a throat
Meaning  to want something desperately

Example: 

喉から手が出るほど、来月発売の新しいスマートフォンがほしい。

Nodo kara te ga deru hodo, raigetsu hatsubai no atarashii sumātofon ga hoshii.

“I desperately want the new smartphone that will be released next month.”

Japanese  根も葉もない   
ne mo ha mo nai  
Literal Translation no roots or leaves 
Meaning  completely untrue / groundless (rumor)

Example: 

根も葉もない噂を信じて人を判断しないでください。

Ne mo ha mo nai uwasa o shinjite hito o handan shinaide kudasai.

“Don’t judge people by believing groundless rumors.”

Japanese  身を粉にする    
mi o ko ni suru
Literal Translation make one’s body into powder 
Meaning  work hard / make the utmost effort

Example: 

彼女は身を粉にして働き、女手一つで3人の子供を育てました。

Kanojo wa mi o ko ni shite hataraki, onnade hitotsu de san-nin no kodomo o sodatemashita.

“She worked very hard and raised three children all by herself.”

Japanese  水に流す   
mizu ni nagasu   
Literal Translation flush in water 
Meaning  let bygones be bygones / forgive and forget

Example: 

過去のことは水に流して、今と将来のことに目を向けよう。

Kako no koto wa mizu ni nagashite, ima to shōrai no koto ni me o mukeyō.

“Let’s forgive and forget about the past, and focus on the present and the future.”

Japanese  胸が騒ぐ   
mune ga sawagu    
Literal Translation chest makes a fuss
Meaning  to feel uneasy / to feel a strange presentiment

Example: 

帰り道で救急車のサイレンを聞いて胸が騒いだので、家族を心配して家まで走って帰った。

Kaerimichi de kyūkyūsha no sairen o kiite mune ga sawaida node, kazoku o shinpai shite ie made hashitte kaetta.

“I felt uneasy when I heard the ambulance siren on my way home, so I ran home because I was worried about my family.”

Two Women Talking

5. Conclusion

In this article, we introduced the most useful advanced Japanese phrases for academic writing, cover letters, and business. We even included a few idioms and sayings for daily usage. Some of these phrases are only used in a particular context, such as the formal greeting for letters, and mastering such advanced Japanese phrases will make you appear more fluent!

If you would like to learn more about the Japanese language and pick up additional Japanese phrases for different situations, you’ll find a lot more helpful content on JapanesePod101.com. We provide a variety of free lessons designed to help you improve your Japanese language skills. 

As you approach the advanced level in your Japanese studies, the following articles will also be very useful for you: 

And there’s so much more! Be a faster learner and enjoy studying Japanese at JapanesePod101.com!

Log in to Download Your Free Cheat Sheet - Beginner Vocabulary in Japanese

Level Up with These Advanced Japanese Words

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If you’re looking at this page, it means that you’ve achieved the intermediate level and are interested in moving ahead to advanced-level Japanese. That’s great—you’re in the right place!

Levels N1 and N2 of the JLPT (Japanese-Language Proficiency Test) are equivalent to the advanced level, and aiming to pass these levels would be a good source of motivation at this point in your studies. It surely takes tremendous effort and dedication to reach this stage, especially when it comes to learning the more difficult Kanji that are mostly used for special occasions or in official settings. 

Apart from conventional studying, however, there are more enjoyable ways to learn advanced Japanese words. For example, you could start reading books in Japanese and watching Japanese movies or TV shows in more serious genres; history shows, biographies, thrillers, and action films are great examples. Once you learn enough advanced Japanese words, you can utilize such tools to reinforce your knowledge and memory.

In this article, we will introduce a list of frequently used advanced Japanese words, including nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs, as well as other sophisticated words you can use to substitute basic everyday words. Let’s start climbing to the summit here at JapanesePod101.com!

The News Displayed on a Tablet, a Cell Phone, and Newspapers

You will be able to more easily read Japanese newspapers with advanced Japanese words.

Log in to Download Your Free Cheat Sheet - Beginner Vocabulary in Japanese Table of Contents
  1. Nouns – 名詞 (Meishi)
  2. Verbs – 動詞 (Dōshi)
  3. Adjectives – 形容詞 (Keiyōshi)
  4. Adverbs – 副詞 (Fukushi)
  5. Alternative Words for Greater Sophistication
  6. Conclusion

1. Nouns – 名詞 (Meishi)

The Kanji for advanced Japanese nouns is often complicated and difficult. However, the good news is that you’ll never have to worry about which article to use or how to change a word from singular to plural. 

Advanced Japanese nouns are usually just as simple as beginner nouns in terms of reading and pronunciation, but learning the high-level Kanji will take a lot of time and effort. 

1 – Advanced Academic Words 

EnglishKanjiHiraganaReading
concept概念 がいねんgainen
precision精密 せいみつseimitsu
expansion / extension拡張 かくちょうkakuchō
pressure圧力 あつりょくatsuryoku
efficiency効率 こうりつkōritsu
specimen / sample標本ひょうほんhyōhon
evidence証拠 しょうこshōko
verification / inspection検証けんしょうkenshō
atom原子 げんしgenshi
molecule分子 ぶんしbunshi
radioactivity放射能  ほうしゃのうhōshanō
concentration / density​濃度 のうどnōdo
coagulation / solidification​凝固  ぎょうこgyōko
fusion / melting / liquefaction融解 ゆうかいyūkai 

Examples:

  • この実験は新しい説の分析と検証です。
    Kono jikken wa atarashii setsu no bunseki to kenshō desu.
    “This experiment is an analysis and verification of a new theory.”
  • この地域は放射能の濃度が高く危険です。
    Kono chiiki wa hōshanō no nōdo ga takaku kiken desu.
    “This area is dangerous because of its high concentration of radioactivity.”
  • その物質は温度の変化により凝固と融解を繰り返した。
    Sono busshitsu wa ondo no henka ni yori gyōko to yūkai o kurikaeshita.
    “The substance repeatedly solidified and melted by changes in temperature.”

Two Researchers Experimenting with Liquids in a Laboratory

物質の濃度を測る (busshitsu no nōdo o hakaru)
“measure the concentration of the substance”

2 – Advanced Business Words

EnglishKanjiHiraganaReading
negotiation交渉 こうしょうkōshō
strategy 戦略 せんりゃくsenryaku
capital / fund資本 しほんshihon
stockholder /  shareholder株主 かぶぬしkabunushi
revenue歳入 さいにゅうsainyū
investment投資 とうしtōshi
securities  / stock証券 しょうけんshōken
loan / financing融資 ゆうしyūshi
repayment /  payment / settlement返済へんさいhensai
debt債務 さいむsaimu
mortgage /  guarantee担保 たんぽtanpo
credit債権 さいけんsaiken
assets資産 しさんshisan 
bankruptcy倒産 とうさんtōsan 
trademark商標 しょうひょうshōhyō
patent特許 とっきょtokkyo  
employment雇用  こようkoyō
dismissal /  termination of employment​解雇  かいこkaiko
company director  / board member取締役 とりしまりやくtorishimariyaku
board of  directors理事会りじかいrijikai 
permanent  employee正社員  せいしゃいんseishain
contract-based  employee契約社員 けいやくしゃいんkeiyaku shain 
outsourced  temporary employee派遣社員  はけんしゃいんhaken shain 

Examples:

  • その証券会社は巨額の債務を抱え倒産しました。
    Sono shōkengaisha wa kyogaku no saimu o kakae tōsan shimashita.
    “The securities company went bankrupt with huge debt.”
  • 新しい事業のため銀行から融資を受けたいです。
    Atarashii jigyō no tame ginkō kara yūshi o uketai desu.
    “I’d like to get a loan from a bank for a new business.”
  • 革新的な技術の特許を取得した後、その企業の株価が上がりました。
    Kakushinteki na gijutsu no tokkyo o shutoku shita ato, sono kigyō no kabuka ga agarimashita.
    “After acquiring the patent of an innovative technology, the company’s stock price went up.”

Several Colleagues Sitting Around a Table and Discussing Ideas

交渉を有利に行う戦略 (kōshō o yūri ni okonau senryaku)
“a strategy to negotiate favorably”

3 – Advanced Medical Words 

EnglishKanjiHiraganaReading
medical care医療 いりょうiryō
  gene遺伝子いでんしidenshi
immunity免疫 めんえきmen’eki
artery動脈 どうみゃくdōmyaku 
vein静脈じょうみゃくjōmyaku 
blood  transfusion輸血 ゆけつyuketsu
spinal cord脊髄せきずいsekizui 
radioactive ray放射線 ほうしゃせんhōshasen
medical treatment / therapy治療 ちりょうchiryō
department of surgery外科 げかgeka 
  internal medicine内科ないかnaika
symptom症状 しょうじょうshōjō
infection感染かんせんkansen
inflammation炎症 えんしょうenshō
fit / spasm / seizure発作 ほっさhossa
paralysis / palsy麻痺まひmahi 
coma昏睡 こんすいkonsui 
tumor腫瘍しゅようshuyō
bruiseあざaza 
vomiting嘔吐おうとōto
diarrhea下痢 げりgeri
pneumonia肺炎はいえんhaien
cancerがんgan

Examples:

  • 日本の医療システムは国民健康保険で成り立っています。
    Nihon no iryō shisutemu wa kokumin kenkō hoken de naritatte imasu.
    “The Japanese medical system works with National Health Insurance.”
  • 昨日から嘔吐と下痢の症状があります。
    Kinō kara ōto to geri no shōjō ga arimasu.
    “I have had the symptoms of vomiting and diarrhea since yesterday.”
  • その男性は発作を起こして昏睡状態になりました。
    Sono dansei wa hossa o okoshite konsui jōtai ni narimashita.
    “The man had a seizure and went into a coma.”

A Doctor Looking at an Image of a Human Body on a Screen

放射線治療で癌を治す (hōshasen chiryō de gan o naosu)
“cure cancer with radiation therapy”

4 – Advanced Legal Words 

EnglishKanjiHiraganaReading 
arrest逮捕たいほtaiho
detention / custody拘留こうりゅうkōryū
prosecution / indictment起訴きそkiso
probation / suspension of sentence執行猶予しっこうゆうよshikkō yūyo
arbitration / mediation調停 ちょうていchōtei
trial裁判 さいばんsaiban
court裁判所さいばんしょsaibansho
judge裁判官 さいばんかんsaibankan
plaintiff / accuser原告げんこくgenkoku 
defendant / accused被告 ひこくhikoku
public prosecutor検察官けんさつかんkensatsukan
imprisonment / penal servitude懲役ちょうえきchōeki
appeal控訴こうそkōso 
detention center / jail拘置所 こうちしょkōchisho
prison刑務所 けいむしょkeimusho
death penalty / capital punishment死刑 しけいshikei 
fraud詐欺さぎsagi
bribery賄賂 わいろwairo
tax evasion脱税 だつぜいdatsuzei
forgery / falsification / counterfeiting偽造 ぎぞうgizō
threatening / intimidation脅迫 きょうはくkyōhaku
theft / stealing窃盗 せっとうsettō
assault / act of violence暴行 ぼうこうbōkō
murder / homicide殺人 さつじんsatsujin 

Examples:

  • 彼は懲役5年執行猶予3年の判決を受けました。
    Kare wa chōeki go-nen shikkō yūyo san-nen no hanketsu o ukemashita.
    “He was sentenced to five years in prison suspended for three years.”
  • あの会社の元社長は脱税罪で刑務所にいます。
    Ano kaisha no moto shachō wa datsuzeizai de keimusho ni imasu.
    “The former president of that company is in prison for tax evasion.”
  •  日本には死刑制度があります。
    Nihon ni wa shikei seido ga arimasu.
    “Japan has the death penalty system.”

A Gavel on Top of a Book

裁判官の判決 (saibankan no hanketsu)
“judgment by a judge”

To review the basic Japanese nouns, please check out our blog post titled Guide to the Top 100+ Japanese Nouns.

2. Verbs – 動詞 (Dōshi)

Below, we have divided the most important advanced Japanese verbs into two groups: general verbs and those that are formed using the word する(suru) – “do.”

1 – General Verbs

EnglishKanjiHiragana  Reading
force / compel強いる しいるshiiru
range / lie in a line / stretch out 連なるつらなるtsuranaru 
go through / pierce貫く つらぬくtsuranuku 
rub / chafe擦れるすれるsureru 
judge裁く さばくsabaku 
dedicate / commit / give捧げる ささげるsasageru 
prosper栄える さかえるsakaeru
prohibit / ban禁じるきんじるkinjiru
endure / bear / tolerate / withstand耐えるたえるtaeru 
deal / treat / handle取り扱うとりあつかうtoriatsukau
accompany / entail伴うともなうtomonau 
nod頷く うなずくunazuku
influence / affect / exert / cause及ぼす およぼすoyobosu 
become weak / become old衰える おとろえるotoroeru
control / regulate /  manage 取り締まるとりしまるtorishimaru
investigate / examine取り調べる   とりしらべるtorishiraberu 
remove取り除くとりのぞくtorinozoku
be made up of / consist of / be composed of成り立つなりたつnaritatsu
install / attach備え付ける そなえつけるsonaetsukeru 

Examples:

  • その地位は重大な責任を伴う。
    Sono chii wa jūdai na sekinin o tomonau.
    “The position entails grave responsibility.”
  • この古い建物は大きな地震に耐えてきた。
    Kono furui tatemono wa ōkina jishin ni taete kita.
    “This old building has withstood big earthquakes.”
  • 警察は彼を賄賂の疑いで取り調べた。
    Keisatsu wa kare o wairo no utagai de torishirabeta.
    “Police investigated him on suspicion of bribery.”

A Man Installing a Satellite Antenna for a Home

アンテナを備え付ける (antena o sonaetsukeru)
“install an antenna”

2 – Verbs Formed Using [ Noun + する (suru) ] 

This type of Japanese verb is formed with the following pattern: 

  • [ Noun ] + [ する (suru) – “do” ]

For example:

  •  運動する(undō suru) – “to exercise” 
    • 運動 (undō) – “exercise” + する (suru) “do”

EnglishKanjiHiraganaReading 
fermentate発酵する はっこうするhakkō suru
make use of / have a command駆使するくしするkushi suru
vibrate振動する しんどうするshindō suru 
bear (a cost, a responsibility, etc.)負担するふたんするfutan suru 
deploy / lay out  配置する はいちするhaichi suru 
shut down / lock out閉鎖するへいさするheisa suru 
evacuate避難するひなんするhinan suru
criticize / blame / condemn非難するひなんするhinan suru 
intervene / interfere干渉する かんしょうするkanshō suru
collapse / break down崩壊するほうかいするhōkai suru

Examples:

  • ブドウを発酵させてワインを作ります。
    Budō o hakkō sasete wain o tsukurimasu.
    “Ferment the grapes to make wine.”
  • その建物は人々が避難した後に崩壊した。
    Sono tatemono wa hitobito ga hinan shita ato ni hōkai shita.
    “The building collapsed after people evacuated.”
  • 私が車の修理費を負担します。
    Watashi ga kuruma no shūrihi o futan shimasu.
    “I will bear the car repair cost.”

To review the basics regarding Japanese verbs, please check out our articles The 100+ Most Common Japanese Verbs and Japanese Verb Conjugations.

A Car Engine

エンジンが振動する (enjin ga shindō suru)
“engine vibrates”

3. Adjectives – 形容詞 (Keiyōshi)

As you approach an advanced level in Japanese, you should start strengthening your vocabulary with more nuanced descriptive words. Below is a list of Japanese adjectives to get you started. 

1 – I Adjectives

EnglishKanjiHiraganaReading 
suitable / appropriate / compatible相応しい ふさわしいfusawashii
delusive / misleading / confusing紛らわしい まぎらわしいmagirawashii
grateful有難い ありがたいarigatai 
brave/ courageous勇ましい いさましいisamashii
shameful / pitiful情けない なさけないnasakenai
equal等しい ひとしいhitoshii
regrettable惜しい おしいoshii
great偉い えらいerai 
dangerous / critical危うい あやういayaui
hurried / busy / frantic慌しい あわただしいawatadashii
impudent / shameless図々しいずうずうしいzūzūshii
quick素早いすばやいsubayai
incredible / enormous / dreadful物凄い ものすごいmonosugoi 
odious / hateful憎らしい にくらしいnikurashii
chilly肌寒いはだざむいhadazamui
careful / cautious / vigilant用心深い ようじんぶかいyōjinbukai 
extreme / terrible甚だしい はなはだしいhanahadashii

Examples:

  • これはあなたに相応しい車です。
    Kore wa anata ni fusawashii kuruma desu.
    “This is a suitable car for you.”
  • 今日は慌ただしい一日でした。
    Kyō wa awatadashii ichinichi deshita.
    “Today was a very frantic day.”
  • 彼はとても用心深い男で、人を簡単に信用しない。
    Kare wa totemo yōjinbukai otoko de, hito o kantan ni shin’yō shinai.
    “He is a very cautious man, and he does not trust people easily.”

2 – NA Adjectives

EnglishKanjiHiraganaReading 
immature未熟みじゅくmijuku
thoughtless / careless軽率けいそつkeisotsu 
generous寛容かんようkan’yō 
essential / main point肝心 かんじんkanjin 
depressed / melancholic / gloomy憂鬱ゆううつyūtsu 
sensitive敏感 びんかんbinkan 
quick / rapid / prompt迅速 じんそくjinsoku 
loyal忠実ちゅうじつchūjitsu
cruel残酷ざんこくzankoku
detailed詳細しょうさいshōsai

Examples:

  • 私はいつも肝心なところで失敗する。
    Watashi wa itsumo kanjin na tokoro de shippai suru.
    “I always fail where it matters.”
  • この化粧品は敏感な肌に適しています。
    Kono keshōhin wa binkan na hada ni tekishite imasu.
    “This cosmetic is suitable for sensitive skin.”
  • 自然破壊が進む残酷な現実に目を向けなければならない。
    Shizen hakai ga susumu zankoku na genjitsu ni me o mukenakereba naranai.
    “We must face the cruel reality of the destruction of nature.”

A Businessman Feeling Gloomy and Depressed After a Bad Day at Work

仕事で失敗した憂鬱な日 (shigoto de shippai shita yūtsu na hi)
“a gloomy day that failed at work”

To review the basics of Japanese adjectives, please check out Learn the Top 100 Essential Japanese Adjectives and -I vs. -NA Adjectives in Japanese on our blog.

4. Adverbs – 副詞 (Fukushi)

Another set of words you’ll need to add to your advanced Japanese vocabulary is adverbs. You likely know a few of these already, but below is a list of more refined adverbs you can start practicing right away. 

EnglishKanjiHiraganaReading 
at once / right away / promptly / suddenly咄嗟にとっさにtossa ni 
just as one thought / as usual 案の定 あんのじょうannojō
by far / far off 遥かにはるかにharuka ni 
indeed / truly / certainly如何にもいかにも ikanimo 
taking the trouble to do / intentionallyわざわざ wazawaza 
dare to do / not necessarily to do 敢えて あえてaete
above all何よりなによりnaniyori
quite / reasonably / fairly結構けっこうkekkō
once / before / never beforeかつて katsute 
in spite of / regardless of​かかわらず kakawarazu 
as it is / as you areありのままarinomama  
naturally当たり前に あたりまえにatarimae ni
vaguely / ambiguouslyあやふやに ayafuya ni 
easily / lightlyあっさり assari 
properly / neatlyきちんと kichinto 
thoughtlessly / recklesslyむやみに muyami ni 
quite / very (emphasizing a size, frequency, etc.)ごくgoku

Examples:

  • 問い詰められて私は咄嗟に嘘をついた。
    Toitsumerarete watashi wa tossa ni uso o tsuita.
    “Being pressed for an answer, I lied promptly.”
  • 敢えてそうする訳を教えてください。
    Aete sō suru wake o oshiete kudasai.
    “Please tell me why you dare to do so.”
  • ごくわずかな違いで結果が大きく変わります。
    Goku wazuka na chigai de kekka ga ōkiku kawarimasu.
    “A very subtle difference greatly changes the result.”

Two People Bowing

きちんとお辞儀する (kichinto ojigi suru)
“bow properly”

5. Alternative Words for Greater Sophistication

Whether you aim to get higher scores on writing exams or you want to write proper sentences for official documents, using high-level vocabulary and the appropriate expressions will refine your writing. 

In Japanese, many basic words have more nuanced or formal synonyms. A great example of these advanced counterparts are 熟語 Jukugo (Kanji compounds), which are combinations of different Kanji that create words at different levels of difficulty and specify a meaning.

In addition, having a good command of 敬語 Keigo (“honorific language”) in Japanese is a sign of being at an advanced level, which is essential for official occasions and business settings.  

In this section, you’ll learn the more sophisticated counterparts of simple Japanese words, including frequently used Keigo.  

1 – Alternative Verbs

EnglishKanjiHiraganaReading 
生むうむ (umu)to give birth / to generate / to produceto be born出生するしゅっしょうするshusshō suru
to be born誕生するたんじょうするtanjō suru 
to derive / to generate from something派生するはせいするhasei suru
to produce / to yield産出するさんしゅつするsanshutsu suru 
to generate生成するせいせいするseisei suru

始めるはじめる (hajimeru)to start / to beginto begin / to commence開始するかいしするkaishi suru
to start / to initiate始動するしどうするshidō suru
to start / to undertake着手するちゃくしゅするchakushu suru
to start / to get down to / to set about  取りかかるとりかかるtorikakaru
to start / to set up / to be established発足するほっそくするhossoku suru

言ういう (iu)to sayto say / to state述べるのべるnoberu
to speak発言するはつげんするhatsugen suru
to mention / to refer to言及するげんきゅうするgenkyū suru

見るみる (miru)to see / to look / to watchto view / to browse 閲覧するえつらんするetsuran suru
to stare / to gaze凝視するぎょうしするgyōshi suru
to watch / to look carefully注視するちゅうしするchūshi suru
to see / to visit (a temple, a shrine, etc.)拝観するはいかんするhaikan suru

食べるたべる (taberu)to eatto eat食すしょくすshokusu
to eat / to take in 摂取するせっしゅするsesshu suru

書くかく (kaku)to writeto write (a thesis, a book, etc.)執筆するしっぴつするshippitsu suru
to write / to transcribe / to take notes筆記するひっきするhikki suru

読むよむ (yomu)to readto read (books)読書するどくしょするdokusho suru
to read well or thoroughly 熟読するじゅくどくするjukudoku suru
to read carefully精読するせいどくするseidoku suru

描くえがく (egaku)to draw / to paint / to depictto depict / to portray描写するびょうしゃするbyōsha suru
to imitate and draw模写するもしゃするmosha suru

比べるくらべる (kuraberu)to compareto compare比較するひかくするhikaku suru
to compare and check each other照らし合わせるてらしあわせるterashiawaseru

調べるしらべる (shiraberu)to search / to look up / to examineto examine / to investigate調査するちょうさするchōsa suru
to examine / to inspect検査するけんさするkensa suru
to check / to inspect点検するてんけんするtenken suru

Examples:

  • 彼は新しい本を書き始めた。          →   彼は新しい本の執筆に着手した
    Kare wa atarashii hon o kakihajimeta.    Kare wa atarashii hon no shippitsu ni chakushu shita.
    “He started writing a new book.”
  • 実験結果の違いを比べます。     →      実験結果の違いを比較します
    Jikken kekka no chigai o kurabemasu.      Jikken kekka no chigai o hikaku shimasu.
    “Compare the differences in the experimental results.”
  • 車の調子が悪いので、エンジンを調べてください。        →  車の調子が悪いので、エンジンを点検してください。
    Kuruma no chōshi ga warui node, enjin o shirabete kudasai.     Kuruma no chōshi ga warui node, enjin o tenken shite kudasai.
    “The car has a problem, so please check the engine.”

2 – Alternative Adjectives & Adverbs

EnglishKanjiHiraganaReading  
今いま (ima)nownow / present現在げんざいgenzai
今日きょう (kyō)todaytoday本日ほんじつhonjitsu
前にまえに (mae ni)beforebefore / earlier / back in the past以前いぜんizen
後であとで (ato de)laterlater on /  afterwards後ほどのちほどnochihodo
この先このさき (kono saki)from this time onfrom now on / in the future / hereafter今後こんごkongo
簡単にかんたんに (kantan ni)easilyeasily容易によういにyōi ni
もっと(motto)morewhat is more / furthermore / moreover更にさらにsara ni
even more / all the moreより一層よりいっそうyori issō
本当にほんとうに (hontō ni)reallyreally / truly正にまさにmasani
それぞれ(sorezore)eacheach各々おのおのono’ono
まだ(mada)yet / stillas yet / still依然としていぜんとしてizen toshite
少しすこし (sukoshi)a little / a fewa little / a small quantity少々しょうしょうshōshō

Examples:

  • 後で資料を送ります。            →   後ほど資料を送信します。
    Ato de shiryō o okurimasu.                Nochihodo shiryō o sōshin shimasu.
    “I will send the document later.”
  • 原因はまだはっきりしない。    →      原因は依然としてはっきりしない。
    Gen’in wa mada hakkiri shinai.                 Gen’in wa izen toshite hakkiri shinai.   
    “The cause is still unclear.”
  • 少し待ってください。          →   少々お待ちください。
    Sukoshi matte kudasai.        Shōshō o-machi kudasai.
    “Please wait for a moment.”

3 – 敬語 (Keigo) [Japanese Honorific Language]

Meaning KeigoKanjiHiraganaReading  
見るみる (miru)look / watch / seeRespectfulご覧になるごらんになるgoran ni naru
Humble拝見するはいけんするhaiken suru
食べるたべる (taberu)eatRespectful召し上がるめしあがるmeshiagaru
Humble頂くいただくitadaku
言ういう (iu)sayRespectfulおっしゃるossharu
Humble申す申し上げるもうすもうしあげるmōsumōshiageru
いる(iru)be there / exist Respectfulいらっしゃるirassharu
Humbleおるoru
する(suru)doRespectfulなさるnasaru
Humbleいたすitasu
行くいく (iku)goRespectfulいらっしゃるirassharu
Humble参るまいるmairu
くれる (kureru)give me/usRespectfulくださるkudasaru
Humble
あげる (ageru)give someone somethingRespectful
Humble差し上げるさしあげるsashiageru
知るしる (shiru)know Respectfulご存じごぞんじgozonji
Humble存じ上げるぞんじあげるzonjiageru
聞くきく (kiku)ask / listenRespectfulお聞きになるおききになるo-kiki ni naru
Humble伺ううかがうukagau

Examples:

  • [Normal Polite] 彼は流れ星を見ました。  Kare wa nagareboshi o mimashita.    
           (“He saw a shooting star.”)

    [Respectful]  こちらのデータをご覧ください。Kochira no dēta o goran kudasai.
           (“Please look at this data.”)

    [Humble]  求人広告を拝見し、応募いたしました。Kyūjin kōkoku o haiken shi, ōbo itashimashita.
         (“I saw the job advertisement and applied.”)

  • [Normal Polite] 彼女は会議で意見を言いました。  Kanojo wa kaigi de iken o iimashita.    
           (“She gave her opinion in the meeting.”)

    [Respectful]  社長は会議でご意見をおっしゃいましたShachō wa kaigi de go-iken o osshaimashita.
           (“The president gave her/his opinion in the meeting.”)

    [Humble]  私は会議で意見を申し上げました。   Watashi wa kaigi de iken o mōshiagemashita.
         (“I gave my opinion in the meeting.”)

  • [Normal Polite]  この新しい技術を知っていますか。  Kono atarashii gijutsu o shitte imasu ka.
            (“Do you know this new technology?”)

    [Respectful]  この新しい技術をご存じですか。  Kono atarashii gijutsu o gozonji desu ka.
           (“Do you know this new technology?”)

    [Humble]  この新しい技術を存じ上げております。  Kono atarashii gijutsu o zonjiagete orimasu.
         (“I know this new technology.”)

6. Conclusion

In this article, we introduced the most frequently used advanced Japanese words, including nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, and sophisticated alternative words. Although the Kanji is difficult at this level, once you conquer it, you’ll be able to successfully work in Japan and watch any Japanese movie without stress!

If you would like to learn more about the Japanese language and pick up other useful Japanese phrases for different situations, you’ll find more helpful content on JapanesePod101.com. We provide a variety of free lessons to help you improve your Japanese-language skills. 

If you want to review and check your knowledge of the intermediate level, the following articles will be very useful: Intermediate Japanese Words, Essential Business Japanese, and Japanese Phone Phrases. On the other hand, if you’re ready to press onward, then we recommend visiting our advanced Japanese course

And there’s so much more! Learn Japanese faster and enjoy studying at JapanesePod101.com!

Before you go, let us know in the comments if there are Japanese words related to any specific topic you want to know! We’d be glad to help, and we look forward to hearing from you! 

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Life Event Messages: Happy Birthday in Japanese & More

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Giving proper greetings and celebration messages is essential in making relationships better. Whether you have Japanese friends online, live in Japan, or just want to understand Japanese culture, it’s good to know how Japanese people celebrate events and what they say. Once you learn how to say Happy Birthday in Japanese, Happy New Year in Japanese, and Merry Christmas in Japanese, use them practically with your friends!

Japan has various life and annual events to celebrate. Some of them come from the Western culture, such as Christmas and Valentine’s Day. But there are unique Japanese traditions as well, such as the twentieth and sixtieth birthdays, also called 成人 (Seijin) and 還暦 (Kanreki) respectively.

So, how do you wish someone well in Japanese? In this article, we introduce practical life event messages. Let’s master holiday greetings in Japanese, and more, here at JapanesePod101!

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Table of Contents

  1. Birthday + Turning 20 Years Old
  2. Japanese Congratulations: Graduation
  3. Japanese Congratulations: New Job / Promotion
  4. Retirement + Turning 60 Years Old
  5. Japanese Congratulations: Wedding & Marriage
  6. Japanese Congratulations: Pregnancy and Birth
  7. Bad News
  8. Injured/Sick
  9. Death/Funerals: Offering Condolences in Japanese Culture
  10. Holidays
  11. Conclusion: How JapanesePod101 Can Help You Learn More Japanese

1. Birthday + Turning 20 Years Old

Happy Birthday

As is the case in other cultures, birthdays are a happy celebration in Japan. Japanese people celebrate one’s birthday with a cake with candles, and by singing the Happy Birthday to You song in English (Japanese people also sing this song in English because it’s very easy and simple). In most cases, people have a birthday party, and friends and family give gifts to the birthday person.

A person’s twentieth birthday is very important in Japanese culture, because this is the official age of maturity, called 成人 (Seijin) in Japan, and one is officially recognized as an adult. Apart from individual twentieth birthday celebrations, Japan has the national holiday 成人の日 (Seijin no Hi), or “Coming of Age Day,” on the second Monday of January every year.

Check out our Coming of Age Day page for related Japanese vocabulary.

Here are phrases to say Happy Birthday in Japanese.

1- Happy birthday!

Japanese: (お) 誕生日おめでとう!
Pronunciation: (O)tanjōbi omedetō!

It literally translates to “birthday (tanjōbi) congratulations (omedetō).” It sounds more polite when you put お (O) in front of tanjōbi.

When you want to say it during a formal occasion, or to an older person, add ございます (gozaimasu) to the end, which makes it even more polite.

2- Belated happy birthday!

 
                  
Japanese: 遅くなったけど、(お)誕生日おめでとう!
Pronunciation: Osoku natta kedo, (o)tanjōbi omedetō!

You can still wish your friends a happy birthday, even if you weren’t able to do so on the actual day!

Osoku natta kedo means “It’s late, but…” To make it more polite and formal, say Osoku narimashita kedo.

3- Wish you enjoy a special day!

                   
Japanese: 特別な日を楽しんでね!
Pronunciation: Tokubetsu na hi o tanoshinde ne!

A birthday is a special day, and when you want the birthday girl/boy to enjoy it, you can tell her/him this phrase.

To say it politely in a formal way, change ね (ne) to ください (kudasai).

Birthday Party

It’s common to sing Happy Birthday to You in Japan.

2. Japanese Congratulations: Graduation

Basic Questions

Whether it’s a kindergarten or university, completing school is worth a happy celebration. Japanese schools have both entrance and graduation ceremonies at the schools, which family members also attend.

Graduation from a university is often a big celebration, especially for the graduate’s parents who get to experience the fulfilling feeling of having finished raising their child. Graduates also celebrate with friends for their achievements and the good memories they made together.

Here are phrases for celebrating graduation.

1- Congratulations for your graduation!

                  

Japanese: 卒業おめでとう!
Pronunciation: Sotsugyō omedetō!

It literally translates to “graduation (sotsugyō) congratulations (omedetō).” For formal occasions, such as when a school principal is addressing students, add ございます (gozaimasu) to the end. This makes it polite and respectful.

2- Well done for striving for four years!

            
Japanese: 大変な4年間よく頑張ったね!
Pronunciation: Taihen na yo-nenkan yoku ganbatta ne!

You can say this phrase to family members or friends. When you just want to say “well done,” it’s yoku ganbatta ne.

3- Lead your way step by step to make your dream come true.

      

Japanese: 夢に向かって一歩一歩進んでください。
Pronunciation: Yume ni mukatte ippo ippo susunde kudasai.

This phrase is often used by parents or seniors to a new graduate to encourage his/her new path in life.

It literally means “toward a dream (yume ni mukatte),” “step by step (ippo ippo),” and “go forward (susunde kudasai),” in a polite way.

Crowd of Graduates

Graduation of Japanese schools is in March.

3. Japanese Congratulations: New Job / Promotion

When a new university graduate gets a new job, family and friends celebrate him/her, usually by going out for a nice dinner. Some parents give a gift that will be useful for their work, such as a watch or a set of suits. In return, the child takes his or her parents out for a nice dinner once he/she gets their first salary.

When someone has a job promotion, family, friends, and sometimes his/her boss and team, celebrate him/her. It doesn’t necessarily involve giving a gift, but people go out for a drink or dinner, in most cases.

Here are phrases to celebrate getting a new job/promotion in Japanese.

1- Congratulations for your new job / promotion!

                
Japanese: 就職 / 昇進おめでとう!
Pronunciation: Shūshoku / Shōshin omedetō!

It literally translates to “employment (shūshoku) / promotion (shōshin),” and “congratulations (omedetō).” You can use this phrase to congratulate your friends, family, and younger colleagues.

Coworkers Celebrating

In Japan, the start of work for newly employed graduates is usually in April.

2- Good luck in your new workplace.

Japanese: 新しい職場で頑張ってね。
Pronunciation: Atarashī shokuba de ganbatte ne.

This is a very useful phrase to use when your friend or family member gets a new job.

It breaks down to “at new workplace (atarashii shokuba de),” and “strive well (ganbatte ne).” If you want to say it more politely for a formal setting, change ね (ne) to ください (kudasai).

3- I’m looking forward to your success.

   
Japanese: あなたの活躍を楽しみにしています。
Pronunciation: Anata no katsuyaku o tanoshimi ni shite imasu.

This is a polite phrase that a family member or boss/elder colleague can tell someone who gets a new job or a promotion. It breaks down to “your success (anata no katsuyaku),” and “I’m looking forward to (tanoshimi ni shite imasu).”

4. Retirement + Turning 60 Years Old

Talking About Age

Traditionally, the age of retirement in Japan is sixty. In the traditional Japanese employment system, called 終身雇用 (Shūshin koyō), or “life-time employment,” retirement means that someone has finished working by serving a company for some decades. It’s considered honorable and respectable.

Not only family, but also his/her company and colleagues, often have a celebration party with flowers and gifts. Nowadays, due to an increase in the aging population, active and healthy seniors continue to work after they turn sixty years old, sometimes until their sixty-fifth of seventieth birthday.

On the other hand, turning sixty years old is considered good fortune and a cause to celebrate; this celebration is called 還暦 (Kanreki). Following the traditional sixty-year calendar cycle of the lunar calendar, turning sixty means accomplishing its cycle. Thus, it’s the beginning of another cycle in his/her life. The person’s family celebrates him/her by giving gifts in red, which is the color of fortune.

Below are phrases to celebrate retirement/sixtieth birthdays in Japanese.

1- Congratulations for your retirement!

Japanese: 定年退職おめでとう!
Pronunciation: Teinen taishoku omedetō!

This is a very common phrase of congratulations. It literally translates to “retirement age resignation (teinen taishoku) congratulations (omedetō).”

When you want to say it for a formal occasion, add ございます (gozaimasu) to the end; this makes it even more polite.

2- Well done for 30 years of contribution.

Japanese: 30年間の献身お疲れ様でした。
Pronunciation: San-jū-nenkan no kenshin otsukare-sama deshita.

お疲れ様 (Otsukare-sama) is one of the most common Japanese untranslatable words. It has various meanings, depending on the situation. But in this case, it means “Well done.”

3- Please enjoy your new stage of life.

Japanese: 次の新しい人生を楽しんでください。
Pronunciation: Tsugi no atarashii jinsei o tanoshinde kudasai.

Retired people often spend plenty of their new free time for hobbies and enjoyment. This polite phrase is useful when you wish for someone to have a nice life after retirement.

5. Japanese Congratulations: Wedding & Marriage

Marriage Proposal

The average age of a person’s first marriage nowadays is older (around thirty) than it was some decades ago; people’s views on marriage are becoming more diverse and flexible, as well. However, getting married and having a wedding is still a big life event in Japan.

Japanese marriage traditions typically include the following:

  • 結納 (yuinō), or “engagement ceremony”
  • 入籍 (nyūseki), or “official marriage register”
  • 挙式 (kyoshiki), or “wedding ceremony”
  • 披露宴 (hirōen), or “wedding party”

The western style of wedding ceremonies is becoming very popular in Japan, although there are some people who prefer the traditional Japanese style with the 着物 (kimono).

So, how do you congratulate a wedding in Japanese? Below are phrases for celebrating marriage in Japanese.

1- Congratulations for your marriage!

Japanese: 結婚おめでとう!
Pronunciation: Kekkon omedetō!

This is a very common phrase for congratulations in Japanese when someone is getting married. It literally translates to “marriage (kekkon) congratulations (omedetō).”

When you want to say it in a formal occasion, add ございます (gozaimasu) to the end; this makes it even more polite.

2- I wish you happiness for many years to come.

   
Japanese: 末長くお幸せに。
Pronunciation: Suenagaku o-shiawase ni.

It literally translates to “for a long time (suenagaku), be happy (o-shiawase ni).” This phrase is also commonly used together with Kekkon omedetō.

3- Have a wonderful married life.

                  
Japanese: 素敵な結婚生活を送ってね。
Pronunciation: Suteki na kekkon seikatsu o okutte ne.

This is another common message for a newly married couple. When you want to say it in a formal occasion, change ね (ne) to ください (kudasai).

Man Putting Wedding Ring on Woman's Finger

Japanese weddings are conducted in either the western style or the Japanese traditional style.

6. Japanese Congratulations: Pregnancy and Birth

Pregnancy and birth are auspicious events in someone’s life. Traditionally, people give congratulation messages when a pregnant woman announces her pregnancy, and send her gifts after the baby is born. Japanese culture doesn’t have a “baby shower” celebration traditionally; however, the baby shower is becoming popular among young people due to the influence of western culture.

Below are phrases to celebrate pregnancy/birth in Japanese.

1- Congratulations for your pregnancy!

Japanese: 妊娠おめでとう!
Pronunciation: Ninshin omedetō!

For a formal occasion, change 妊娠 (ninshin), meaning “pregnancy,” to ご懐妊 (go-kainin), which is a more respectful form of the word “pregnancy,” and add ございます (gozaimasu) to the end to make it more polite and respectful. However, this form is very formal and not commonly used.

2- I wish a healthy baby will be born.

                  
Japanese: 元気な赤ちゃんが生まれますように。
Pronunciation: Genki na aka-chan ga umaremasu yō ni.

It literally means “lively baby (genki na aka-chan), be born (umaremasu)” + expression of wish (yō ni).
This phrase is also commonly used together with Ninshin omedetō.

3- Congratulations for a baby’s birth!

             
Japanese: 赤ちゃんの誕生おめでとう!
Pronunciation: Aka-chan no tanjō omedetō!

Tell this message when your friend has their baby. For a formal occasion, add ございます (gozaimasu) to the end; this makes it more polite and respectful.

7. Bad News

Life isn’t always full of happy events and celebrations, and sometimes bad things can happen in our lives. In Japanese culture, it’s very important to have empathy and give consideration to other people’s feelings. This is because the culture puts values on 和 (Wa), or harmony in our society.

When someone tells you bad news, it’s good to listen carefully first, show that you understand him/her, and then say something to cheer him/her up.

Here are some Japanese condolences messages that you can say to those who have bad news.

1- I’m sorry to hear that.

                       
Japanese: それは残念です。
Pronunciation: Sore wa zannen desu.

It literally translates to “it is regrettable (sore wa zannen)” + polite way to finish a sentence (desu).

Say this to your colleague, for example, if he confides in you that he couldn’t pass a promotion exam, or his pet has passed away.

2- I understand your feelings.

Japanese: あなたのお気持ち分かります。
Pronunciation: Anata no o-kimochi wakarimasu.

It literally translates to “your feeling [polite] (anata no o-kimochi), I understand (wakarimasu).” This is a typical message to show that you understand him/her and that you’re with him/her.

3- Cheer up!

Japanese: 元気出して!
Pronunciation: Genki dashite!

This is a very straightforward phrase to cheer someone up. Say this phrase to your friends or someone who has a close relationship with you.

8. Injured/Sick

An unexpected injury or sickness can happen anytime and to anyone. Whether it happened to your grandparent, friend, or colleague, it’s always nice to offer him or her some warm messages.

Here are some useful phrases you can say to those who get injured/sick.

1- How are you feeling?

 

Japanese: 気分はどうですか。
Pronunciation: Kibun wa dō desu ka.

This is a typical question you can ask when someone falls ill. If it’s a family member or someone very close to you, you can also say kibun wa dō? in a casual manner. Japanese people often make おかゆ (O-kayu), or “rice porridge,” for a sick person as an easy-to-digest and stomach-friendly meal.

2- I hope you get well soon.

Japanese: 早く良くなりますように。
Pronunciation: Hayaku yoku narimasu yō ni.

This is a very common and important phrase that you can tell any injured or sick person.

3- Please take care.

                       
Japanese: お大事に。
Pronunciation: O-daiji ni.

This is another very important phrase you should tell an injured/sick person. This is usually said at the end of a conversation before you leave.

For a more polite form, add なさってください (nasatte kudasai) when speaking to someone elderly or respectable.

Children Giving Their Sick Mother a Gift

Healthcare in Japan provides universal-care based on the national health insurance program.

9. Death/Funerals: Offering Condolences in Japanese Culture

While a newborn life is blessed and celebrated, any life is destined to experience death sooner or later. Death is considered a serious matter, and a funeral is usually held solemnly. Even if it happened to a person who is very close, Japanese people use formal and respectful language for messages to the deceased’s family and relatives.

Below are condolence phrases in Japanese that you can use.

1- Please accept my sincere condolences.

Japanese: お悔やみ申し上げます。
Pronunciation: O-kuyami mōshiagemasu.

This phrase is formal and commonly used to show your condolences, usually at a funeral. It literally translates to “condolence (o-kuyami), [I] say (mōshiagemasu).” Note that the last word here is the most respectful and humble expression for the word “say.”

2- I pray that his/her soul may rest in peace.

 
Japanese: ご冥福をお祈りいたします。
Pronunciation: Go-meifuku o oinori itashimasu.

This phrase is formal and very commonly used. It literally translates to “happiness in the next world (go-meifuku), [I] pray (oinori), do (itashimasu).” Note that the last word here is a humble expression.

3- I’m so sorry, I don’t know what to say.

Japanese: 御愁傷様です。なんと言っていいかわかりません。
Pronunciation: Go-shūshō-sama desu. Nan to itte ii no ka wakarimasen.

You can use this polite phrase when someone tells you that someone you know has passed away. Go-shūshō-sama refers to a thing or status that people lament and grieve.

10. Holidays

Do you know whether Japanese people celebrate Christmas in Japan? Yes, they do! However, most Japanese people don’t have any religious feeling for Christmas celebrations; it’s rather regarded as a special and romantic event for couples, or as a happy event for friends and family to eat cakes and give gifts. Christmas Day isn’t a national holiday in Japan.

On the other hand, お正月 (o-shōgatsu), or New Year’s Day, is a traditional annual festive holiday. It’s one of the most important events of the year, and family and relatives get together and celebrate the coming new year. January 1 is the actual holiday, and many companies are off from the end of the year until the first few days of January.

Here are phrases for holiday greetings in Japanese, including how to say Merry Christmas in Japanese and Japanese New Year congratulations!

1- Merry Christmas!

 
Japanese: メリークリスマス!
Pronunciation: Merī kurisumasu!

How to say Merry Christmas in Japanese is almost the same as in English. It’s directly imported in Japanese, but Japanese people pronounce it in the Japanese way. Also, it’s written merī kurisumasu.

Check out Must-Know Christmas Day Vocabulary for more Christmas-related terms in Japanese.

2- Happy New Year!

Japanese: 明けましておめでとう!
Pronunciation: Akemashite omedetō

“Happy New Year” in Japanese is akemashite omedetō, which literally means “(a new year day has) dawned (明けまして), congratulations (omedetō).” This is the most-used phrase for “happy holidays” in Japanese for the new year.

When you want to say it in a formal occasion or to an older person, add ございます (gozaimasu) to the end; this makes it even more polite.

3- To another good year!

Japanese: 今年もよろしく!
Pronunciation: Kotoshi mo yorosiku!

This phrase is very popular among friends, colleagues, and clients.

Kotoshi mo means “this year, too” and yoroshiku is another one of the most common Japanese untranslatable words. It has various meanings depending on the situation, but in this case, it means “best regards” or “favorably please.”

For more useful holiday greetings in Japanese, check out Holiday Greetings and Wishes for the Holiday Season and Happy New Year! Words & Phrases for the New Year! You’ll learn Japanese winter seasonal greetings and customs.

Traditional Japanese New Year's Food

おせち (osechi) is a special meal for the New Year in Japan, and we eat it with best wishes phrases in Japanese.

11. Conclusion: How JapanesePod101 Can Help You Learn More Japanese

We introduced Japanese life event messages, such as how to say Happy Birthday in Japanese and Merry Christmas in Japanese. I hope this article was useful in improving your Japanese for better communication with your friends!

If you would like to learn more about the Japanese language and holiday greetings in Japanese, you’ll find much more useful content on JapanesePod101.com. We provide a variety of free lessons for you to improve your Japanese language skills.

For more about Japanese holidays and Japanese holiday vocabulary, check out Holidays in Japan. To learn about how to express your feelings, you’ll find Words and Phrases to Help You Describe Your Feelings useful; you can even learn and practice your pronunciation with audio. And for conversation practice, Top 15 Questions You Should Know for Conversations and Top 10 Conversational Phrases are very helpful!

Know that your hard work will pay off; with enough practice, you’ll be speaking like a native in no time with JapanesePod101.com!

Before you go, let us know which of these phrases you’ll be able to use first! Are there any life event messages you still want us to cover? Let us know in the comments!

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How To Learn Japanese with Anime?

We always see this kind of advice on the Internet: “You should watch Japanese drama, it helped me to quickly progress” or “There is nothing better than anime without subtitles for learning Japanese”.

How to learn Japanese with Anime?

Can you really learn a language without much effort by watching anime?

Following this advice can bring many advantages:

  • Attuning your ears to Japanese by listening to native speakers
  • Boosting your vocabulary
  • Boosting your dialogue-related listening comprehension
  • Letting you hear a language used in context
  • Learning passively while having fun

    At the end of the day, it seems like a great idea, but in reality it’s not totally true… Actually, it varies! We definitely recommend that you expose yourself to a lot of resources in their original language such as movies, drama, anime, music…for the reasons above. But you will never learn Japanese like that.

    https://media4.giphy.com/media/DVNjxErpOPlLy/200.gif

    Click here to download our free App and listen to native speakers for free!

    Anime as a complement to your learning tools
    It’s best to see these videos as a Japanese learning complement. You need to acquire a certain amount of vocabulary and grammar in order to better comprehend a Japanese video or conversation.

    This is our approach: JapanesePod101.com brings you tons of audio and video lessons, from songs to dialogues and cultural insights, and each of these lessons has a grammar focus, a vocabulary list, a lesson transcript and notes so that you don’t miss any points. We give you the foundation you need to be able to understand anime and benefit from watching it.

    https://media.giphy.com/media/fl64nCT0R0K0U/giphy.gif

    Here are the 10 animes that can help you learn Japanese!

    The myth of learning by only watching anime

    The “watch anime and learn Japanese” concept is just a myth. A lot of high school students improve their English level by reading books and comics, or watching dramas and movies in English with subtitles in their own language. You, meanwhile, might watch all 700 episodes of One Piece or Dragon Ball in Japanese but still not make any progress!

    The difference? Those foreign students are not starting from scratch when they use this method to learn Japanese. Even though they might still be at a low level, they were working on some solid foundations.

    https://media.giphy.com/media/CpO7VHeeCfcUo/giphy.gif

    Basically, what you will hear after 6 months of watching anime in Japanese, while hiding the subtitles, would probably be something like:

    bla bla bla bla bla Hello bla bla bla bla Thank you for this meal bla bla bla bla die A**hole bla bla bla Kawaiiii bla bla bla bla bla It hurts! bla bla bla bla I love you bla bla bla bla bla bla really!?

    Still quite far from fluency, right?

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    Start learning Japanese for free right now!

    The key to learning through anime

    The key is the amount of passive vocabulary you already have. It’s all the vocabulary you understand when listening to or reading Japanese, without having the need to search in the dictionary. Our brain has limited capacity and if it doesn’t recognize 70-80% of the words in a sentence, it will be incapable of filling in the blanks to give a sense to the unknown words based on the context.

    https://media.giphy.com/media/12TRDjyx9jI5Fe/giphy.gif

    Let’s look at these two cases:
    1. You are at a beginner level of Japanese
    2. You are at an intermediate level of Japanese

    In both cases, you must expose yourself to a lot of Japanese media: podcasts, videos and so on…

    In the first case, your brain won’t be able to analyze what you hear when you’re watching anime because you miss too many words. Of course we don’t forbid you from watching anime, but be aware that you are only training your ears to become accustomed to the sounds of Japanese. This is a good start, though. But you will also need to start learning grammar basics and vocabulary. Our Japanese for Absolute Beginners series will offer you the resources you need to quickly understand the foundations of the Japanese language, through entertaining topics.

    https://media.giphy.com/media/jBzO4OBN8oIms/giphy.gif

    If you are at an intermediate level, you will need to acquire a lot of vocabulary covering a large range of topics. Challenge yourself with our Listening Comprehension series on YouTube, listen to our podcasts and verify through the lesson notes and transcripts that you understood everything, from the grammar point to the explanation of the kanji used in the lesson.

    Access all the reading, audio and video resources you need to become fluent in Japanese!

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    Anime can be a great learning tool because it’s fun and there is a lot of it around. Just make sure to do a little extra work to optimize its use! Don’t forget to sign up for your Free Lifetime Account to access all our resources and be able to watch anime without subtitles!

  • Advanced Japanese Lesson:肌触り

    やわらかい毛布を触っているところを想像してみてください。「わぁ、この毛布、とっても肌ざわりがいいね」と感想を口にする人もいるでしょう。
    「肌ざわり」とは文字通り、肌に触れるときの感じを意味しています。同じ意味のことばに「手ざわり」があります。

    では、似たような言葉「耳ざわり」はどんな意味なのでしょうか。聞いていて心地よい音楽やことばを指すのでしょうか。
    Read the rest of this post »

    Advanced Japanese Lesson:長い信号

    「この信号、長いね」
    「えっ? どこどこ? 何メートルくらい?」
    これは、私の知人とその娘さんの会話です。
    Read the rest of this post »

    Advanced Japanese Lesson: 街を行き子どものそばを…

    街を行き 子どものそばを 通るとき みかんの香(か)せり 冬がまた来る
    木下 利玄(きのした りげん)

    今回は初冬の短歌を紹介しましょう。

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    Advanced Japanese Lesson:手塩にかける

    料理に欠かせない調味料の一つに、「塩」があります。塩は、古来から様々な食材をおいしくするだけでなく、「聖なる力を持つもの」として魔よけや病気の治療、美容法にも取り入れられていますね。

    今回は、この「塩」を含む慣用句を紹介しましょう。

    「手塩に掛ける」という言い回しを聞いたことがありますか?
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    Advanced Japanese Lesson: 一枚、二枚

    日本語で紙や板、皿はなんと数えますか。

    そうです、「一枚、二枚…」と数えますね。薄くて平面的なものを数えるときは「枚」を使います。
    お金の単位は「円」ですが、硬貨や紙幣として捉えたときには「一枚、二枚」と数えます。
    では、ざるそばはどうでしょう。
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    Advanced Japanese Lesson: すみません

    「すみません」

    このことばは、場面によって様々な意味に解釈できるので注意を要します。
    では、具体例を挙げてみましょう。

    あなたは満員電車に立って乗っています。揺れた拍子に、隣の人の足を踏んでしまいました。「すみません」
    このときは謝罪の意味で使っています。別の表現に言い換えると「ごめんなさい」ですね。

    次の駅に着く直前、前に座っていた人に席を譲ってもらいました。「すみません」
    これは感謝の意。「ありがとう」と伝えています。

    席に座ってしばらくすると、隣の席で眠ってしまった人が、あなたの肩にもたれかかってきました。「すみません」
    これは「起きてください」と注意を促す意味で用いられています。

    目覚めた隣の人が「すみません」と謝罪すると、あなたも「いいえ、すみません」。
    「たいしたことないですよ」という意味で再び「すみません」を繰り返します。

    目的の駅に着いたあなたは、改札口がどちらか分かりません。そこで、駅員に「すみません」
    これは、「尋ねてもいいですか?」という意味で使っています。

    約束の時間五分前に待ち合わせ場所に着いたあなたは、相手が既に到着していることに気づきます。
    あなた「お待たせしてすみません」(謝罪)
    相手「いえいえ、こちらこそわざわざ来てもらってすみません」(感謝)
    あなた「いいえ、いつも連絡をいただくばかりですみません」
    相手「なになに、急かしているようですみません」…。
    このように、日本語では「すみません」という語を大変便利に使っているのです。
    =====
    Sumimasen

    You need to be careful with this word because depending on the situation, it can be interpreted in different ways.
    Here are some examples.

    You are standing on a train that is packed. When the train swayed, you stepped on the person next to you. Sumimasen.
    In this case, you’re using it as an apology. Another way of saying this would be “I’m sorry.”

    Before you reach the next station, the person who was sitting in front of you offers you their seat. Sumimasen.
    This is to express gratitude, and means “thank you.”

    After a while, the sleeping person next to you starts leaning on your shoulder. Sumimasen.
    This means “please wake up” and is to notify the other person.

    They wake up and apologize sumimasen, and you also say iie, sumimasen.
    You say sumimasen once again to mean “it’s no problem.”

    Once you get to the station, you don’t know where the exit is, and so you ask the station attendant, sumimasen.
    In this case, you’re asking “may I ask?”

    You arrive 5 minutes before the meeting time, and notice that the other person is already there.
    You say, omataseshite sumimasen or “sorry for making you wait” (apology.)
    Other person says, ieie, kochirakoso wazawaza kitemoratte sumimasen or “no no, apologies on my part for always having you come.”  (gratitiude)
    You say, īe, itsumo renraku wo itadaku bakari de sumimasen or “no, sorry for always being the one contacted .”
    Other person says, naninani sekashiteru youde sumimasen… or “sorry it seems we’re always making you hurry…”
    In this way, in Japanese the word sumimasen is a very useful and is used a lot.