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Rebecca: The Japanese ever taste this good.
Naomi: なおみです。
Rebecca: Rebecca here.
Naomi: 24.
Rebecca: もうそろそろですね。 Not many to go.
Naomi: So only two including this lesson.
Rebecca: はい、頑張りましょう。Okay, so today what are we going to be looking at Naomi Sensei?
Naomi: 今日は美味しかったです、小さかったです、大きかったですPolite Past tense of Adjectives.
Rebecca: Okay, so we are going to be looking at I ending adjectives and Na ending adjectives in their past tense.
Naomi: そうです。
Rebecca: And today’s conversation, who will we be listening to?
Naomi: ファブリツィオと冬果のお父さんとクルミさんです。
Rebecca: So Fuyuka’s father and Fabrizio and クルミ the famous singer.
Naomi: はい、そうです。
Rebecca: He doesn’t actually exist but the real life singer that Kurumi is based – she caused the storm in Japan just recently by saying that we went over the age of 35 maybe that their amniotic fluid goes off, they are very charming. So she wants her manager to have babies as soon as possible or something like that and…
Naomi: そうそうそう、そうですね。
Rebecca: She got in trouble. Have people forgotten about that now do you think Naomi Sensei?
Naomi: Madam, people are still angry.
Rebecca: Well, anyway, yes so if you are interested, you can look that up. Okay that’s enough but let’s have a listen to today’s conversation.
ファブリツィオ: でも、うどんは本当に 美味しかったです。驚きました。
お父さん: それは、よかったです。
ファブリツィオ: お父さんはこのお店によく来ますか。
お父さん: ええ、先週も来ました。たぶん、来週も 来ます。この店は小さい
ですが、人気がありますよ。クルミさんは、このお店、すぐに わ
クルミ: いえいえ、全然 わかりませんでした。道、暗くて 細くて...怖かっ
お父さん: そうですか。大変でしたね。じゃ、次のうどん屋に 行きましょう。
Naomi: もう一度おねがいします。今度はゆっくりお願いします。
ファブリツィオ: でも、うどんは本当に 美味しかったです。驚きました。
お父さん: それは、よかったです。
ファブリツィオ: お父さんはこのお店によく来ますか。
お父さん: ええ、先週も来ました。たぶん、来週も 来ます。この店は小さい
ですが、人気がありますよ。クルミさんは、このお店、すぐに わ
クルミ: いえいえ、全然 わかりませんでした。道、暗くて 細くて...怖かっ
お父さん: そうですか。大変でしたね。じゃ、次のうどん屋に 行きましょう。
Naomi: 今度は英語が入ります。
ファブリツィオ: でも、うどんは本当に 美味しかったです。驚きました。
FABRIZIO: But the udon was really delicious. I'm surprised.
お父さん: それは、よかったです。
FATHER: Oh, that's good.
ファブリツィオ: お父さんはこのお店によく来ますか。
FABRIZIO: Do you often come to this shop?
お父さん: ええ、先週も来ました。たぶん、来週も 来ます。この店は小さい
ですが、人気がありますよ。クルミさんは、このお店、すぐに わ
FATHER: Yeah, last week I came. Maybe I'll come next week too. This shop is
small but popular. Kurumi-san, did you find this shop easily?
クルミ: いえいえ、全然 わかりませんでした。道、暗くて 細くて...怖かっ
KURUMI: No, unfortunately I didn't know the way. The streets were dark and
narrow and scary.
お父さん: そうですか。大変でしたね。じゃ、次のうどん屋に 行きましょう。
FATHER: Oh, really. You had a hard time, didn't you? Well then, let's go to the
next udon shop.
Rebecca:Naomi Sensei what did you think of today’s conversation.
Naomi: 冬果のお父さんは、よく食べますね。 Fuyuka’s father is a lord.
Rebecca: He does. Doesn’t he. In Japanese, we have a word for someone who eats a lot. What’s that?
Naomi: そうですね。大食い。O is big. 食い is from 食います which means eat but very informal way.
Rebecca: Very informal way of saying it. Yeah right not eating informally but informal language.
Naomi: そうですね、なので大食い is the person who eats a lot.
Rebecca: There are some famous 大食いタレント famous people who – what are they called, professional eaters or something in English?
Naomi: Competitive eaters.
Rebecca: Competitive eating, that’s right. Yeah I always forget.
Naomi: You mean ギャル曽根
Rebecca: Yeah well she is one of them. Isn’t she. She is a bit strange because.
Naomi: そうね。 She is very skinny.
Rebecca: Yeah. She is tiny. I mean I think you looked up some information wrongly on her. And she is only – she is tiny like she is 162 cms tall and she weighs 45 kilos and apparently when she eats like she hasn’t got a very big stomach or an unusually large stomach. Well this is according to Wikipedia anyway, fond of wisdom. They took an X-Ray of her stomach and it turns out that her intestines are not different to an ordinary person her size but when she eats, they can expand but I didn’t know. I think they train, don’t they. These 大食い選手 like sometimes I say we are just like professional athletes you know. They eat a little bit and then they stretch the stomach and then the next day they eat a bit more and like they are training for a marathon or something.
Naomi: なるほどね。
Rebecca: Yeah so her stomach can stretch quite a bit and they took another X-Ray of her stomach when it was very full and apparently it pushes her other internal organs get pushed, squished to the back of her body and uhh..It’s really growth.
Naomi: Some people think she is cute.
Rebecca: Okay she is kind of cute. She is ギャル曽根のギャル
Naomi: ギャルは girl.
Rebecca: Yeah it’s a type like a style tribe you could call it. In Tokyo, you know, I suppose everyone knows the – do you guys know ガングロ are listeners. They are the people with the very dark faces, the girls with very tanned faces and the blonde hair and stuff. With Gado, it would be like that right.
Naomi: そうですね。
Rebecca: And I think tell me if I am wrong but they wear really bright accessories and kind of like and white makeup sometimes and their eyes and they have dyed hair and they have a tan not as much as ガングロwho are like really dark but they have quite a dark tan and that’s my image of Gado any way.
Naomi: そうですね。My image of Gado is like young and like wearing lot of ジュエリー and wearing mini skirt, short skirts.
Rebecca: Lots of ギャル in 渋谷.
Naomi: そうですね、 not in 赤坂
Rebecca: Right yeah. Any way ギャル曽根 is like 曽根 is like 中曽根. So she is kind of cute you know like she is tiny and she has got this tan and she wears pretty makeup and lots of accessories and she has got blonde hair and…
Naomi: The person who is going out with her must be rich.
Rebecca: Why is that to afford to pay for all the food?
Naomi: Yeah.
Rebecca: Must be. Any way let’s have a look at today’s vocab.
Rebecca: First item.
Naomi: 驚く
Rebecca: To be surprised, to be astonished. This is a class 1 verb.
Naomi: (slow) おどろく (natural speed) 驚く
Rebecca: Next item.
Naomi: 先週
Rebecca: Last week, the week before.
Naomi: (slow) せんしゅう (natural speed)先週
Rebecca: Next.
Naomi: 人気
Rebecca: Popularity.
Naomi: (slow)にんき (natural speed)人気
Rebecca: Next.
Naomi: すぐに
Rebecca: Instantly, immediately.
Naomi: (slow) すぐに (natural speed)すぐに
Rebecca: Next.
Naomi: 分かる
Rebecca: To understand, to grasp the meaning of, to know. This is a class 1 verb.
Naomi: (slow) わかる (natural speed)分かる
Rebecca: Next.
Naomi: 大変
Rebecca: Dreadful, terrible, immense, difficult. This is a Na-Adjective.
Naomi: (slow)たいへん (natural speed)大変
Rebecca: Next.
Naomi: 全然
Rebecca: Not at all is used with a negative adjective or verb.
Naomi: (slow) ぜんぜん (natural speed) 全然
Rebecca: Next.
Naomi: 道
Rebecca: Road or a street or way.
Naomi: (slow)みち (natural speed)道
Rebecca: Next.
Naomi: 暗い
Rebecca: Dark, gloomy. This is an E- Adjective
Naomi: (slow) くらい (natural speed)暗い
Rebecca: And lastly.
Naomi: 怖い
Rebecca: Scary, frightening. This is an E adjective.
Naomi: (slow) こわい (natural speed)怖い
Rebecca: Okay. So let’s look at a useful expression from today’s dialogue. Can you say that for us please now, Naomi Sensei.
Naomi: 人気があります
Rebecca: It’s popular or literally it has popularity.
Naomi: そうですね。あります has the meaning of have.
Rebecca: So let’s breakdown the elements of the sentence.
Naomi: 人気
Rebecca: Popularity.
Naomi: が
Rebecca: Subject marker
Naomi: あります
Rebecca: ます form of the verb ある to exist or in this case to have. In a conversation, the subject marker Ga is often dropped and people just say.
Naomi: 人気あります
Rebecca: Or
Naomi: 人気ある
Rebecca: Depending on how formal they are going to be.
Naomi: そうですね。ギャル曽根は人気があります。
Rebecca: ギャル曽根 is popular I guess. She is at the moment anyway. She is on lots of TV programs.
Naomi: そうですね。
Rebecca: And in the dialogue, it was the restaurant that was popular.
Naomi: そうですね。この店は人気があります。
Rebecca: This restaurant is popular.
Naomi: そうですね。 What is 人気があります in Australia now?
Rebecca: What’s popular?
Naomi: Huh.
Rebecca: Gosh well it’s so long since I’ve lived there actually. I don’t know. I think maybe we will have to ask the listeners that one. What is popular in Australia geez I don’t know. I have to go home and get in touch with my country again.
Naomi: Yeah みなさん please let Rebecca know.
Rebecca: 是非教えてくださいAnd another word we heard in the dialogue which is actually used very often in Japanese is 全然. What 全然 mean?
Naomi: Not at all.
Rebecca: Not at all. Okay. It’s an adverb. Is that right?
Naomi: そうです。
Rebecca: And it usually proceeds verbs or adjectives in a negative form or adjectives with a negative connotation.
Naomi: Such as だめ 全然ダメ
Rebecca: It’s not good at all.
Naomi: そうですね。
Rebecca: Yes so 全然 means not at all or absolutely not. So for example, we could say.
Naomi: 私は肉を全然食べません。
Rebecca: I don’t eat meat at all or
Naomi: 私は野菜が全然好きじゃありません。
Rebecca: I don’t like vegetables at all.
Naomi: そうですね。
Rebecca: And the at all bit is the 全然 I don’t know. Have you noticed that people often nowadays seem to be saying 全然 with a positive word.
Naomi: そうですね。全然大丈夫
Rebecca: Yeah it’s totally okay.
Naomi: そうそうそう、言いますね。 Some older people don’t like it but people still use it.
Rebecca: Yeah. So you might hear people say that. You might hear people use 全然 with a positive verb or adjective that’s not got a negative connotation like Naomi Sensei’s example of 大丈夫. 全然大丈夫It’s totally okay.
Naomi: そうですね。
Rebecca: But in reality, it’s actually grammatically incorrect and you probably shouldn’t use it in a formal situation. Would that be fair to say if you’ve got sort of be on your best behavior and speak very nice Japanese.
Naomi: I don’t recommend you to use in a speech.
Rebecca: Even like a 発表
Naomi: そうですね。
Rebecca: So it’s our presentation or a formal speech.
Naomi: そうですね。でも、 If you are talking with your coworkers or if you are talking with your boss, it’s probably okay.
Rebecca: Okay right. Well anyway so just remember that technically it’s got to be used with a negative on the end but people often don’t.

Lesson focus

Rebecca: Well let’s look at today’s grammar point. We are going to be looking at the past tense of adjectives. That’s right. Okay so the first sentence is
Naomi: うどんは美味しかったです。
Rebecca: The Udon was tasty and we know the adjective.
Naomi: 美味しい
Rebecca: Means delicious and here we are saying was delicious. So how do we make delicious into was delicious. Well you take the final い and you replace it with かった and then you add です to make it polite. So 美味しい becomes 美味しかったです. Is that right?
Naomi: そうですね。 Change い です to かったです
Rebecca: Yeah it’s pretty easy. So what’s another い adjective?
Naomi: 小さい
Rebecca: Okay so what does that become?
Naomi: 小さかったです
Rebecca: It was small. Now what about negatives? What do we do for that?
Naomi: 暗かったです
Rebecca: Okay so いです becomes くなかったです.
Naomi: そうですね。
Rebecca: And what’s happening here is that we know that the negative nonpast form is くない. So 美味しくない 小さくないand we covered that in Welcome to Style You 14. So to put 美味しくない or 小さくない in the past tense, we just treat ない like an I Adjective. So we do just what we were doing with 美味しい and 小さい as in you add かったです. So 美味しくないbecomes
Naomi: 美味しくなかったです
Rebecca: And 小さくない becomes
Naomi: 小さくなかったです
Rebecca: Right okay. So not too bad I think that’s..
Naomi: There is one exception right?
Rebecca: Of course there is but luckily there is just one. So the one exception is the adjective good which is pronounced
Rebecca: And sometimes you can also say
Naomi: よい
Rebecca: よい yeah. So when you are conjugating this adjective, you have to treat it like it’s よい. So it becomes よかったです.
Naomi: はい。
Rebecca: Or よくなかったです
Naomi: そうですね。
Rebecca: You can’t say
Naomi: いくなかったです
Rebecca: Yeah no. It’s not said.
Naomi: いかったです
Rebecca: Yeah. Nobody ever says that. So just remember that the one exception to these rules we have been talking about is the adjective.
Naomi: いい
Rebecca: Which is also pronounced…
Naomi: よい
Rebecca: Yeah and it means good. So let’s have a look at some example sentences using these い adjectives in their past tense form.
Naomi: オードリーへップバーンは、細かったです。
Rebecca: Audrey Hepburn was thin. The adjective which is in the past tense now is 細い and in this sentence, we say
Naomi: 細かったです
Rebecca: Was thin okay and can we have one more example?
Naomi: テストは難しくなかったです。
Rebecca: The test wasn’t difficult.
Naomi: 難しい is difficult. 難しくなかった wasn’t difficult.
Rebecca: There is one more way to say it wasn’t difficult.
Naomi: そうですね。テストは、難しくありませんでした。
Rebecca: Which means the same thing as
Naomi: テストは、難しくなかったです。
Rebecca: This is just a slightly more formal way to use the structure that we’ve been looking at with くなかったです. Is that right?
Naomi: そうですね。難しくありませんでした  is longer. So it sounds formal to me.
Rebecca: Yeah and the ありません is the ない in くない. 美味しくない 美味しくありません 美味しくなかったです 美味しくありませんでした Anyway this is in the PDF so please check it out and you would see how that structure is created. Now let’s have a look at what we do with Na-Adjectives when we put them in the past tense. The example sentence is
Naomi: うどんは大丈夫でしたか。
Rebecca: Was the Udon okay. 大丈夫でしたか So what you do is you drop the final Na of the Na-Adjective. In this case, it was 大丈夫な. You take of な and you add でした.
Naomi: そうです。大丈夫でした  If it’s 大変な 大変でした
Rebecca: So the test was really awful would be
Naomi: テストは大変でした
Rebecca: Yeah. So Na-Adjectives are pretty easy. You just put でした on the end of them.
Naomi: Yeah, a bit similar to noun sentences.
Rebecca: So some more sample sentences but this time using Na-Adjectives.
Naomi: オードリーヘップバーンは、綺麗でした。
Rebecca: Audrey Hepburn was pretty. And one more?
Naomi: テストは簡単でした。
Rebecca: The test was easy. We hope you can say that one day if you are talking about tests. And there are some more details on how to use the past tense of adjectives and also a bit more detail on when you are saying negative rather than positive. So and also a bit more detail on past negative forms.
Naomi: そうですね。テストは簡単じゃなかったです。


Rebecca: The test wasn’t easy. So do check it out and we will see you next week.
Naomi: そうですね。
Rebecca: For the last lesson.
Naomi: Oh!!
Rebecca: じゃあまたね。
Naomi: じゃあまた。
ファブリツィオ: でも、うどんは本当に 美味しかったです。驚きました。
お父さん: それは、よかったです。
ファブリツィオ: お父さんはこのお店によく来ますか。
お父さん: ええ、先週も来ました。たぶん、来週も 来ます。この店は小さい
ですが、人気がありますよ。クルミさんは、このお店、すぐに わ
クルミ: いえいえ、全然 わかりませんでした。道、暗くて 細くて...怖かっ
お父さん: そうですか。大変でしたね。じゃ、次のうどん屋に 行きましょう。


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Please to leave a comment.
😄 😞 😳 😁 😒 😎 😠 😆 😅 😜 😉 😭 😇 😴 😮 😈 ❤️️ 👍

JapanesePod101.com Verified
June 23rd, 2008 at 06:30 PM
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Mina-san, do you like small restaurants or big restaurants?

March 15th, 2021 at 07:42 AM
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If I use the past form of a verb, could I write it in front of a noun to create something like "the former small tree is now big"?

Maybe like


Thank you.

JapanesePod101.com Verified
January 1st, 2021 at 12:35 PM
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Please let us know if you have any questions :)



Team JapanesePod101.com

December 31st, 2020 at 06:11 PM
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What I wanted to say...

Last week I went to my parent's house. The tree I planted there in my childhood became very big and beautiful.

Please tell me how much is it correct .どのぐらい正しいですか、教えてください 🙏


JapanesePod101.com Verified
August 10th, 2020 at 04:53 AM
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Rachel さん



Please let us know if you have any questions!



Team JapanesePod101.com

July 22nd, 2020 at 02:28 AM
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JapanesePod101.com Verified
April 21st, 2018 at 01:19 AM
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Hi Mina,

Thank you for the comment and sorry for our late reply.

Your understanding is correct! Keep up the good work!


Miki H

Team JapanesePod101.com

March 11th, 2018 at 01:44 PM
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Could you please clarify if am I understanding this correctly:

only -na adjectives' could be changed in the past tense like this:

daijobu deshita

-i adjectives can never be:

oishii deshita

we must use:

oishikatta desu

Thank you very much!

JapanesePod101.com Verified
February 6th, 2018 at 07:37 PM
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> Savannah Johnston さん、


I'm very sorry for another late reply!

Thank you for pointing out about kakkoii :)

I'll discuss about this matter with my team.

The adjective 'ii' can be added to some nouns, but they are often not considered as one adjective word.

Adjective(s) ending with 'ii' can be something like 'kimochi-yoi/kimochi-ii' (which was suppose to be 'kimochi ga yoi/ii')

Natsuko (奈津子),

Team JapanesePod101.com

Savannah Johnston
November 6th, 2017 at 06:45 AM
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I looked up Gal Sone. "When an X-ray was performed on her stomach, it appeared to be normal size, but its connection to the small intestine was larger than normal."

Also, you forgot "kakkoii" is also an exception, since it's actually a compound of "kakko" (shape, form, figure, appearance) and "ii" (good). (Are there any other adjectives that are compounds with "ii"?)

JapanesePod101.com Verified
December 12th, 2015 at 09:07 PM
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Yuki  由紀

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