Dialogue

Vocabulary

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Lesson Transcript

Welcome to learn Japanese grammar absolute beginner. In this video series, you learn basic Japanese grammar patterns and phrases through easy to follow audio and visual cues. Here is what we will cover in this lesson.
Ready?
Let’s get started.
Noami: これは古いです。 (Kore wa furui desu.)
Naomi: In Japanese, there are two types of adjectives, i-adjectives and na-adjectives.
Peter: In the phrase, an old pen, old is the adjective. In Japanese as well, adjectives can precede nouns. When i-adjectives precede nouns, i-adjectives come directly before the noun just as in English.
Naomi: Old is 古い (furui), pen is ペン (pen), so old pen is 古いペン (furui pen)
Peter: Now adjectives don’t only come before nouns, they can also come in the predicate. Naomi-sensei, how do you say this is old?
Naomi: これは古いです。 (Kore wa furui desu.)
Peter: Let’s break down this sentence.
Naomi: これ (kore)
Peter: This.
Naomi: は (wa)
Peter: Topic marking particle meaning as for.
Naomi: 古い (furui)
Peter: Old.
Naomi: です (desu)
Peter: Formal form of the copula is, am, are.
So literally this old is. Of course, the sentence means this is old.
Naomi: 古い (furui) is an i-adjective and this is its dictionary form.
Peter: Now let us introduce some i-adjectives and review their usage.
Naomi: おいしい (oishii)
Peter: Delicious, tasty.
Naomi: おいしいチョコレート (oishii chokorēto)
Peter: Delicious chocolate.
Naomi: チョコレートはおいしいです。 (Chokorēto wa oishii desu.)
Peter: Chocolate is delicious. Can you give us one more example?
Naomi: はやい (hayai)
Peter: Fast.
Naomi: 車 (kuruma) is car. So,
はやい車 (hayai kuruma) would be
Peter: Fast car.
Naomi: 車ははやいです。 (Kuruma wa hayai desu.)
Peter: Cars are fast.
Notice how the dictionary form of i-adjectives end with the i-syllable.
これは古いです。 (Kore wa furui desu.)
私はひまです。 (Watashi wa hima desu.)
In Japanese, there are two types of adjectives i-adjectives and na-adjectives.
Peter: When i-adjectives precede nouns, i-adjectives come directly before the noun. Na-adjectives, however, when they come before a noun, na is inserted between the adjective and the noun. Naomi-sensei, how do you say a special pen in Japanese?
Naomi: Special is 特別 (tokubetsu) Special pen is 特別なペン (tokubetsu na pen)
Peter: That’s why this type of adjective is called a na-adjective. Now adjectives don’t only come before nouns, they can also come in the predicate.
Naomi: Right.
Peter: Naomi-sensei, how do you say this is special?
Naomi: これは特別です。 (Kore wa tokubetsu desu.)
Peter: Remember that 特別 (tokubetsu) means special and it’s a na-adjective. Next let’s introduce some na-adjectives and review their usage. First we have
Naomi: 静か (shizuka)
Peter: Quiet.
Naomi: 静かな車 (shizuka na kuruma)
Peter: Quiet car.
When na-adjectives come before a noun, na has to be added to the dictionary form.
Naomi: How about this sentence
東京は静かです。 (Tōkyō wa shizuka desu.)
Peter: Tokyo is quiet.
Here Shizuka, the na-adjective is used in a sentence but we don’t have the na. That’s because it doesn’t preceed a noun.
Naomi: Right.
Peter: Can you give us one more example?
Naomi: ひま (hima)
Peter: Free as in free time.
Naomi: 日 (hi) is day. So ひまな日 (hima na hi) would be
Peter: Free day, a day where you have nothing to do. Na is inserted between the adjective and the noun.
Naomi: ひまな日 (hima na hi) How about this sentence? 私 (watashi) is I. So 私はひまです。 (Watashi wa hima desu.)
Peter: I am free, I have nothing to do.
私はひまです。 (Watashi wa hima desu.)
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131 Comments

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😄 😞 😳 😁 😒 😎 😠 😆 😅 😜 😉 😭 😇 😴 😮 😈 ❤️️ 👍

JapanesePod101.com Verified
March 9th, 2012 at 06:30 PM
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Practice making your own sentences here, and let us know if you have any questions! :)

 

JapanesePod101.com Verified
October 27th, 2021 at 03:48 PM
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Pablo Ignacio Scalettaさん


コメントありがとうございます😄


Please let us know if you have any questions :)


Sincerely

りょうま(Ryoma)

Team JapanesePod101.com

Pablo Ignacio Scaletta
October 18th, 2021 at 02:37 AM
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PUFFYの音楽は素晴らしいです。Puffy AmiYumi❤️️ should thank me for this free advertising.😆

JapanesePod101.com Verified
November 24th, 2020 at 02:34 PM
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Musaabさん


Thank you so much for your comment😄

Well, you don't really have to memorize since we only have 2 adjective groups and i-adjectives always end in hiragana い (when writing with kanji); for example, 大きい(おおきい), 熱い(あつい)and 面白い(おもしろい). All the other adjectives that don't end in hiragana い are na-adjectives😉

Please let us know if you have any questions :)


Sincerely

Ryoma

Team JapanesePod101.com

Musaab
November 22nd, 2020 at 08:35 PM
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So do we just have to memorize which adjective is which type?

JapanesePod101.com Verified
August 14th, 2020 at 12:49 AM
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Konnichiwa Rachel


Thank you for your comment. And your sentence is correct.

Is エイコン mean Air-conditioner? If so, エアコンは静かじゃないです。is correct.


Keep up the good work!


Sono

Team JapanesePod101.com

Rachel
July 25th, 2020 at 09:17 PM
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車は早い、静かで、便利です。


エイコンは静かじゃないです。

JapanesePod101.com Verified
July 19th, 2020 at 11:03 AM
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Hi Ahmed,

Thank you for your comment!


As you say, there are some that end with "i" in na-adjectives.

"Kirai", "kirei", "shitsurei", "yūmei", "teinei(polite)" and "tokui(skillful)".

You can memorize them as exceptions.

For "suki", "daiji" and "genki", they don't end with the single "i" (single vowel),

but end with "ki", "ji" and "ki" (consonant + vowel) respectively.


As for "ōi", it's used for both countable and uncountable.

"There are many cars." in Japanese is "ōi kuruma ga arimasu,"

but it's more natural to say "takusan no kuruma ga arimasu."

"Many/much + [noun]" is commonly expressed "takusan no [noun],"

instead of saying "ōi [noun]."


Please let us know if you have any question!


Sincerely,

Miho

Team JapanesePod101.com

Ahmed
July 9th, 2020 at 07:53 PM
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hello ihave a question

why in the na adjectives there are some of them ending with i

is it a mistake or are they only exceptionals

for ex shitsurei or suki or yumei or daijii or genki or kirai or kirei

and thank you but can you plz put more examples cuz there are so many adj that i could easily confuse with

and a last question

does the (much and many) (ooi ) have special uses like countable or uncountable like english or is it normal so

can i say

there are many cars /// sore wa ooi kuruma ????❤️️❤️️❤️️❤️️❤️️

JapanesePod101.com Verified
May 25th, 2020 at 03:52 PM
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marie-franceさん


Thank you so much for your comment😄

"The dog is in the garden." = Inu Wa niwa ni imas

"There is a dog in the garden." will be niwa ni imu ga imas


Please let us know if you have any questions :)


Sincerely

Ryoma

Team JapanesePod101.com

JapanesePod101.com Verified
May 23rd, 2020 at 05:26 PM
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こんにちは nさん


What's wrong? Why the sad smiley? 😞

Please let us know if you have any issues. We are happy to assist.


Best,

レヴェンテ (Levente)

Team JapanesePod101.com