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Lesson Transcript

:*****Opening********
Jessi:Hello and welcome back to the JLPT Level 4 Last Minute Prep Course. I'm Jessi and I'm here joined by Naomi.
Naomi:こんにちは、みなさん。直美です。
Jessi:In lesson 1 we covered もじ・ごい, the Reading-Vocabulary section.
Naomi:Right. 皆さん復習しましたか?
Jessi:Did you memorize the word we listed in the lesson notes? We hope you did. Because we're going to use those vocab words a lot in the lesson.
Naomi:今日は、どっかいとぶんぽうです。
Jessi:In this lesson we'll explain what the どっかい・ぶんぽう Reading-Grammar section is like.
Naomi:どっかい means reading comprehension and ぶんぽう means grammar.
Jessi:OK. Naomi-sensei, tell us about this section.
Naomi:読解文法のテストは50分です
Jessi:The time alloted for the Reading-Grammar section is 50 minutes.
Naomi:もんだいは47あります。
Jessi:There are 47 questions, and there are 6 types of questions. And they are called もんだい1もんだい2もんだい3もんだい4もんだい5もんだい6
Naomi:Right. もんだい1から3は文法。もんだい4から6は読解のテストです。
Jessi:Questions 1 through 3 test your grammar knowledge and questions 4 to 6 test your reading comprehension.
Naomi:今日はもんだい1を勉強します。
Jessi: In this lesson, we'll be focusing on もんだい1.
:*****もんだい1********
Jessi:もんだい1 tests how much you know about Japanese particles. Naomi-sensei, can you read the instructions?
Naomi:下線の ところに なにを いれますか。 1・2・3・4から いちばん いい ものを ひとつ えらびなさい。
Jessi:Fill in the blank to complete the sentence. Choose the best answer from 1 to 4.
Naomi:As we mentioned in the previous lesson, 下線 is underline 下線のところ means the underlined part. なに is whatいれる is "to put" or "to insert" 
Jessi:So,下線のところに何を入れますか。means "What would you put in the underlined part" And the choices are all particles.
Naomi:The Top 5 particles you should know for JLPT level4 test are を、に、で、が and と
:*****を********
Jessi:Let's start with the particle を. The most basic usage of particle を is as an object marker.
Naomi:Right. Such as みずをください。
Jessi:Water please.
Naomi:コーヒーを飲みます。
Jessi:I drink coffee.
Naomi:When giving directions, another usage of を is often used. Such as 角を曲がってください。
Jessi:Please turn at the corner. When a sentence involves a motion verb such as "magaru" to turn, "aruku" to walk, "hashiru"to run, the place is often marked by を.
Naomi:Right 公園を歩く。I walk through the park.
Jessi:Also when you go from a smaller place to a bigger place, the particle o is used.
Naomi:バスを降りる I get off the bus. 家を出る。 I leave home.
Jessi:A bus and home are relatively smaller than the outside.
:*****に*******
Jessi: The next particle we're looking at is に The simplest use is....
Naomi:デパートに行きます。
Jessi:I'm going to the department store. This Ni indicates destination and is similar to English To. I'm going TO the department store" For this usage NI can be replaced with E
Naomi:You can add the purpose by using NI. For example, 買い物 is shopping. デパートに買い物に行きます。
Jessi:I'm going to the department store to shop.
Naomi: I just remembered that when my English was not that good, I kept saying "I called to my friend" or "I e-mailed to my friend"
Of course they are wrong in English but in Japanese we add に to mark the recipient of the action.
Jessi:Right. Ni indicates an indirect object too. So how would you say "I called my friend?"
Naomi:私は友だちに電話した。
Jessi:"I e-mailed my friend" is?
Naomi:私は友だちにメールした。
Jessi:We mentioned that the movement from a smaller space to a larger place is marked by を. However the movement from a larger space to a smaller place is marked by に
Naomi:バスに乗る。
Jessi:I get on a bus.
Naomi:タクシーにのる
Jessi:I get in a taxi.
Naomi:But for getting off the particle is を バスをおりる タクシーをおりる
Jessi:To get off the bus, to get out of the taxi respectively.
********と**********
Jessi:We've just introduced the sentence 私は友だちに電話した。But instead of に you can use と right?
Naomi:友だちと電話した? Yes. But the nuance is a bit different though.
Jessi:と Means "with", "together" So...友だちと電話した is I called my friend but the nuance is more like I talked with my friend on the phone.
Naomi:Right. と has more bidirectional connotation, not just one way. So マイケルはリサと結婚した。
Jessi:Micheal got married to Lisa. You can also say マイケルとリサは結婚した。Micheal and Lisa got married.
Naomi:Right. This と means "And"
Jessi:And There's one more important usage of と. と is used as a quotation marker.
Naomi:そうですね。 と marks where the quote ends. For JLPT4, you need to know AというB
Jessi:"B which is called A" or "B which is known as A"
Naomi:For example, フジさんというお店
Jessi:A shop called Fujisan
Naomi:ジェシーと言う人
Jessi:A person called Jessi. Japanesepod101.comというサイト a site called Japanesepod101.com.
Naomi:Right. Japanesepod101.comというサイトを知っていますか?
Jessi:Do you know a website called Japanesepod101.com?
Naomi:Japanesepod101.comというサイでにほんごを勉強します。
Jessi:I study Japanese at a website called Japanesepod101.com.
*****で******
Naomi:Actually, で is the next particle we're looking at.
Jessi:The particle で indicates tools, means, a reason or a place for an action.
Naomi:ペンでかきます。
Jessi:I write with a pen. ペンで・・・This De indicates the tool that the action is being done with.
Naomi:バスでいきます。
Jessi:I go by bus. バスで・・・This De indicates means of transportation.
Naomi:インフルエンザで学校を休みます。
Jessi:I'm not going to school because of the influenza. インフルエンザで・・・This de indicates reason
Naomi:Right. Like "because of".
Naomi:マクドナルドでコーヒーを飲みます。
Jessi:I have coffee at Macdonald. マクドナルドで・・・This de indicates place for action.
Naomi-sensei, we mentioned を also indicates the place for action. What's the difference between the 2?
Naomi:Well...を can be used only with a verb that expresses motion such as あるく to walk, およぐ to swim, はしる to run, and まがる to turn, whereas で can be used with any action.
:*****が******
Jessi:Last but not least, the particle ga. Ga indicates the object of certain verbs or adjectives.
Naomi:Certain verbs and adjectives...That sounds tricky.(笑)
Jessi:Yes. It might be a little tricky. Basically, you have to memorize which verbs or adjective take が. But the good news is the number of vocabulary is limited in JLPT level 4 and we made a list of those verbs and adjectives in the lesson notes so make sure to read them.
Naomi:今日は、ここまで。
Jessi:That's all for this lesson.
:*****Closing******
Jessi: Commercial
:*****Good bye******
Naomi:じゃまた
Jessi:See you next time.

42 Comments

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JapanesePod101.com Verified
October 26th, 2009 at 06:30 PM
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Mina-san, We have more practice in the grammar question section in the learning center. Be sure to try them!

JapanesePod101.com Verified
September 18th, 2019 at 01:32 PM
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Hi Shandie,

Thanks for your comment!


When we say 私は友だちとはなしました, the friend is "my friend" if it's not we would specify like 私は弟の友だちとはなしました, so you don't need to say 私の友だち.

This sentence is the same. えきで、友だちとあいました。 "I met my friend at the station."


Thank you for studying with us!

Erica

Team JapanesePod101.com

Shandie
July 29th, 2019 at 02:20 PM
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こんにちは


"I talked with my friend."


Shouldn't we use の instead of は for this example?


Please correct me if I'm wrong, there's a difference between the two and my understanding is as follows:

私は友だちとはなしました。 - "I talked with a friend."

私の友だちとはなしました。 - "I talked with my friend."


ありがとう!



JapanesePod101.com Verified
August 17th, 2018 at 01:31 PM
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Hi Danny,


Thank you for the heads up.

We will check and get back to you as soon as possible.


Regards,

Laura

Team JapanesePod101.com

danny
August 8th, 2018 at 05:19 PM
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"But the good news is the number of vocabulary is limited in JLPT level 4 and we made a list of those verbs and adjectives in the lesson notes so make sure to read them."


Hi guys - I can't seem to find the list of adjectives/verbs in the Lesson Notes. Am I missing something?


Thanks in advance


D-san

JapanesePod101.com Verified
July 21st, 2018 at 07:41 PM
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Hi Valentine,


Thank you for posting.


Please also check out our special particle series: https://www.japanesepod101.com/index.php?cat=37


You will get all explanations, from the formation of the grammatical element in the phrase to concrete example sentences with the audio and related lesson to boost your comprehension.


Hope this helps! In case of any questions, please feel free to contact us.


Sincerely,

Cristiane (クリスチアネ)

Team JapanesePod101.com

Valentine Tan Ng
July 21st, 2018 at 12:35 AM
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Too short explanations for 5 different particles especially for beginners whom still need time to differentiate between ni and de especially .

JapanesePod101.com Verified
December 29th, 2017 at 04:39 PM
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Hi 真理子,

Thank you for your comment!


1. Starting a conversation with で must be a casual expression. It would depend on a situation, but I think it is usually a shorten form of "それで" which means "and" then" and so on.


2. You can say "日本からアメリカに引っ越した。". If you want to mention sizes of the countries, it might be "狭い日本から広いアメリカに引っ越した。"


Hope this helps you!


Keep studying with JapanesePod101.com

Cheers,

Miki(美希)

Team JapanesePod101.com

真理子
December 16th, 2017 at 10:21 PM
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1.when natives start a conversations with で。。is that something like ところで?

2. since moving from Japan to the U.S is a smaller to bigger place would you say 日本をアメリカに引っ越した。?

JapanesePod101.com Verified
May 25th, 2017 at 04:37 PM
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Hello Josephine Zap,


Thank you for posting.

We’ll consider your feedback for our future development.

Let us know if you have any question.

Lena

Team JapanesePod101.com

Josephine Zap
March 24th, 2017 at 01:06 AM
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This is a very effective lesson to learn.

But I want to study JLPT 2 for my work.


Please help me!


Josephine