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Lesson Transcript

Naomi: なおみです!
Peter: Peter here! Beginner Series - Season 5, Lesson 5. You should do what this person says in Japanese. Now, in this lesson you will learn some useful phrases for asking and giving advice or suggestions.
Naomi: Right! such as -たほうがいいです
Peter: Should.
Naomi: And -ないほうがいいです
Peter: Should not. Now, this conversation takes place at?
Naomi: 病院
Peter: A hospital. The conversation is between?
Naomi: お医者さんと下山新さん
Peter: A doctor and Shin Shimoyama.
Naomi: 下山さんは体調がよくないです。
Peter: Shin is not feeling well. Naomi-sensei.
Naomi: はい。
Peter: What is the formality level of this conversation?
Naomi: ていねい
Peter: Formal. Let's listen to the conversation.
医者: インフルエンザかもしれませんね。
: しばらく、会社を 休んだ方が いいですね。
下山 新: 来週、出張に 行かなくてはいけないんですが・・・。
医者: 無理かもしれませんね。
下山 新: とても 大事な 仕事なんです!
医者: うーん。じゃ、朝、昼、晩、一日三回、食事の後に、この薬を 飲んでください。
: それから、お風呂に 入ってはいけませんよ。
下山 新: シャワーは 浴びても いいですか。
医者: シャワーも 浴びない方が いいですね。
: 早く 帰って ねてください。
下山 新: わかりました。
Naomi: もう一度、お願いします。今度は、ゆっくり、お願いします。
医者: インフルエンザかもしれませんね。
: しばらく、会社を 休んだ方が いいですね。
下山 新: 来週、出張に 行かなくてはいけないんですが・・・。
医者: 無理かもしれませんね。
下山 新: とても 大事な 仕事なんです!
医者: うーん。じゃ、朝、昼、晩、一日三回、食事の後に、この薬を 飲んでください。
: それから、お風呂に 入ってはいけませんよ。
下山 新: シャワーは 浴びても いいですか。
医者: シャワーも 浴びない方が いいですね。
: 早く 帰って ねてください。
下山 新: わかりました。
Naomi: 今度は、英語が入ります。
医者: インフルエンザかもしれませんね。
Lady: It's possibly influenza.
: しばらく、会社を 休んだ方が いいですね。
Lady: You should take a few days off work.
下山 新: 来週、出張に 行かなくてはいけないんですが・・・。
Lady: But I have to go on a business trip next week...
医者: 無理かもしれませんね。
Lady: That's probably going to be impossible.
下山 新: とても 大事な 仕事なんです!
Lady: It's a very important task!
医者: うーん。じゃ、朝、昼、晩、一日三回、食事の後に、この薬を 飲んでください。
Lady: Hmm. Well then, please take this medicine morning, afternoon, and evening, three times a day, after eating.
医者: それから、お風呂に 入ってはいけませんよ。
Lady: And you cannot take any baths.
下山 新: シャワーは 浴びても いいですか。
Lady: Am I allowed to take showers?
医者: シャワーも 浴びない方が いいですね。
Lady: It's better not to take any showers.
医者: 早く 帰って ねてください。
Lady: Please go home immediately and sleep.
下山 新: わかりました。
Lady: All right.
Naomi: インフルエンザ・・・こわいですね。
Peter: こわいですね。It’s pretty scary.
Naomi: Hm.
Peter: 今年何でしたっけ。 This year, what was it?
Naomi: Ah! the new one. 新型インフルエンザ
Peter: The new type of flu.
Naomi: そうです、 right.
Peter: And in English we call that, the swine flu.
Naomi: Ahh~!
Peter: So its a very big difference between the two words in their respective languages.
Naomi: Right, but we used to call it 豚インフルエンザ. But from a certain point they changed the name.
Peter: And then we have?
Naomi: 新型インフルエンザ. 日本は11月から3月くらいはインフルエンザのシーズンなんですね。
Peter: So in Japan, the flu goes around from November to March. So if you're planning to visit Japan during that season, be careful.
Naomi: そう!気をつけてくださいね。マスクを忘れずに。
Peter: Don’t forget your surgical mask .
Naomi: ピーターさんは最近インフルエンザになりましたか?
Peter: 言わないでください! Like, Don’t jinx me. 今年なっていません。 So I haven't gotten the flu this year, knock on wood.
Naomi: あ~そうですか。じゃ、気をつけてください!みなさんも、インフルエンザに気をつけてください。
Peter: So please be careful of the flu. Okay Naomi-sensei, let's take a look at the vocabulary of this lesson.
First word:
出張 [natural native speed]
business trip
出張 [slowly - broken down by syllable]
出張 [natural native speed]
回 [natural native speed]
counter for an occurrence
回 [slowly - broken down by syllable]
回 [natural native speed]
お風呂 [natural native speed]
お風呂 [slowly - broken down by syllable]
お風呂 [natural native speed]
シャワー [natural native speed]
シャワー [slowly - broken down by syllable]
シャワー [natural native speed]
浴びる [natural native speed]
to shower, to bathe
浴びる [slowly - broken down by syllable]
浴びる [natural native speed]
Peter: Ok. Let's have a closer look at the usage for some of the words and phrases from this lesson. Naomi-sensei, What's the first word that we are going to look at?
Naomi: お風呂
Peter: Bath. Now, actually, ふろ is bath and the 'o' in the front of it is the honorific prefix 'o'.
Naomi: Right. You can either say 風呂 or お風呂.
Peter: How do you say “to take a bath”?
Naomi: お風呂に入る。に marks the direction or destination and 入る means to enter.
Peter: So literally, it's “to enter a bath”.
Naomi: そうですね。
Peter: What's the next word?
Naomi: シャワー
Peter: shower. How do you say “to take a shower”?
Naomi: シャワーを浴びる ... を is an object marker and 浴びる is “to shower”, “to bathe”, “to receive” or “to get”.
Peter: Now, you don't say お風呂を浴びる or シャワーに入る。
Naomi: Hmm, Well... it doesn't sound natural to me.
Peter: In English, we use the same verb “to take” for bath and shower, but in Japanese, “To bathe” is
Naomi: お風呂に入る
Peter: And to take a shower is
Naomi: シャワーを浴びる。 ピーターさんはシャワーとお風呂とどちらが好きですか。
Peter: So which do I prefer, taking a shower or taking a bath? そうですね…
Naomi: You don't like either?
Peter: 面白いな…that was good! Well, uh, やっぱり時間があれば、お風呂の方が好きですね。
Naomi: Mm、なるほどね。
Peter: Like if I have time, I like a bath better. A couple of quick things about the process in Japan, a very interesting question, well, I am an American and usually in the US, we shower, everything is a shower - very quick shower. But in Japan, お風呂に入る… it's kind of like you are going to take a shower too.
Naomi: Right.
Peter: Because, before you enter the bath or bath water, you shower your body. The Japanese have a one unit bathroom and they have a shower handle you bathe your body, and then you go into the water. So its a trick question, if you say お風呂に入る, its a kind of like you are doing both.
Naomi: そうですね。You’re right.
Peter: Okay, now, back to the shower. Now this is just me… 夏は、一日二回シャワーをあびます。
Naomi: Ah...
Peter: So in the summer time, I shower twice.
Naomi: 一日二回...That's our next phrase.
Peter: Now you can express how often something happens by the phrase, time duration, number plus +回.
Naomi: 回 is a counter for time. For example 一回
Peter: Once
Naomi: 二回
Peter: Twice
Naomi: 三回
Peter: Three times. Okay? Now, for example, if you want to say once a day, say the time duration first ...in this case “a day”
Naomi: いちにち
Peter: And number plus回
Naomi: いっかい。一日一回
Peter: Once a day. 
Naomi: 一日二回
Peter: Twice a day
Naomi: 一日三回
Peter: Three times a day. Now, how do you say once a week, Naomi-sensei?
Naomi: A week is 一週間 So... 一週間に一回
Peter: Once a week
Naomi: 一週間に二回
Peter: Twice a week
Naomi: 一週間に三回
Peter: three times a week
Naomi: So, Peter-san…ピーターさんはよくアメリカに帰りますか? Do you often go back to the States?
Peter: そうですね。Hmm. 最近あまり帰らないですね。So these days I don't really go back. でも年に一回帰りますよ。
Naomi: あ~そうですか。Once a year.
Peter: Okay, on to the focus point of this lesson..

Lesson focus

Peter: In this lesson, you'll learn useful phrases for asking and giving advice. You will also learn how to say that you have to do something.
Naomi: The first phrase we're going to cover is ~たほうがいい .
Peter: “Should”. Can we hear the sentence from the dialogue?
Naomi: Sure, しばらく、会社を休んだ方がいいですね。
Peter: “You should take a few days off work.”
Now ほうがいい is a phrase that attaches to the informal past form (the “ta” form) of a verb and expresses a strong suggestion. It's equivalent to “should do”. Naomi-sensei, to make this phrase polite, we simply add です to the end of it., right?
Naomi: そうですね。Right.
Peter: Let's illustrate it with some examples. How do you say “To exercise”?
Naomi: 運動する
Peter: The corresponding ta form or informal past form is?
Naomi: 運動した
Peter: We add ほうがいい. So we have...
Naomi: 運動したほうがいい
Peter: ”You should exercise.”
Naomi: そうですね。 If you want to say “You shouldn't”, attach ほうがいい to the nai form of a verb.
Peter: So, the nai form or informal negative form of 運動する to exercise is...
Naomi: 運動しない
Peter: And add ほうがいい. So “you shouldn't exercise” is..
Naomi: 運動しない方がいい
Peter: To sum it up, [ ta form of a verb ] plus ほうがいい is “should”.
[Nai form of a verb] plus ほうがいい is “shouldn't”.
Naomi: The next phrase we're looking at is なくてはいけない
Peter: Can you read the sentence from the dialogue?
Naomi: Sure. 出張に行かなくてはいけない。
Peter: I have to go on a business trip
Naomi: 出張 is?
Peter: Business trip.
Naomi: So 出張に行く is?
Peter: “to go on a business trip”
Peter: And なくてはいけない is
Peter: “have to...” The first part, なくては, means “If you don't do...” and the latter half, いけない, means “you can't go.”
Naomi. うん。
Peter: So this phrase なくてはいけない literally means “If you don't do..., you can't go”, or “You can't go without doing ...” and it expresses a sense of duty or obligation. It corresponds to the auxiliary verb “must” or “have to” in English.
Naomi: The formation is a bit complicated so we recommend that you read the lesson notes.
Peter: Now let us briefly explain the formation here though. First, you need to change the verb into the nai form. For example, 行く is to go. Naomi-sensei, the nai form is..
Naomi: 行かない
Peter: Second, omit the final nai
Naomi: 行かない becomes “いか”
Peter: To that attach なくてはいけない. So we get
Naomi: いか なくてはいけない so いかなくてはいけない。
Here's a sample sentence.日曜日、会社に行かなくてはいけない。
Peter: I have to go to work this Sunday.
Naomi: If you want to say “I have to get up early”… To get up is 起きる
Peter: Have to get up is..
Naomi: 起き なくてはいけない. 
Peter: Early is はやく So
Naomi: 早く起きなくてはいけない
Peter: I have to get up early. Naomi-sensei.
Naomi: はい。
Peter: ちゃ is used in a casual situation, right?
Naomi: あ~そうですね! Good point. Like 早く起きなくちゃ。 Such and such てはいけない is replaced with ちゃ. This is a colloquial expression though.
会社に行かなくちゃ or はやくおきなくちゃ
Peter: The whole なくてはいけない. is like “Have to” and ちゃ, the contracted version is something like “gotta”.
Naomi: あ~そうね。Exactly. 行かなくてはいけない is like “I have to go” and 行かなくちゃ is like “I've gotta go”
Peter: I think that's a great way to sum it up. Okay, that's all we have for this lesson.
Naomi: じゃまた!
Peter: See you next lesson.


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