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Lesson Transcript

Naomi: なおみです (Naomi desu.)
Yuichi: ゆういちです (Yūichi desu.)
Jessi: Jessi here. Welcome to another edition of
Naomi: ポスターで学ぶ漢字と日本語 (Posutā de manabu kanji to Nihongo)
Jessi: Learning kanji in Japanese through poster phrases. This is similar to our ongoing everyday kanji project except in this lesson we will be looking at the Japanese that’s written on a poster in great detail. Okay what kind of poster are we looking at today?
Yuichi: 今回は駅の中にあるポスターです。 (Konkai wa eki no naka ni aru posutā desu.) This poster was found inside a train station.
Jessi: Inside a train station but this poster isn’t advertising anything right? It’s a different type of poster.
Yuichi: That’s right. This poster is reminding people of a very important rule at the station.
Jessi: Can we hear the text altogether?
Naomi: 急がず、慌てず、ゆっくりと (Isogazu, awatezu, yukkuri to.) 事故やケガにつながりますので駆け込み乗車はおやめください。 (Jiko ya kega ni tsunagari masu node kakekomi jōsha wa o-yame kudasai.)
Jessi: Please go slowly without hurrying and rushing. Please do not run to catch the train as this leads to accidents and injuries. You see this happen a lot in Japan, don’t you?
Naomi: そうですね。 (Sō desu ne.) Especially during the rush hour in the morning. Nobody wants to be late for work or school. So they run to catch their trains.
Jessi: Right. I see it happen a lot. Also there is a little melody that plays right before the train doors are about to close though, right?
Naomi: テレテレテレレレ、ってやつね。 (Tereteretererere, tte yatsu ne.)
Jessi: Right.
Yuichi: そうです。 (sōdesu) So actually, when people hear this melody, they start to run to catch the train.
Naomi: So instead of thinking, oh the train is going to leave, I better wait for the next one, they think, oh no, the train is about to leave, I better run and catch it.
Jessi: そう、そう、そう (sō, sō, sō)
Yuichi: そう、そうなんです (Sō, sō na n desu.)
Jessi: So in that way, I think it’s comparable to say a yellow traffic light. You know what I mean? When you see it, you are supposed to stop because it’s about to turn red but instead a lot of people speed up when they see a yellow light. So this poster is warning against doing the same kind of thing with trains. So in this lesson, we will mostly be focusing on the grammar in the first phrase 急がず、慌てず、ゆっくりと (Isogazu, awatezu, yukkuri to.) なおみ先生、お願いします。 (Naomi-sensei, o-negai shimasu.)
Naomi: はい (hai) In this phrase, 急がず (isogazu) and 慌てず (awatezu) are the same as 急がないで (isoganai de) and 慌てないで (awatenai de) . This ず (zu) form and ないで (nai de) form means without doing something or without doing A, B.
Jessi: Right. So 急がず (isogazu) or 急がないで (isoganai de) means without hurrying and 慌てず (awatezu) or 慌てないで (awatenai de) mean without rushing.
Yuichi: You will often see the particle after に (ni) after ず (zu) as in 急がずに (isoga zuni) and 慌てずに (awate zuni).
Jessi: Sometimes it can be left out though right?
Yuichi: Right. In this phrase, に (ni) was left out.
Jessi: Can we hear some example sentences that use this grammar?
Naomi: Sure! 彼はお昼ご飯も食べずに働いた。 (Kare wa o hirugohan mo tabezu ni hataraita.)
Jessi: He kept working without eating lunch. So here the verb 食べる (taberu) to eat is 食べず (tabezu) in the ず (zu) form and it translates to without eating. So without eating, he kept working. Can we hear another one?
Yuichi: 私は毎日休まずに学校へ行く。 (Watashi wa mainichi yasumazu ni gakkō e iku.)
Jessi: I go to school everyday without missing any classes. Here the verb 休む (yasumu) to rest or in this case miss school is 休まず (yasumazu) in the ず (zu) form and it translates to without missing any classes. Okay what are we going to look at next?
Naomi: ゆっくりと (yukkurito). This means slowly. And there are two parts. The other verb ゆっくり (yukkuri) slowly and the particle と (to).
Jessi: This particle と (to) is used to indicate how something like an action is performed. It looks like ゆっくりと (yukkurito) could be an incomplete phrase, is this true?
Naomi: そうですね (Sō desu ne.) We could put a verb after ゆっくりと (yukkurito) as in 電車にゆっくりと乗る。 (Densha ni yukkuri to noru.) . Here the action which could be 乗る (noru) is just implied. In text that’s used in posters, it’s really common to leave out extra information as long as it still makes sense.
Jessi: Can we hear some more examples with this particle と (to) ?
Yuichi: はっきりと話す (hakkiri to hanasu)
Jessi: To speak clearly.
Naomi: ぐっすりと眠る (gussuri to nemuru)
Jessi: To sleep soundly.
Yuichi: しっかりと閉める (shikkari to shimeru)
Jessi: To close tightly. So as you can see, the word before と (to) tells you how the action is done right.
F: Let’s really quickly look at that last sentence. Can we hear it one more time?
Yuichi: 事故やケガにつながりますので駆け込み乗車はおやめください。 (Jiko ya kega ni tsunagarimasu node kakekomi jōsha wa o-yame kudasai.)
Jessi: Please do not run to catch the train as this leads to accidents and injuries. Let’s look at the vocabulary in this sentence. The first two words are
Naomi: 事故 (jiko) Accident and ケガ (kega) injury. Rushing into the train can lead to both of them.
Jessi: Right, and by the way, what is the phrase used for rushing into the train?
Yuichi: 駆け込み乗車 (kakekomi jōsha)
Jessi: 駆け込み乗車 (kakekomi jōsha) So is 駆け込む (kakekomu) the original verb?
Yuichi: はい、そうです。 (Hai, sō desu) 駆け込む (kakekomu) means to run into or dash into.
Jessi: Oh okay that makes sense. Can we hear it used in a different context?
Yuichi: Sure. 怪しい人がついて来たので、交番に駆け込んだ。 (Ayashii hito gatsuite kita node, kōban ni kakekonda.)
Jessi: A suspicious person was following me around. So I rushed into the police station. And then what about the last part of the phrase that comes after 駆け込み乗車 (kakekomi jōsha).
Naomi: おやめください。 (O-yame kudasai.) Please stop.
Jessi: So this is a command right?
Naomi: Umm…
Jessi: Let’s explain how we got this formation. First we have the verb やめます (yame masu) which means to stop or quit in the masu form. We take off the masu and we have
Naomi: やめ (yame)
Jessi: Then we add the honorific prefix お (o)
Naomi: おやめ (o-yame)
Jessi: And then we make it a command by adding ください (kudasai)
Naomi: おやめください (o-yame kudasai)
Jessi: So we said that this is a command but how would you say this is different from やめてください (yamete kudasai)
Naomi: Well おやめください (o-yame kudasai) is much more formal. This construction is used in polite situations and in a writing a lot. It’s especially used in the service industry such as at department stores, hotels, restaurants and so on.
Jessi: Can you give us an example of how it might be used there?
Naomi: Yes there is a very commonly used phrase. 待つ (matsu) is to wait and 待ってください (matte kudasai) means please wait but お待ちください (o-machi kudasai) is even more polite.
Jessi: Sounds good. Well that just about does it for this lesson and remember that rushing into the train is dangerous. So please don’t do it.
Naomi: おやめください (o-yame kudasai). If you have any questions about this lesson, please leave us a comment. コメントをおかきください。 (Komento o okaki kudasai.)
Jessi: Until next time.
Yuichi: じゃあ、また。 (Jā, mata.)