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Lesson Transcript

Intro

Chris: このレッスンでは何を勉強しますか。
Naomi: 受身( Passive )の文章です。例えば、「ハムレットはシェークスピアによって書かれた。」"Hamlet was written by Shakespeare."
Chris: In this lesson, you'll learn how to say "something is done by someone" in Japanese.
Naomi: 今、ナミさんたちは、遠足で日光にいます。ツアーガイドの説明を聞いているようです。
Chris: Now, Nami and her friends are in Nikko on a school excursion and they are listening to the tour guide.
Naomi: ツアーガイドはもちろん、丁寧に話しています。
Chris: The tour guide is speaking formally.
Naomi: では聞いてください。
Chris: Let's listen to the conversation.

Lesson conversation

English Host: Now let’s hear it with the English translation.
ツアーガイド: ここは日光東照宮です。
Chris: This is the Nikko Toshogu Shrine.
: これは1636年に徳川家光によって完成されました。
Chris: It was completed in 1636 by Tokugawa Iemitsu.
: では、歩きましょう。
Chris: So now let's walk on.
ツアーガイド: これは眠り猫です。
Chris: This is the Sleeping Cat.
: 「左甚五郎によって作られた」と言われています。
Chris: It is said that it was made by Hidari Jingoro.
: 見てください。ネコの裏には、スズメが彫られています。
Chris: Please look. There are sparrows engraved behind the cat.
: 普通、スズメはネコに食べられてしまいますよね。
Chris: Normally, the sparrows would be eaten up by the cat, wouldn't they?
: でもすぐそこにスズメがいるのに、ネコはスズメを食べないで眠っていますね。
Chris: But even though the sparrows are right beside it, the cat doesn't eat them but sleeps on.
: これは「平和な世界が徳川幕府によって作られた」という意味だと言われています。
Chris: It is said that this symbolizes the idea of the Tokugawa Shogunate having created a peaceful world.
桃屋先生: では、今から一時間、お昼休憩をとりましょう。
Chris: Alright, let's have a one-hour lunch break now.
: 集合時間は1時半。集合場所はバス。いいですか?
Chris: Gathering time is one-thirty p.m. The gathering place is at the bus. Does everyone understand?
: 特に、那須君、野沢さん、遅刻をしないでください。
Chris: Especially you, Mr. Nasu, Miss Nozawa—please don't be late.
野沢菜味・那須実: はーい。
Chris: Okaaay.
POST CONVERSATION BANTER
Naomi: クリスさんは、日本の歴史に興味がありますか。
Chris: Am I interested in Japanese history?...(Comment in Japanese with English translation)
Naomi: 日光へはいったことがありますか。
Chris: (answer...)
あの・・・有名なフレーズがありますよね。
日光 ナントカ 結構 ナントカ。(笑)Nikkou something Kekkou something.(笑)
Naomi: (笑)あああ、「日光を見るまで結構と言うな?」
Chris: Yes, that's it! 日光を・・・(笑)なんでしたっけ?
Naomi: あ、もちろん 他のバージョンはたくさんありますけど、一番わかりやすいのは、「日光を見るまで、結構というな」
Chris: 日光を見るまで Until you see Nikkou, 結構というな Don't say kekkou.
Naomi: 結構は 「fine, enough」という意味ですね。
Chris: Right.If I translated it as "Don't say "that's enough" until you see Nikkou.", I'd lose the rhyme, though.
Naomi: あ、そうですね。このフレーズの意味は・・・「そのくらい日光は結構だよ」「そのくらい日光はいいよ」といういみです。
Chris: So this phrase indicates that Nikkou is really a wonderful place to see.
Naomi: そうです。英語でも、こういうフレーズありますか?
Chris: (comment)
Naomi: もともとは英語じゃないですけど、「ナポリを見てから死ね」と言うのもありますよね?
Chris: See Napoli and then die? (comment・・・知ってるとか知らないとか)
Vocabulary and Phrases
Chris: Let's take a look at the vocabulary for this lesson.
: The first word we shall see is:
Naomi: 完成 [natural native speed]
Chris: completion, accomplishment
Naomi: 完成 [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Naomi: 完成 [natural native speed]
: Next:
Naomi: 猫 [natural native speed]
Chris: cat
Naomi: 猫 [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Naomi: 猫 [natural native speed]
: Next:
Naomi: 裏 [natural native speed]
Chris: behind, reverse side
Naomi: 裏 [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Naomi: 裏 [natural native speed]
: Next:
Naomi: すずめ [natural native speed]
Chris: tree sparrow
Naomi: すずめ [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Naomi: すずめ [natural native speed]
: Next:
Naomi: 彫る [natural native speed]
Chris: to carve, to sculpt;V1
Naomi: 彫る [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Naomi: 彫る [natural native speed]
: Next:
Naomi: 普通 [natural native speed]
Chris: normally, generally, usually; Adv.
Naomi: 普通 [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Naomi: 普通 [natural native speed]
: Next:
Naomi: 眠る [natural native speed]
Chris: to sleep;V1
Naomi: 眠る [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Naomi: 眠る [natural native speed]
: Next:
Naomi: 平和 [natural native speed]
Chris: peace, peaceful; Noun, Adj(na)
Naomi: 平和 [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Naomi: 平和 [natural native speed]
: Next:
Naomi: 世界 [natural native speed]
Chris: the world, society, the universe
Naomi: 世界 [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Naomi: 世界 [natural native speed]
: Next:
Naomi: 意味 [natural native speed]
Chris: meaning, significance
Naomi: 意味 [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Naomi: 意味 [natural native speed]
: Next:
Naomi: 休憩 [natural native speed]
Chris: rest, break, recess
Naomi: 休憩 [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Naomi: 休憩 [natural native speed]
: Next:
Naomi: 集合 [natural native speed]
Chris: gathering, assembly, meeting
Naomi: 集合 [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Naomi: 集合 [natural native speed]
KEY VOCABULARY AND PHRASES
Chris: Let's have a closer look at the usuage for some of the words and phrases from this lesson.
Naomi: The first word/phrase we’ll look at is....
Naomi: では単語やフレーズを勉強しましょう。
Chris: 最初の単語は何ですか。What are we looking at first?
Naomi: 裏
Chris: Ura means "behind," "opposite side" or "reverse side."
反対の言葉は何ですか? What's the opposite word?
Naomi: 表
Chris: 例文お願いします。
Naomi: 名刺の裏に、自分の携帯の電話番号を書いた。
Chris: I wrote my cell phone number on the back of my business card.
Naomi: だれか、素敵な人に会ったんでしょうかね。
Chris: So you think this person met someone special?
Naomi: かもしれません。(笑)
裏と表 を使ったこんな文はどうでしょう?
あの人は裏表がある。
Chris: Literally "That person is two-sided" or "That person has two sides." In English we say "two-faced".
Naomi: たとえば、嘘をついたり、人によって態度を変えたりする人ですね。
Chris: でも、There is a flip side to everything. 「何にでも、表と裏がある」 とおもいませんか?
Naomi: あ~。確かにそうですね。
Chris: 次はなんですか?
Naomi: 名詞を三つ紹介します。
Chris: So let's look at three nouns which appeared in the dialogue.
Naomi: 最初の名詞は・・・「集合」
Chris: "assembly", "meeting" or "gathering."
Naomi: 動詞は「する」、か「を する」をつけます。 
集合する or 集合をする。「集まる」と同じ意味ですね、
Chris: "to gather" "to assemble"
Naomi: ダイアログの中には、「集合時間」
Chris: "meeting time"
Naomi: と 「集合場所」
Chris: "meeting place"
Naomi: がありました。
Chris: 次の単語は?
Naomi: 休憩
Chris: "rest", "break" . How do you say "to rest" or "to have a break"?
Naomi: 「休憩する」か 「休憩をする」か「休む」ですね
Chris: Sample sentence please
Naomi: 「お昼休憩をとりましょう」
Chris: Let's have a lunch break.
Chris: 三つ目の単語は?
Naomi: 完成
Chris: "completion." じゃ "to complete" は?
Naomi: 完成する
Chris: 例文お願いします。
Naomi: これは1636年に徳川家光によって完成されました。
Chris: "This was completed in 1636 by Tokugawa Iemitsu." And that is actually this lesson's target expression. Now on to the grammar.

Lesson focus

Chris: The focus of this lesson is passive sentences.
Naomi: Passive は 日本語で受身です。受身 はビギナーで勉強しましたね。
Chris: We're sure you're already familiar with passive sentences, but let's review the basic usage of passive sentences. 例文お願いします。
Naomi: 私は、妻に だまされた。
Chris: "I was deceived by my wife."
Naomi: 結婚する前は、料理と掃除が大好きだっていっていたのに・・・(笑)
Chris: Even though before we got married, she said that she loved cooking and cleaning....(笑)
Let's break this sentence down.
Naomi: 私は("I" plus topic marker wa) 妻に(by my wife。。。here particle ni marks the doer of the action.Tsuma-ni, by my wife) だまされた (was /were deceived)
Naomi: 私は妻にだまされた
Chris: I was deceived by my wife.
In Japanese passive sentences, the subject is usually animate.
Naomi: そうですね。でも、歴史とか客観的な事実(objective reality)について話すときは、主語が人じゃなくてもいいです。
Chris: However, when the speaker depicts objective reality, inanimate subject is used. In that case, the doer is marked by によって. 例文お願いします。
Naomi: これは、徳川家光によって完成されました。
Chris: "This was completed by Tokugawa Iemitsu."
Let's break this down.
Naomi: これは(this plus topic marker wa) 徳川家光によって(by Tokugawa Iemitsu or Iemitsu Tokugawa.)完成されました(was completed)
Naomi: これは、徳川家光によって、完成されました。
Chris: "This was completed by Tokugawa Iemitsu."
Chris: Let's say "Hamlet was written by Shakespeare."
By the way, how do you say "to write"?
Naomi: かく
Chris: The passive form is?
Naomi: 書かれる
Chris: Change that into past tense.
Naomi: 書かれた。
Chris: かかれた・・・ OK. Then make a sentence
First state the topic with a topic marker.
Naomi: ハムレットは
Chris: Then add the doer. Remenber the doer is marked by によって because Hamlet is not a person but the title of the book.
Naomi: ハムレットは、 シェイクスピアによって
Chris: Then add "was written."
Naomi: ハムレットは シェイクスピアによって かかれた。
Chris: "Hamlet was written by Shakespeare."
OK. Listener, listen and repeat.
Naomi: ハムレットは シェイクスピアによって かかれた。
Chris: (pause)
How do you say "This novel was written by Yukio Mishima"?
Novel is 小説 so...
Naomi: この小説は三島由紀夫によって書かれた。
Chris: Listeners, listen and repeat.
Naomi: この小説は三島由紀夫によって書かれた。
Chris: (pause) 日本語のかくは "to draw" の意味もありますね。
Naomi: そうですね。ですから、「これはピカソによってかかれた」も大丈夫です。
Chris: "This was drawn by Picasso." マンガも「かく」ですよね。
Naomi: あ、そうですね。「ドラゴンボールは鳥山明によってかかれた」とか、
Chris: I see.
Naomi: くりすさんは、好きな本や、マンガはありますか?
Chris: (コメント ex/ぼくはーーーによってかかれたーーーが好きですね。I like ----written by ----. )
Naomi: 皆さんは、好きな本やマンガはありますか?それは誰によって書かれましたか?
Chris: Do you have a favorite book or manga? If so, who was it written by?
Naomi: コメントで教えてください。じゃ、また。
Chris: See you in the next lesson.

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58 Comments

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JapanesePod101.com
May 10th, 2011 at 6:30 pm
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Hi everyone~

In this lesson, they're taking a tour of Nikko (日光), a very famous sightseeing spot in Japan. Have you heard of Nikko, or have you ever been?

JapanesePod101.comVerified
September 4th, 2019 at 11:38 pm
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Konnichiwa Fao H


Thank you for your posting.

そうですか、たしかに有名な所ですね。わたしはまだ行ったことがないので、いつか行きたいです!

またコメントしてくださいね。


Sono

Team JapanesePod101.com

Fao H
June 10th, 2019 at 7:03 pm
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度々、日光と言われていました。ヨーロッパの観光客によると、日光は最も有名な日本の十の観光うちのひとつだと思います。

JapanesePod101.comVerified
June 30th, 2018 at 3:30 pm
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Márcio Rodrigo さん、Carlos さん、Marcus さん、

こんにちは!!

I'm sorry for he delay!!

Below, I'll reply to each of you :)


> Márcio Rodrigo さん

ナルトは有名ですね!


> Carlos さん

very good question and you're correct!

The conjugations for potential and passive forms are same, and it depends on the context that we can know the meaning.

For now, it might sound confusing and difficult, but you'll find it not difficult once you get used to Japanese sentence ;)


> Marcus さん

レッスンは面白かったですか。よかったです!

私はそのゲームをやったことがありませんが、おもしろそうですね。

Please note the conjugation: (超)楽しいゲームでした ;)


Natsuko (奈津子),

Team JapanesePod101.com

Marcus
June 24th, 2018 at 8:04 pm
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日光を聞いた事が有りませんが、このレッスンは面白かったです。

プレイステーションフォーのゲーム「仁王」をした時に徳川家光が登場されました。

そして色んな有名な人々も居ました。歴史の報告が沢山在って、超楽しかったゲームでした。

Carlos
May 20th, 2018 at 5:32 am
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質問があります。

I get confused whenever it is the potential form and the passive form,

I understand that class 2 verbs in the potential form, you change the final る into られる。and so you do in the passive form of the verbs, so my question is, is there any difference between both and if it doesn't, does it depend on the context?

Márcio Rodrigo
April 22nd, 2018 at 1:55 am
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岸本斉史によって書かれたナルトという漫画が好きです。

Tim
February 10th, 2017 at 5:23 pm
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こんにちわ!いま、私のいちばんすきなマンガは「よつばと!」といいます。 このマンガはかんたんなことばとふつうのかいわとおもしろいキャラクターがあるので私はすきです。 そして、どくしょれんしゅのためによいです! 「よつばと!」は あずま きよひこによってかかれた。


Right now, my favorite manga is called "Yotsubato!" I like this manga because it has easy words, normal conversation, and funny characters. And, It is good for reading practice! "Yotsubato!" is written by Kiyohiko Azuma.

JapanesePod101.comVerified
October 15th, 2016 at 2:37 pm
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デイビッドさん、

こんにちは。:smile:

First, I'm very sorry for the super late reply.


Second, your last sentence is correct!!

このケーキは私の母によってたべられた。

Please check the corrected versions of other two:

日本語は学生全員によって勉強される。

車は泥棒によって運転された。


Now...

I understand your points and I'm sorry for the confusing explanation.

The word 'subject', I think, was not very accurate or adequate to use to explain passive voice here

(I believe). Theoretically, subject in Japanese language must be marked with the particle が (ga).

You're right; any inanimate object CAN be 'subject' of the passive sentences.

Doer, on the other hand, must be (of course) animate.

Regarding 'done to something' and 'done by someone', I'd say both are correct. In Japanese passive

sentences, there are some different points of view are involved.

On a related note, your conjugation 'ikareru' is correct and actually in Japanese we do use

both 'korareru' and 'ikareru'. Those are intransitive verbs. Hence, in English these won't take

passive voice, right? In Japanese, any verbs can. When intransitive verbs are used in passive voice,

it usually expresses that the affected person is annoyed by such occurrence.

One example for such sentence would be....imagine you're at a party...

誘っていない友達に来られた。

= My friend whom I didn't invite came.

This sentence obviously shows that you're bothered or annoyed because uninvited guest came to the party.


Hope this helps!


Natsuko (奈津子),

Team JapanesePod101.com

デイビッド
September 24th, 2016 at 7:01 pm
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Hello again,


I'm having a little trouble with this. In the lesson notes it says we'd learn to say "something is done by someone". But surely the passive voice is to say that something is done to the subject, rather than by the subject? Part of this is to say that the subject had something done to it by someone, but the 'by someone' part is not what makes it a passive phrase.


The notes also say "In Japanese passive sentences, the subject is usually animate and is usually a person. However, when the speaker depicts objective reality, we use an inanimate subject. In that case, ni yotte marks the doer." Unfortunately, there are no examples given of the subject being animate with the doer being included.


For example:

Today, Maradona is still called a cheat by England fans.


The passive form of Kuru is listed as korareru, and I suppose the passive form of iku would be ikareru. Try as I might, I can't seem use these verbs passively. Could you give us and example?


Cheers,

デイビッド
September 24th, 2016 at 2:20 am
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こんにちは、皆さん。


日本語は全部学生によって勉強される。

車は泥棒によって運転させた。

このケーキは私の母によってたべられた。


Japanese is studied by all students.

The car was driven by the thief.

This cake was eaten by my mother.


David