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Lesson Transcript

Yuichi: こんにちは。ゆういちです。
Naomi: なおみです。
Jessi: Why Do Japanese People Often Feel Sickly in May?
Naomi: 今回の会話は、いつ、どこで行われてます?
Yuichi: 5月の大学のキャンパスでの話です。
Jessi: This conversation takes place at a university campus in May.
Yuichi: 二人の大学生と教授が話しています。
Jessi: The conversation is between two students and a professor. The two students are friends, therefore they will be speaking informal Japanese, but they will be speaking formal Japanese to the professor.
Naomi: 今日の文法のポイントは何でしょうか?
Yuichi: 「のだ」です。
Jessi: In this lesson you will learn how to use のだ. As in
Yuichi: 明日、神社に行くんだ。
Jessi: “I'm going to a shrine tomorrow.”
Yuichi: それでは、聞いてみましょう。
Yuichi: 今度は英語が入ります。
Jessi: Hey, what's up?
Jessi: Hmm, you've got dark circles under your eyes! What happened to you?
Jessi: Huh? I do? (yawn)
Jessi: Actually, lately I can't sleep...
Jessi: You can't sleep at all?
Jessi: Yeah, insomnia I guess. (yawn)
Jessi: Ever since Golden Week ended, I haven't had any motivation whatsoever.
Jessi: Oh, me too!
Jessi: I can't get up in the morning at all, and I feel so sluggish all day.
Jessi: Oh hey, it's Mr. Baba.
Jessi: Hello!
Jessi: Hello there!
Jessi: What's wrong? You both look so sleepy. (laughs)
Jessi: We were just talking about how we've been feeling so sluggish lately.
Jessi: Ahh, isn't it that May Sickness?
Jessi: May Sickness?
Jessi: Yeah. For freshmen, April is full of new things, so you feel a bit nervous every day, right?
Jessi: Then, after the long vacation in May, all of that fatigue just came out at once.
Jessi: What should we do?
Jessi: Well, it's tough getting used to a new environment, so there's no need to get impatient.
Jessi: Just take it easy.
Jessi: Okay! Thank you so much!
Jessi: Oh, I almost forgot.
Jessi: I've written a book about May Sickness. Pick it up at the bookstore, okay?
Yuichi: ジェシーさん、五月病って知っていましたか?
Jessi: はい。でも、日本に来る前は知りませんでしたね。アメリカには、五月病ないですから。
Naomi: あ、そっか。
Yuichi: そうですね。日本の学校は、4月がセメスターの始まりですよね。なので、その一ヶ月後の5月に、疲れて落ち込んでしまう状態のことを「五月病」といいます。
Jessi: This 五月病 refers to feelings of depression some people have in May in Japan. Remember that in Japan, everything starts in April, such as work and school. So some people tend to start feeling tired after a month or so, especially if they're having trouble adjusting to their new environment. That's referred to as 五月病.
Yuichi: ひどい五月病の場合は、会社や学校に行こうとすると、頭が痛くなったり、吐き気がしたりするそうです。
Naomi: でも、そんなに重い状態じゃなくて、ただ、新しい生活が始まって少ししたときの、「疲れたな~」とか「だるいなぁ」っていうそういう軽い状態も「五月病」っていう風に言われちゃいますけどね。ま、五月にしか使えませんけど。
Jessi: へー。なるほど。So I guess this 五月病 can express either really serious mental depression or just simple fatigue.
Naomi: 今回のダイアログの、秋山君と松島君は、ま、軽い五月病ですよね。「新しい環境が始まって、疲れちゃった~」くらいですもんね。
Yuichi: そうですね。二人とも、大学に来ていますからね。
Jessi: そうですね。でも、新しい環境に慣れるのは、本当に大変ですよね~。
Naomi: 高校と大学って、全然違いますからね。
Yuichi: そうですね。それでは、リスナーの皆さんの国には、五月病と似た言葉があるのかどうか、コメントでおしえてください。
Naomi: ぜひお願いします。
Jessi: Let's take a look at the vocabulary for this lesson. The first word is:
Yuichi: 緊張する [natural native speed]
Jessi: to feel nervous
Yuichi: 緊張する [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Yuichi: 緊張する [natural native speed]
Jessi: The next word is
Yuichi: 一気に [natural native speed]
Jessi: at once, in one go
Yuichi: 一気に [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Yuichi: 一気に [natural native speed]
Jessi: The next word is
Naomi: だるい [natural native speed]
Jessi: sluggish
Naomi: だるい [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Naomi: だるい [natural native speed]
Jessi: The next word is
Yuichi: 気楽 [natural native speed]
Jessi: easy, relaxed, lighthearted
Yuichi: 気楽 [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Yuichi: 気楽 [natural native speed]
Jessi: The last word is
Naomi: あせる [natural native speed]
Jessi: to be in a haste, to rush
Naomi: あせる [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Naomi: あせる [natural native speed]
Jessi: Let's have a closer look at the usage for some of the words and phrases from this lesson.
Yuichi: The first word is 一気に
Jessi: at once, in one go
Naomi: 休まないで、何かをする、ということです。たとえば、
Yuichi: 「一気に、階段を5階まで走って上った。」
Jessi: “I climbed up the stairs to the fifth floor without stopping.”
Naomi: 休まないで、階段を1階から5階まで走って上った、っていうことですね。
Yuichi: 他にも「ビールを一気に飲んだ。」
Jessi: “I drank all my beer at once.”
Naomi: 休まないで、グラスのビールを最後まで飲んだ、っていうことです。
Yuichi: この、グラスに入ったお酒を一回で全部飲むことを、「一気」と言います。
Jessi: to drink down
Yuichi: 「一気飲み」とも言いますね。
Naomi: あ、言いますね。
Yuichi: 僕もよく、一気飲みをしましたね。
Naomi: あ、そうなんですか。危ないじゃないですか。
Yuichi: まあ、昔。昔の話です。じゃあ、次の単語、行きましょうか。(笑)
Naomi: 気楽
Jessi: easy, relaxed
Yuichi: 気持ちが楽、を短くして「気楽」です。
Naomi: ちょっと break down しましょう。「気持ち」
Jessi: feelings
Naomi: が「楽」
Jessi: light, comfortable 
Yuichi: 今日、テストが全部終わったので、気楽です。
Jessi: “Today I finished all my tests, so I’m feeling relaxed.”
Naomi: 次の単語は何でしょう?
Yuichi: あせる
Jessi: to be in a haste, to rush
Yuichi: これは、覚え方だけ教えますね。 I chose to go over this word because I know a good way to remember it.
Naomi: 本当かな?
Yuichi: I guess so.
Jessi: 何でしょう?
Yuichi: まずこの、「あせる」っていうのはですね、まずちょっと、イメージしてください。早く何かをしなければいけない、ということですよね。早くしなくてはいけないので、たくさん速く動きます。So if you move around fast, you start to sweat. Sweat は、日本語で何と言いますか。
Jessi: 「汗」。
Yuichi: はい、「汗+る」。「あせる」。というわけで、こうやって覚えてください!
Jessi: う〜ん・・・でも、いいですよね!
Naomi: うん、悪くないですね。
Yuichi: はい、よかったです!(笑)

Lesson focus

Yuichi: 今回の文法は「のだ」と「のです」の、二つを勉強します。
Jessi: のだ or のです come after verbs, adjectives, and nouns, and they’re used a lot when giving or requesting an explanation or reason. In conversation, のだ or のです often become んだ or んです.
To make this explanation simpler, we'll use んです, which is the polite form found in conversation. Now let's look at the formation.
Jessi: In the case of verbs and i-adjectives, it's very simple. Just add んです to the informal form.
Naomi: そうですね。例えば for example, 会う
Jessi: to meet
Naomi: becomes 会うんです
Yuichi: 暑い
Jessi: hot
Yuichi: 暑いんです
Naomi: じゃあ、na-adjectives と nouns は?
Jessi: For these, you need to add な before the のだ in the non-past. For example,
Yuichi: 有名
Jessi: famous. After this, you attach な.
Yuichi: 有名な
Jessi: And then んです follows
Yuichi: 有名なんです
Jessi: And how about a noun?
Naomi: 寺
Jessi: temple. After that, you attach な
Naomi: 寺な
Jessi: And then んです follows
Naomi: 寺なんです
Jessi: All right. As I explained in the beginning, んです is used when giving or requesting an explanation or reason. There are two situations in particular when this んです is used.
The first one is when you make some kind of observation about something and ask for an explanation about it. For example, listen to how んです is used in the following conversation.
Yuichi: (咳をする)げほげほげほげほうげほ
Jessi: Yuichi is coughing, and he seems really sick.
Naomi: ゆういちさん、風邪をひいたんですか。
Yuichi: あ、はい。
Jessi: Here, Naomi said 風邪をひいたんですか to ask for an explanation about Yuichi's coughing. Here's one more example.
Jessi: Naomi saw Yuichi carrying a heavy suitcase. If you see someone carrying a suitcase like this, you might ask "Are you going on a trip?" or "You're going on a trip?" So what would we say in Japanese?
Naomi: 旅行に行くんですか。
Jessi: 旅行に行くんですか is more natural in this context compared to a normal question like 旅行に行きますか.
Jessi: Now let’s move on to the second situation where it sounds more natural to use んです. That’s when you explain something or ask something in response to what was just said. For example,
Yuichi: 来週からタイに行きます。
Naomi: タイのどこに行くんですか?
Jessi: So here, Yuichi said that he was going to Thailand next week, and Naomi asked for further explanation by saying タイのどこに行くんですか with んですか at the end.
OK, now it's your turn. Please give an explanation and answer Naomi's question using んです.
Naomi: あれ?ゆういちさん、声がいつもと違いますね。どうしたんですか?
Jessi: So Naomi said "Yuichi, your voice sounds a bit different. What happened?"
If you were Yuichi, what could you say to explain why this is?
Yuichi, could you give us some possible responses or explanations?
Yuichi: ああ、のどが痛いんです。
Jessi: "I have a sore throat". Note how Yuichi used んです to explain why he had a different voice.
Naomi: ま、他にもたくさん答えは考えられますよね。「ゆうべカラオケで歌いすぎたんです」とか。
Jessi: Right. There are other possible answers... for example "I sang too much at karaoke last night" and so on.
Yuichi: 「のだ」「のです」「んだ」「んです」は、話しているときにたくさん使うんですよね。
Naomi: はい、使うんです。(笑)
Yuichi: あと3回のレッスンで、もっとこの「のだ」について勉強していきますので、一緒に頑張りましょう!
Jessi: So as you just said, this のだ is really used in Japanese a lot. We are going to cover のだ in the next three lessons as well. In the PDF, there's a more detailed explanation with many example sentences. This will help you get a better grasp on how to use のだ.


Jessi: Well, that's all for this lesson!
Yuichi: それじゃまた。
Naomi: さようなら
Jessi: See you next time.


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