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Lesson Transcript

Welcome to learn Japanese grammar absolute beginner. In this video series, you learn basic Japanese grammar patterns and phrases through easy to follow audio and visual cues. Here is what we will cover in this lesson.
Let’s get started.
Naomi: スーパーがあります。 (Sūpā ga arimasu.)
Jessi: In this lesson, you will learn how to say that something exists as in, there is a blank. And also how to say that you have something.
Naomi: The same pattern is used for both of these meanings.
Jessi: Yes, and that pattern is?
Naomi: A があります。 (A ga arimasu.)
Jessi: A があります。 (A ga arimasu.) So let’s take a look at the first meaning talking about something existing. When we say it this way, it sounds really deep but what are we really trying to say?
Naomi: Well it’s like saying, there is a dah-dah-dah in English, like there is a supermarket, or there is a convenient store, there is a party, things like that.
Jessi: How about there is a person?
Naomi: Nope. This pattern is used for inanimate objects only.
Jessi: Got it. So objects, things, places, anything that’s not alive basically?
Naomi: Right.
Jessi: So again, the pattern is
Naomi: A があります。 (A ga arimasu.)
Jessi: Let’s hear some examples. How about the ones that we just gave in English?
Naomi: Okay supermarket is スーパー (sūpā) in Japanese. So to say there is a supermarket, we say スーパーがあります。 (Sūpā ga arimasu.)
Jessi: スーパー (sūpā) plus があります(ga arimasu). スーパーがあります。 (Sūpā ga arimasu.)
Naomi: Right. Convenience store is コンビニ (konbini) So to say, there is a convenience store, we say コンビニがあります。 (Konbini ga arimasu.)
Jessi: コンビニ (konbini) plus があります。 (ga arimasu.) コンビニがあります。 (Konbini ga arimasu.)
Naomi: That’s it.
Jessi: Okay. So like we said earlier, this があります (ga arimasu) has another meaning.
Naomi: Yes. And that’s the meaning of to have
Jessi: As in, I have, you have, he has, et cetera. So to say that you have something, the structure is, item plus があります (ga arimasu), just like before.
Naomi: Okay. How about saying you have time? Time is 時間 (jikan) . So to say I have time, you’d say 時間があります。 (Jikan ga arimasu.)
Jessi: 時間 (jikan) plus があります。 (ga arimasu.) 時間があります。 (Jikan ga arimasu.). Now you know how to use があります (ga arimasu) to talk about the existence of inanimate objects and having something.
Naomi: スーパーがあります。 (Sūpā ga arimasu.)
Naomi: 兄弟がいますか。 (Kyōdai ga imasu ka.)
Jessi: In this lesson, you will learn how to talk about the existence of animate objects, that is people and animals. If you remember, we learned object があります (ga arimasu) to talk about the existence of an inanimate object and also to talk about having something. This time what’s our structure?
Naomi: Person or animal plus がいます。 (ga imasu.) .
Jessi: がいます (ga imasu) .
Naomi: Remember that this can only be used with living things people or animals.
Jessi: Right.
Naomi: So Jessi, can you tell us when we’d use this structure?
Jessi: Well first, you can use it to talk about someone being physically present.
Naomi: Yes, as in, Tailor is here, or, the teacher is here.
Jessi: Right. And that would be covered by person plus がいます (ga imasu.)
Naomi: Right. And how else?
Jessi: You can also use it to talk about having family members as in, I have a brother, I have a sister, et cetera.
Naomi: Yes. Family member plus がいます (ga imasu) .
Jessi: Let’s hear some examples. What’s the word for siblings Naomi?
Naomi: 兄弟 (kyōdai)
Jessi: 兄弟 (kyōdai) Brothers and sisters. So when someone asks you if you have brothers or sisters, they will ask, Naomi?
Naomi: 兄弟がいますか。 (Kyōdai ga imasu ka.)
Jessi: 兄弟がいますか。 (kyōdai ga imasu ka.) Do you have any brothers or sisters? Remember that the か (ka) at the end makes it a question.
兄弟がいますか。 (kyōdai ga imasu ka.)
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