Dialogue

Vocabulary

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Lesson Transcript

Welcome to learn Japanese grammar absolute beginner. In this video series, you learn basic Japanese grammar patterns and phrases through easy to follow audio and visual cues. Here is what we will cover in this lesson.
Ready?
Let’s get started.
Noami:
これは古いです。 (Kore wa furui desu.)
Naomi:
In Japanese, there are two types of adjectives, i-adjectives and na-adjectives.
Peter:
In the phrase, an old pen, old is the adjective. In Japanese as well, adjectives can precede nouns. When i-adjectives precede nouns, i-adjectives come directly before the noun just as in English.
Naomi:
Old is 古い (furui), pen is ペン (pen), so old pen is 古いペン (furui pen)
Peter:
Now adjectives don’t only come before nouns, they can also come in the predicate. Naomi-sensei, how do you say this is old?
Naomi:
これは古いです。 (Kore wa furui desu.)
Peter:
Let’s break down this sentence.
Naomi:
これ (kore)
Peter:
This.
Naomi:
は (wa)
Peter:
Topic marking particle meaning as for.
Naomi:
古い (furui)
Peter:
Old.
Naomi:
です (desu)
Peter:
Formal form of the copula is, am, are.
So literally this old is. Of course, the sentence means this is old.
Naomi:
古い (furui) is an i-adjective and this is its dictionary form.
Peter:
Now let us introduce some i-adjectives and review their usage.
Naomi:
おいしい (oishii)
Peter:
Delicious, tasty.
Naomi:
おいしいチョコレート (oishii chokorēto)
Peter:
Delicious chocolate.
Naomi:
チョコレートはおいしいです。 (Chokorēto wa oishii desu.)
Peter:
Chocolate is delicious. Can you give us one more example?
Naomi:
はやい (hayai)
Peter:
Fast.
Naomi:
車 (kuruma) is car. So,
はやい車 (hayai kuruma) would be
Peter:
Fast car.
Naomi:
車ははやいです。 (Kuruma wa hayai desu.)
Peter:
Cars are fast.
Notice how the dictionary form of i-adjectives end with the i-syllable.
これは古いです。 (Kore wa furui desu.)
私はひまです。 (Watashi wa hima desu.)
In Japanese, there are two types of adjectives i-adjectives and na-adjectives.
Peter:
When i-adjectives precede nouns, i-adjectives come directly before the noun. Na-adjectives, however, when they come before a noun, na is inserted between the adjective and the noun. Naomi-sensei, how do you say a special pen in Japanese?
Naomi:
Special is 特別 (tokubetsu) Special pen is 特別なペン (tokubetsu na pen)
Peter:
That’s why this type of adjective is called a na-adjective. Now adjectives don’t only come before nouns, they can also come in the predicate.
Naomi:
Right.
Peter:
Naomi-sensei, how do you say this is special?
Naomi:
これは特別です。 (Kore wa tokubetsu desu.)
Peter:
Remember that 特別 (tokubetsu) means special and it’s a na-adjective. Next let’s introduce some na-adjectives and review their usage. First we have
Naomi:
静か (shizuka)
Peter:
Quiet.
Naomi:
静かな車 (shizuka na kuruma)
Peter:
Quiet car.
When na-adjectives come before a noun, na has to be added to the dictionary form.
Naomi:
How about this sentence
東京は静かです。 (Tōkyō wa shizuka desu.)
Peter:
Tokyo is quiet.
Here Shizuka, the na-adjective is used in a sentence but we don’t have the na. That’s because it doesn’t preceed a noun.
Naomi:
Right.
Peter:
Can you give us one more example?
Naomi:
ひま (hima)
Peter:
Free as in free time.
Naomi:
日 (hi) is day. So ひまな日 (hima na hi) would be
Peter:
Free day, a day where you have nothing to do. Na is inserted between the adjective and the noun.
Naomi:
ひまな日 (hima na hi) How about this sentence? 私 (watashi) is I. So 私はひまです。 (Watashi wa hima desu.)
Peter:
I am free, I have nothing to do.
私はひまです。 (Watashi wa hima desu.)
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JapanesePod101.com
Friday at 6:30 pm
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Practice making your own sentences here, and let us know if you have any questions!😄

 

Jake
November 10th, 2017 at 3:54 am
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It would be nice if we could all of these adjectives to our flashcard decks. Same with the verbs from some of the previous lessons. So this isn’t really a question, just a suggestion that I think everyone would like.
そではべんりです
ありがとございます

Tono
September 28th, 2017 at 11:34 pm
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こんにちは!

問題がある。
On the lesson note above, why is 嫌い classified as na-adjective? 嫌い is ended with い, so why is it not classified as i-adjective?

よろしくお願いします。

Anna
September 20th, 2017 at 6:56 am
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Im gonna try a few in both adjective forms:

Montana wa omoshiroi desu
Kore wa omoshiroi kokka (?) desu. Not sure if that is the correct word for “state” in Japanese. I had to look it up in various websites.

Nihongo wa kantan desu
Kore wa kirei na shinshitsu desu.

I hope I did them both right. Let me know what corrections I need to make

Jack
September 14th, 2017 at 2:22 am
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So, if an adjective ends with “i” we can use the adjective before the noun?

If an adjective ends with another letter, it’s ok to use “na” after the adjective but before the noun?

Thanks.

July 23rd, 2017 at 7:26 pm
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jaap jan san,

konnichiwa!
You’re right!! 👍😇
Very well done. 😉

Natsuko (奈津子),
Team JapanesePod101.com

July 20th, 2017 at 9:50 pm
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Hi クリスさん,

Thank you for your comment! Your sentences say:

Ōsaka is beautiful.
This is a loud plane.

We wish you the best of luck with your further studies.

Piers
Team JapanesePod101.com

jaap jan
July 18th, 2017 at 3:14 am
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So that means because あおい (blue) is ending with a い (i) there is not a な needed?
Like

これはあおい車です。

And as long as there is a い at the end of a adjective there is no な needed right. 😃

クリス
July 17th, 2017 at 1:08 am
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大阪はきれいです。

これは、うるさいひこうきです。

July 10th, 2017 at 9:34 pm
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Hi Reza,

Although our flashcards service is a great way to memorise kanji, we suggest that physically writing the characters on paper would help you memorise them much easier. Therefore, writing the kanji down with a pen/pencil whilst going through each flashcard would definitely help your memorisation and learning process. We wish you the best of luck in your further studies.

Thank you for your comment!

Piers
Team JapanesePod101.com

July 3rd, 2017 at 10:47 am
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Reza san,
Konnichiwa.
The forgetting curve shows you will forget 74% of memory within 24 hours.
However, if you have a review within 24 hours, your short time memory becomes long time memory.
The point is that please have a review everyday if you want to memorize kanji.
Ganbatte kudasai.😄

Bob san,
こんにちは。
そうですか。わかりました。😄

Yuki 由紀
Team JapanesePod101.com