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Jessi: Hi everyone and welcome to Lesson 6 of the New JLPT N3 Prep Course Lesson 6. Jessi here.
Naomi: こんにちは。直美です。このレッスンでは、文法と読解の問題3を紹介します。
Jessi: In this lesson, we'll cover もんだい 3 of the Grammar and Reading Comprehension section.
Naomi:もんだい3は 短い文章を読んで、穴埋めをします。穴埋めは"filling in the blanks".
Jessi: So in もんだい3, you need to choose the appropriate conjunction or phrase that fits the passage.
Jessi: There will be 5 of this type of question on the test.
Jessi: To pass JLPT N3 and above, it is essential to know how to use auxiliary verbs, also known as helping verbs, and suffixes.
Naomi: Yes, Knowing how they work not only helps you to prepare for the test, but also helps you sound natural in Japanese.
Jessi: Great point! At this point we are not only studying for the JLPT - these are all very useful things to know.
Naomi: このレッスンでは、似ているものを比べながら、勉強しましょう。
Jessi:Good idea. In this lesson, we'll compare expressions that are similar.
Naomi:まず最初のペアーは 「ぬく」と「きる」
Jessi: First, let's clarify what we mean by auxiliary verbs. These two verbs attach to the masu stem of another verb to create a different nuance.
Naomi: ~ぬく は、「難しいことを最後までする」という意味です。
Jessi: ぬく attaches to the masu stem of another verb, and adds the nuance of "to manage to do something to the end enduring hardship".
Naomi: For example, 生きる means "to live", right? If you add ぬく to the masu stem, you get 生き抜く, which means "to live through", or "survive".
Jessi: 例文お願いします。
Naomi: 寒い冬を生きぬくために、動物は秋にたくさん食べ物をとる。
Jessi: "Animals eat a lot during autumn in order to survive the cold winter." So again, the nuance is that there is hardship involved - it is not an easy thing to do, right?
Naomi: そうです!
Jessi:As a similar expression, there is きる, which also attaches to the masu stem.
Naomi:きる は 「~しおわる」という意味です。難しいことじゃなくてもつかいます。
Jessi: ---kiru means "to finish doing something completely". No real nuance of hardship in this one, though. What are some common examples?
Naomi: 食べきる (to finish eating), 使い切る (to use up), etc.
Can we hear a sample sentence?
Naomi: 一日に、マンガを10冊読みきった。
Jessi: I completed (finished reading) 10 volumes of manga in one day.
Naomi: Next, let's take a look at some suffixes.First let's compare ぎみ and がち.
Jessi: This next set comes after the masu stem of a verb and nouns. What's the first one?
Naomi: ぎみ
Jessi: "すこし---だ", "feels or seems like ----"
Naomi: Probably the most common phrase that uses this word is 風邪気味
Jessi: Ah, right. Like, you feel like you're getting a cold.. but you aren't actually full-on sick yet. Like "I have a bit of a cold".
Naomi: そうです。 風邪ぎみmeans 少しかぜです。
For example... かぜぎみなので、会社を休んだ。
Jessi: "I felt a cold coming on, so I stayed home from work."
Naomi: The other word is がち
Jessi: "よく----する", "be apt to---" "tend to---". 例文お願いします。
Naomi: 最近、会社を休みがちだけれど、どうしたの。
Jessi: "You've been missing work a lot lately... what's going on?" So, we had the masu stem 休み plus がち。 休みがち。
Naomi: やすみがち means よくやすむ。
These がち and ぎみ are easy to confuse so be careful.
Jessi: They are! But sometimes you can use one and not the other.. but you don't need to know those details for the test. (「がち」・・・と「ぎみ」は意味違いますよね?同じになるときありますかね?もしあれば、これでも大丈夫ですが・・・:)
Naomi: Yes, as long as you know the general meaning of each, you will be fine.
Jessi: Well, what's next?
Naomi: Next, we have a pair of expressions that follow adjectives and nouns. The first is っぽい。
Jessi: "~のようだ", "-ish", "---like"。例文お願いします。
Naomi: あの子はまだ12才だが、大人っぽい。
Jessi:"That child is only 12, but is very mature." So 大人っぽい = literally, like an adult, or mature. Speaking of 大人っぽい, you also hear 子どもっぽい a lot too, don't you.
Naomi: Right! It means "like a child", or "childish".
Jessi: What are some other examples?
Naomi: Well, you can use it with verbs too, like 怒りっぽい (get angry easily)and 飽きっぽい (fickle).
Jessi: What's the other one?
Naomi: げ。 Just one syllable!
Jessi: And it means "~そう", "seeming".
Naomi: Right, in fact it is very similar to そう。
However, げ is used exclusively to describe a person's state.
Jessi: It attaches to i-adjectives without the final -i.
Naomi: 悲しげな顔をして、どうしたの?
Jessi: You look so sad... what happened?
Naomi: The original adjective was 悲しい. We dropped the final -i and added げ。悲しげ
Jessi: "seems sad", or "looks sad"。
Naomi:「悲しげ」 は「悲しそう」という意味です。
げ、I形容詞 以外に[~たい]にもつきますね。
Jessi:This "ge"can follow Verb plus tai "want to"
Naomi:In that case, you need to replace the final i with げ though.
Jessi: "He looked like he wanted to say something." 言いたげ= looks like one wants to say
Naomi:言いたげ means 言いたそう.  
Naomi: Okay everyone, how were those expressions? Not too difficult, we hope?
Jessi: But please don't hesitate to ask us anything in the comments!
Naomi: As always, you'll find more expressions useful for the test in the Lesson Notes, so make sure to read them.
Jessi: Thanks for listening, everyone! Make sure to join us next time!
Naomi: じゃまた~


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