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Lesson Transcript

Jessi: Hi everyone! Welcome to the New JLPT N3 Prep Course at JapanesePod101.com. I'm Jessi and I'm here joined by Naomi-sensei.
Naomi:こんにちは、みなさん。直美です。. レッスン1からレッスン3では文字語彙を勉強しました。
Jessi:You learned what the Kanji and Vocab section is like in Lessons 1 to 3.
Jessi:From Lesson 4 to Lesson 8, we'll go over the grammar and reading comprehension sections.
Jessi:In this lesson we'll cover もんだい 1 of the Grammar and Reading Comprehension section.
:*****About language knowledge and reading comprehension section********
So Jessi, could you explain what the Grammar and reading comprehension section is like?
Jessi: Sure! Starting in 2010, the format of some of the questions in the grammar and reading section have changed. However, the purpose of this section remains the same.
In this section, you are tested on how well you know Japanese grammar, which includes the usage of particles, verbs, adjective conjugation and sentence structure. You're also expected to know the usage of so-called function words, which are used to connect words or sentences.
Jessi:There are 7 types of questions.
Naomi:ではもんだい1からはじめましょう。Let's start with もんだい1, shall we?
:*******How to prepare for もんだい1*******
Jessi: もんだい1 tests whether you can choose the correct grammar that fits into the sentence. According to the guidelines, there are (13) of this type of question. Please make sure to go through and review the formation and meaning of the grammar structures you have learned so far.
First of all, what are the instructions, Naomi-sensei?
Naomi: つぎの文の(    )に入れるのに最もよいものを、1・2・3・4から一つえらびなさい。
Jessi: Please choose the answer from 1 to 4 that best fits into the blank in the sentence.
First off, can we hear a sample question?
Naomi:Sure. 食事のマナーは国に(   )ちがう。 What goes into the blank?
1. よって
4. あたって
Jessi: Wow, Naomi-sensei... now I'm really starting to see the gap between levels N4 and N3. You've really got to know your stuff to get this one.
Naomi: そうですね~ right! 難しくなってきてますね。
Jessi: What's the answer, by the way?
Naomi: Choice 1. よって。 食事のマナーは国に(よって)ちがう。
Jessi: Table manners differ depending on the country. Like I said, this is where you really need to know your grammar.
Naomi: Right, if you don't know these grammar points, it's hard to even make a guess.
Jessi: With that said.. let's get into the grammar, shall we~?
Naomi: Sounds good! IN this lesson, we will go over function words that indicate time, and function words that indicate reason.
:*****Grammar review1 *******
Jessi: Let's start with the function words that indicate time. There are quite a few of them!
Naomi: Okay!
Jessi: Naomi-sensei will give us the grammar point. After that, I will give the English translation, and, if possible, the meaning in plain Japanese as well, to get us thinking in Japanese as well. Let's begin!
Naomi: The first one is 際。
Jessi: "on the occasion of", or "when". It's basically the same as とき, right?
Naomi: Yes, but I would say 際 is a lot more formal. It's used a lot in business situations.
Jessi: 例文お願いします。
Naomi: 外出する際、かぎを持っていってください。
Jessi: Please take the key with you when you go out.
Naomi: The next one is 最中に。
Jessi: "ちょうど---している時", "in the middle of doing something".
Naomi: The kanji for 最中 are "utmost" and "middle", so if you see it written out, it's pretty easy to remember the meaning.
Jessi: Good point! 例文お願いします。
Naomi: 会議の最中に、けいたい電話がなった。
Jessi: My cell phone rang in the middle of the meeting.
Naomi: The next one is にあたって
Jessi: "---する時に", "---する前に", "at the time of…"
Naomi: This is often used when the speaker wants caution someone about something.
Jessi: Right. But not like a strong warning or anything, just telling someone something they should know. 例文お願いします。
Naomi: 大学に入るにあたって、入学金が必要だ。
Jessi: It's necessary to pay an admission fee when you enter university. So here, they're just lightly cautioning the listener about something.
Naomi: そうですね。
Jessi: What's the next one?
Naomi: 次第、followed by the masu stem of a verb.
Jessi: "as soon as"
Naomi: わかり次第、お知らせします。
Jessi: Please tell me as soon as you know.
Naomi: This has the same meaning as 分かったらすぐに、お知らせします。
Jessi: I feel like it's used a lot with this verb 分かる。分かり次第, "as soon as you know..."
Naomi: そうですね!It's a very convenient phrase.
Jessi: What's the next one?
Naomi: [te form of a verb] plus 以来
Jessi: "---からずっと","since---"
Naomi: アメリカを出て以来、英語を話していない。
Jessi: "I haven't spoken English since I left America." So really, it's exactly the same as "since" in English.
Naomi: That's true! For example... 朝ごはんを食べて以来
Jessi: Since eating breakfast
Naomi: 大学を卒業して以来
Jessi: Since graduating university.. and so on.
So, we introduced 5 function words relates to time. Which are...
Naomi:際(when)、最中(in the middle of doing something)、あたって(at the time of...)、次第(as soon as) and 以来(since)
Jessi:Please note that they have formal connotation and therefore often appear in JLPTN3 and above level.
Jessi:Okay, now let's move onto some function words that indicate reasons.
Naomi: Right. We're going to review 3 function words which has similar meaning but not exactly the same.
Jessi: What's the first one?
Naomi: ために
Jessi: "---から", "---がげんいんで"; "because of---".
Now, Naomi-sensei, some of our listeners might know the meaning "in order to" for ために... but the meaning we're mentioning here is a bit different, right?
Jessi:Now, Naomi-sensei, Tameni also means "for" right? As in テストのために勉強する "I study for the test".
Naomi:That's right. But the ために we're going to introduce is a bit different."
For example 食べ過ぎたために、(Because I ate too much), 今年の冬は暖かかったために(because we had a mild winter this year),強い風のために(Because of the strong wind) like that.
Jessi:So.... Xために means "because of X" or "due to X".
Naomi: そうです、right.
Jessi: Can we hear a sample sentence?
Naomi: 強い風のために、電車が止まった。
Jessi: "The train was stopped due to strong winds." This word also sounds a little formal, right? So what would you use instead in casual conversation then?
Naomi: Yes, I would say てform is used. 強い風で、電車が止まった。"The train was stopped due to strong winds."
Jessi: I see. What's the next one?
Naomi: おかげで
Jessi: " thanks to---", "owing to---", "because of". This one is used when something causes a favorable result.
Naomi: そうですね、so I think "thanks to ---" is a good translation.
Jessi: 例文お願いします
Naomi: たくさん勉強をしたおかげで、成績がよくなった。
Jessi: My grades got better thanks to lots of studying. You might also be familiar with the phrase おかげさまです, or "thanks to you" or "thanks for asking".
Naomi: Yes, this is the same おかげ!
Jessi: Okay, and what's the last one of this series?
Naomi: せいで
Jessi: "because of---", "caused by---", "blaming on---"
Naomi: You can think of this as the opposite of おかげで。
Jessi: Right, this one is used when something causes a unfavorable result. ~のせい is often translated as the fault of ~。例文お願いします。
Naomi: ストレスのせいで、かみのけが少なくなった。
Jessi: My hair has thinned out because of stress.
Jessi: All three words that we've just covered have the same idea, "because of [blank]", but the nuance is very different. If you have to choose between these on a test, make sure to read the whole sentence to determine which on fits.
Naomi: Let's try a practice question right now using these, shall we?
Jessi: Okay! Sounds good.
Naomi:So here's a situation.たくさん勉強をした。then 目が悪くなった。
Jessi:OK. How do you combine these two sentences?
Jessi:"Since I studied a lot, my eyes went bad." Since 目が悪くなる "one's eyes go bad" is unfavorable result.
Naomi:How about this situation.たくさん勉強をした。then テストに合格できた。
Jessi:OK. Here's a hint. テストに合格できた"was able to pass the exam" is the favorable result, isn't it?
Jessi:Literally "I was able to pass the exam thanks to studying a lot."
Jessi: So, how did it go? Did that all make sense?
Naomi:That's all for this lesson.
Jessi: Unfortunately, we were only able to cover a portion of what is covered in the Lesson Notes. There are many more essential grammar points in the PDF, so make sure to check it out! Well everyone, see you all next time!


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