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Jessi: Hi everyone, welcome to the new JLPT N4 Prep Course, Lesson 8. I’m Jessi and I’m here in the studio joined by...
Naomi:こんにちは、みなさん。直美です。Hi everyone, Naomi here.
前回は 文法と読解のもんだい4&5を勉強しましたね。
Jessi:In the last lesson, we covered Questions 4 and 5 of the grammar and reading comprehension.
Jessi:And in this Lesson, we’ll cover Question 6 of the grammar and reading comprehension section .
Jessi:In Question 6, you are tested on your ability to search out necessary information from a block of text in Japanese.
Jessi: The text is about 400 characters long, and there are 2 questions presented to you before the text. So you have to read the question first, and then try and find the information you need.
Naomi: You don’t need to read all of the information.たぶんね、時間が無いと思います。
Jessi: Right, if you try and read all of it, that would take up too much of your time. So you’re searching for only the information you need to answer the question.
Naomi: もんだい6は、案内やお知らせの文章なので、「~してください」とか「~しないでください」という形がよく出ます。相手にお願いする文ですね。
Jessi: So in もんだい6, the information you need is likely to be in the form of instructions. You should be familiar with these grammar structures, so let’s run through them really quickly. The first is the te-form plus kudasai. “Please [blank]” for example.
Naomi: 待ってください “Please wait.”
Jessi: The nai-form plus kudasai. “Please don’t...”
Naomi: 行かないでください。 “Please don’t go.”
Jessi: The past-form plus ほうがいい
Naomi: 行った方がいい “You’d better go.” “You should go.”
Jessi: nai-form plus ほうがいい “You should not [blank]”
Naomi: 行かない方がいい “You shouldn’t go.”
Jessi: te-form plus はいけない “You must not [blank]”
Naomi: 入ってはいけない “You must not enter.”
Jessi: te-form plus もいい “You may [blank]”
Naomi: 入ってもいいです。 “You may come in”
Jessi: The masu stem of a verb plus + 方 ”how to [blank]” or “the way to [blank]”
Naomi: 使い方 “how to use” 
Jessi: A verb in the dictionary form plus + ことができる “able to [blank]”
Naomi: 泳ぐことができる “I can swim”
Jessi: Okay, so we had a lot of them there right now, but those are the grammar forms that you need to be familiar with. If there were any that you’re not quite sure of, we’ve included the names of past lessons that cover each grammar point, so you can go back and review those grammar points. In this lesson, we’re going to focus on four important grammar points in particular. Naomi sensei, what’s the first one we’ll go over?
Naomi: The first one is ~なければならない。This means “have to”, or “must”.
Jessi: ~なければならない... it’s pretty long so it might be hard to remember at first. Here, we will give you the forms, but we won’t go into detail about how to create it, since you won’t need to know that for the JLPT. But if you’d like more information on this grammar point, please check out Beginner Series, Season 5, Lesson 5.
Naomi: Let’s show some examples. 言う is “to say”. It becomes 言わなければならない
Jessi: And this means “have to say”, or “must say”
Naomi: 食べる is “to eat”. So 食べなければならない。
Jessi: This means, “have to eat”, or “must eat”. So, how about a sample sentence using this grammar?
Naomi: 明日、朝五時におきなければならない。
Jessi: “I have to get up at 5 tomorrow morning.” One important thing to note is that the ならない at the end can be replaced with いけない, and it means the same thing, right?
Naomi: あ、そうね~そうですね! Great point! なければならない and なければいけない both have the same meaning.
Jessi: Right, and what we cover in Beginner Series Season 5 Lesson 5 is なければいけない.
Naomi:But the formation and meaning is exactly the same. So, if you understand なければいけない, you shouldn’t have any trouble with なければならない.
Jessi: And you’ll probably encounter both of these forms, so it’s a good thing to keep both of them in mind.
Naomi: うん、そうですね!There are some more variations on this expression in the Lesson Notes, so please take a look at those.
:****************zuni **********************
Jessi: Okay, let’s move onto the next grammar point. ずに
Naomi: Our listeners might be familiar with the grammar ないで, as in [verb 1]ないで[verb 2].
Jessi: Right, and this means to do the second verb WITHOUT doing the first verb. Does that make sense, I wonder?
Naomi: Here’s a sample sentence for you! 朝ごはんを食べないで学校に行った。
Jessi: “I went to school without eating breakfast.” So this 食べないで means “without eating”. So without eating breakfast, I went to school. And actually the usage of this ないで is covered in Beginner Series Season 4 Lesson 25.
Naomi: The ずに grammar that we mentioned earlier is the same as this ないで. So we can rephrase the sentence like this - 朝ご飯をを食べずに学校に行った。
Jessi: So if you just remember that these two grammar points mean the same thing, that’ll be enough.
:****************ておく てみる***************
Naomi: Yes. Onto the next grammar point... ておく。This is the te-form of a verb plus おく.
Jessi: This means “to do something in advance, or to prepare for something.” Sample sentence をお願いします。
Naomi: 来年日本に行くので、日本語を勉強しておく。
Jessi: “Since I’m going to go to Japan next year, I’ll study Japanese in advance, or to prepare.” So you’re going to prepare for your trip to Japan by studying Japanese. Okay, I know we’re stuffing your brains with grammar here, but we have one more point we’d like to go over for this lesson!
Naomi: はい。がんばってください! And that’s てみる
Jessi: The te-form of a verb plus みる. This means to “do something to see what it’s like.” Sample sentence, please?
Naomi: 日本語はおもしろいと聞いたので、日本語を勉強してみた。
Jessi: “Since I heard that learning Japanese was interesting, I tried studying it.”
Naomi: Okay! That’s all for the four grammar structures.
Jessi: We can assure you that if you master these, your comprehension of the reading passages will be a lot smoother.
Naomi: Yes, because this kind of grammar show up a lot in the reading section.
Jessi: Again, there is a special practice question at the end of the Lesson Notes, so please try doing that to get a feel for what the questions on the test are really like.
Naomi: Well, that’s all for this lesson! レッスンノート読んでおいてくださいね。
Jessi: As always, thanks for listening everyone, and see you in the next lesson~
Naomi: じゃまた!!


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