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Jessi:(Title)Hello, I'm Jessi and I'm in the studio joined by…
Naomi:Hi, everyone, Naomi here.こんにちは、みなさん。直美です。前回は文字語彙の問題3と問題4を勉強しました。
Jessi:So far you've learned what 問題1 2 3 and 4 of the Kanji and Vocab section are like.
Jessi:In this Lesson, we'll cover もんだい 5 of the Kanji and Vocabulary section. In もんだい5 you're suppose to choose the sentence that correctly uses the given word.
Jessi:First of all, Naomi-sensei, can you read the instructions for もんだい5?
Naomi:つぎの ことばの つかいかたで いちばん いい ものを 1・2・3・4から ひとつ えらんでください。
Jessi: Choose the sentence that uses the given word correctly from 1 to 4.
Naomi:つぎの is "next" or "following". 使い方 is "how to use" so 言葉の使い方 is "how to use the word" or "usage of the word"
:****How to prepare for もんだい 5 ***
Jessi:もんだい5 is designed to test how well you are able to use the vocabulary. When you learn new words, get into the habit of looking up sample sentences to see how they are used.
Jessi:You have to be careful about the words that have similar meanings but are not exactly the same. They might try to trick you on the test.
Jessi:見物 means "sightseeing" "viewing" or "seeing", while 見学 means "observation tour" or "field trip".
Naomi:Both 見物 and 見学 are the action of seeing something. However, since 見学 has the kanji 学 ("learn") in it, it indicates that someone is seeing something for the purpose of learning or obtaining knowledge.
Jessi:OK. Naomi-sensei is going to read the beginning of a sentence, so please finish the sentence with 見物する or 見学する.
Jessi:The answer it?
Naomi:Well... it really depends on your purpose, if it's just a regular tour it should be ゆうめいな たてもの を けんぶつする。"We visit a famous building." But if you went there on a school trip or with the purpose of learning something, 見学する is also fine.
Jessi:So if you're visiting Kyoto for vacation, that would be...
Jessi:If you're visiting a factory with the purpose of observing it and learning about it, that would be...
Jessi:OK. How about the next pair.
Naomi:「こしょうする」 と 「こわれる」も意味がちょっと違いますね。Both こしょうする and こわれる often appear in JLPT. They have similar meanings but are not exactly the same so be careful.
Jessi:こしょうする(koshou2) is "to go out of order". こわれる is "to break"
But Naomi-sensei. you can say このパソコンはこしょうしている。"This PC is out of order."
and you can also say...このパソコンはこわれている。"This PC is broken."
Are they different?
Naomi: Good question! In that case, they're the same.
You can use both こしょうする and こわれる for describing how a machine is broken. However, you can not use こしょうする for non-mechanical items.
Jessi: Oh, I see. So you can say...そのいすは こわれている。"That chair is broken. ", but NOT そのいすは こしょうしている.
Naomi:Exactly. Unless the chair has some kind of mechanical function.
Jessi: I see, so if it's more of a machine you can use it? なるほど。
Naomi: それから、他動詞と自動詞も気をつけてください。
Jessi:Ah...transitive verb and intransitive verbs? They are really tricky aren't they. Basically, transitive verbs have an object, and intransitive verbs don't.
In this lesson, let's just memorize some of them as a set.
Jessi:"to raise" "to bring up" -Transitive verb
Naomi:Intransitive verb is 育つ(そだつ)
Jessi:"to grow up" "to be raised"  Can we hear some sample sentences so that we can see how both of them are used?
Naomi:わたしは 花を そだてる。"I grow flowers." So here, "flowers" is the object of そだてる. And the verb t 花が そだつ。 "Flowers grow." Here, we're not saying who is doing the growing, just saying that it's a natural thing that flowers grow.
Naomi:見つける(みつける)"to find" -Transitive
見つかる(みつかる)"to be found" "to be discovered"-Intransitive.
Jessi:Sample sentence please.
Naomi:わたしは、だれかのおさいふを みつけました。"I found somebody's wallet."
私のおさいふが みつかりました。"My wallet was found."
Jessi: It might help to study these in pairs! And not only that, but you should include the object or subject with the particle before it so you remember which type it is. Like, 財布を見つける and 財布が見つかる。
Jessi:OK. Next let's do some practice questions.
We'll give you a word so please choose the sentence that uses the given word correctly.
The first word is..けんがく
Naomi:1 がくせいのとき、こうじょうを けんがくした。
2 ひまなので、えいがを けんがくした。
Jessi:The correct sentence is...
Naomi:1 がくせいのとき、こうじょうを けんがくした。
Jessi:"When I was student, I went on an observation tour of a factory."
So What's wrong with the second sentence? ひまなので、えいがを けんがくした。
Naomi:Well, that depends on the movie. It it's an educational movie, it could work. But it's not really natural. It should be 映画をみた. So...ひまなので、えいがをみた 。
Jessi"Since I had nothing to do, I watched a movie."
OK. One more practice question. The next word is 故障.
Naomi:1 あなたの、くつしたは、こしょうしていますよ。
2その くるまは、こしょうしていますよ。
Jessi:The correct sentence is...
Naomi:2その くるまは、こしょうしていますよ。
Jessi:"That car is broken."
What's wrong with the choice1 あなたの、くつしたは、こしょうしていますよ。?
Naomi: You're already laughing!
Jessi: I'm already laughing because it just sounds so off!
Naomi: くつした are socks, aren't they? You can't say "Hey your socks are out of order", can you?
Jessi: That would be pretty strange!
Naomi: It should be あなたのくつしたは やぶれていますよ。やぶれる is "to wear out" "to get torn"
Jessi:So that full sentence one more time is?
Naomi: あなたの靴下は破れていますよ 
Jessi: And it means "Your socks are torn."
So, how did it go? Did you get the correct answer?
Naomi:That's all for this lesson.
Jessi:Make sure you study hard, and see you next time!