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Lesson Transcript

Jessi:Hello and welcome back to the JLPT Level 4 Last Minute Prep Course. I'm Jessi and I'm here joined by Naomi.
Jessi:In lesson 1 we covered もじ・ごい, the Reading-Vocabulary section.
Naomi:Right. 皆さん復習しましたか?
Jessi:Did you memorize the word we listed in the lesson notes? We hope you did. Because we're going to use those vocab words a lot in the lesson.
Jessi:In this lesson we'll explain what the どっかい・ぶんぽう Reading-Grammar section is like.
Naomi:どっかい means reading comprehension and ぶんぽう means grammar.
Jessi:OK. Naomi-sensei, tell us about this section.
Jessi:The time alloted for the Reading-Grammar section is 50 minutes.
Jessi:There are 47 questions, and there are 6 types of questions. And they are called もんだい1もんだい2もんだい3もんだい4もんだい5もんだい6
Naomi:Right. もんだい1から3は文法。もんだい4から6は読解のテストです。
Jessi:Questions 1 through 3 test your grammar knowledge and questions 4 to 6 test your reading comprehension.
Jessi: In this lesson, we'll be focusing on もんだい1.
Jessi:もんだい1 tests how much you know about Japanese particles. Naomi-sensei, can you read the instructions?
Naomi:下線の ところに なにを いれますか。 1・2・3・4から いちばん いい ものを ひとつ えらびなさい。
Jessi:Fill in the blank to complete the sentence. Choose the best answer from 1 to 4.
Naomi:As we mentioned in the previous lesson, 下線 is underline 下線のところ means the underlined part. なに is whatいれる is "to put" or "to insert" 
Jessi:So,下線のところに何を入れますか。means "What would you put in the underlined part" And the choices are all particles.
Naomi:The Top 5 particles you should know for JLPT level4 test are を、に、で、が and と
Jessi:Let's start with the particle を. The most basic usage of particle を is as an object marker.
Naomi:Right. Such as みずをください。
Jessi:Water please.
Jessi:I drink coffee.
Naomi:When giving directions, another usage of を is often used. Such as 角を曲がってください。
Jessi:Please turn at the corner. When a sentence involves a motion verb such as "magaru" to turn, "aruku" to walk, "hashiru"to run, the place is often marked by を.
Naomi:Right 公園を歩く。I walk through the park.
Jessi:Also when you go from a smaller place to a bigger place, the particle o is used.
Naomi:バスを降りる I get off the bus. 家を出る。 I leave home.
Jessi:A bus and home are relatively smaller than the outside.
Jessi: The next particle we're looking at is に The simplest use is....
Jessi:I'm going to the department store. This Ni indicates destination and is similar to English To. I'm going TO the department store" For this usage NI can be replaced with E
Naomi:You can add the purpose by using NI. For example, 買い物 is shopping. デパートに買い物に行きます。
Jessi:I'm going to the department store to shop.
Naomi: I just remembered that when my English was not that good, I kept saying "I called to my friend" or "I e-mailed to my friend"
Of course they are wrong in English but in Japanese we add に to mark the recipient of the action.
Jessi:Right. Ni indicates an indirect object too. So how would you say "I called my friend?"
Jessi:"I e-mailed my friend" is?
Jessi:We mentioned that the movement from a smaller space to a larger place is marked by を. However the movement from a larger space to a smaller place is marked by に
Jessi:I get on a bus.
Jessi:I get in a taxi.
Naomi:But for getting off the particle is を バスをおりる タクシーをおりる
Jessi:To get off the bus, to get out of the taxi respectively.
Jessi:We've just introduced the sentence 私は友だちに電話した。But instead of に you can use と right?
Naomi:友だちと電話した? Yes. But the nuance is a bit different though.
Jessi:と Means "with", "together" So...友だちと電話した is I called my friend but the nuance is more like I talked with my friend on the phone.
Naomi:Right. と has more bidirectional connotation, not just one way. So マイケルはリサと結婚した。
Jessi:Micheal got married to Lisa. You can also say マイケルとリサは結婚した。Micheal and Lisa got married.
Naomi:Right. This と means "And"
Jessi:And There's one more important usage of と. と is used as a quotation marker.
Naomi:そうですね。 と marks where the quote ends. For JLPT4, you need to know AというB
Jessi:"B which is called A" or "B which is known as A"
Naomi:For example, フジさんというお店
Jessi:A shop called Fujisan
Jessi:A person called Jessi. Japanesepod101.comというサイト a site called Japanesepod101.com.
Naomi:Right. Japanesepod101.comというサイトを知っていますか?
Jessi:Do you know a website called Japanesepod101.com?
Jessi:I study Japanese at a website called Japanesepod101.com.
Naomi:Actually, で is the next particle we're looking at.
Jessi:The particle で indicates tools, means, a reason or a place for an action.
Jessi:I write with a pen. ペンで・・・This De indicates the tool that the action is being done with.
Jessi:I go by bus. バスで・・・This De indicates means of transportation.
Jessi:I'm not going to school because of the influenza. インフルエンザで・・・This de indicates reason
Naomi:Right. Like "because of".
Jessi:I have coffee at Macdonald. マクドナルドで・・・This de indicates place for action.
Naomi-sensei, we mentioned を also indicates the place for action. What's the difference between the 2?
Naomi:Well...を can be used only with a verb that expresses motion such as あるく to walk, およぐ to swim, はしる to run, and まがる to turn, whereas で can be used with any action.
Jessi:Last but not least, the particle ga. Ga indicates the object of certain verbs or adjectives.
Naomi:Certain verbs and adjectives...That sounds tricky.(笑)
Jessi:Yes. It might be a little tricky. Basically, you have to memorize which verbs or adjective take が. But the good news is the number of vocabulary is limited in JLPT level 4 and we made a list of those verbs and adjectives in the lesson notes so make sure to read them.
Jessi:That's all for this lesson.
Jessi: Commercial
:*****Good bye******
Jessi:See you next time.