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Peter: The Top Six Places You Have to See When in Japan. In the previous lesson, we learned how to invite someone to do something using the negative form of a verb.
Naomi: Like クッキーを食べない?
Peter: Wanna eat some cookies? You also learned how to conjugate class 2 and class 3 verbs.
In this lesson, you'll learn how to conjugate class 1 verbs.
Naomi: And you'll also learn how to say "It was fun!"or "It was beautiful"
Peter: This conversation takes place on
Naomi: 電車
Peter: The train. 4 people are involved in the conversation.
Naomi: はい。4人です。アシュリーさん、鈴木さん、本田さん、それから 光岡さん。
Peter: Ashley, Mr. Suzuki, Mr.Honda and Ms. Mitsuoka
They went to a fireworks event, and now they're on their way back home. The next train stop is Shinagawa. Because Ashley is staying at Shinagawa Princess Hotel, she needs to get off the train at Shinagawa station. She's saying thank you and goodbye to everyone.
The formality level of the conversation is?
Naomi: Mixed. So you'll hear both formal and informal Japanese.
Peter: For reference, please take a look at the adjective conjugation and verb conjugation lessons.
Peter: Next is Shinagawa…Shinagawa…
Peter: Everyone, thank you so much for everything today.
Peter: Did you have fun?
Peter: Yes, I had a lot of fun!
Peter: The fireworks were really pretty.
Peter: The bento was good too.
Peter: Thanks for the delicious meal.
Peter: Want to go drinking again this week?
Peter: Ohh, unfortunately I won't be going to work this week.
Peter: I'm going to do a little sightseeing.
Peter: Really? Where are you going?
Peter: I'm going to Tsukiji, Asakusa, Akihabara, Mt. Fuji, Kamakura, and Nikko.
Peter: Oh? My hometown is Nikko!
Peter: My parents' house is in Nikko.
Peter: Ashley-san, why don't you stay at their house?
Peter: Eh? Is it okay?
Peter: Sure, it's okay! I'll contact you later, okay?
Peter: Lucky you, Ashley!
Peter: Shinagawa…Shinagawa…
Peter: Okay, well, see you later everyone!
Naomi: 次は、しながわ~。しながわ~。 I don't know why but the station attendant tend to prolong the last syllable of the place.
Peter: So the real pronunciation is SHINAGAWA, with a short vowel but when the station attendant makes the announcement, they extend the last sound.
Naomi: They always do it. Maybe they're doing it for emphasis.
Peter: Now, do people eat BENTOU, or boxed lunches during fireworks events?
Naomi: Yeah. They also drink alcohol. If there's enough space, some people have a barbecue.
Peter: Japanese people LOVE bentou or O-bentou. Now, Bentō is a boxed lunch. A traditional bento consists of rice, fish or meat, and one or more pickled or cooked vegetables as a side dish. The bento containers can range from disposable mass produced ones to hand crafted lacquerware. Bento are readily available in many places throughout Japan, including convenience stores, bento shops (bentō-ya?), train stations, and department stores.
Naomi: You can get reasonably priced bentou at convenience stores, and really high-end good quality bento at department stores or fancy restaurants.
Peter: The bento sold on trains or at train stations have a special name, right?
Naomi: Right. 駅弁. 駅 means station and 弁 is from the word Bentou.
Peter: They come with disposable chopsticks or a spoon.Many train stations have since become famous for their delicious ekiben that include local specialties.
Naomi: If you're planning to travel Japan by train, try 駅弁! They're not very expensive and they're really good! 駅弁はおいしいですよ。
Peter: Speaking of traveling, some famous sightseeing areas are introduced in this conversation.
Naomi: そうですね。築地、浅草、秋葉原、富士山、鎌倉 and 日光.
Peter: All of these places are not far from Tokyo. Tsukiji, Asakusa, Akihabara are actually located in Tokyo.
Naomi: そうですね。築地 is famous for its fish market, and 浅草 has a famous temple called 浅草寺
Peter: Akihabara is known as Electric Town because there are a lot of electronics and appliance stores.
Naomi: It's a mecca for people who love computers and electronics.
Naomi: 富士山 is Mt. Fuji, which is the highest mountain in Japan.
Peter: Even if you haven't been to Japan, you 've probably seen a picture of this mountain.
Naomi: Kamakura is a historical place because it was the capital city of Japan for about a hundred and fifty years.
Peter: In Nikkou, there's a famous shrine called TOUSHOUGUU.
Naomi: There are also mountains, marsh and lakes in Nikko. Nikkou is part of Nikkou National park.
Peter Let's take a look at the vocabulary for this lesson.
Naomi きれい [natural native speed]
Peter beautiful;Adj(na)
Naomi きれい [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Naomi きれい [natural native speed]
Naomi ちょっと [natural native speed]
Peter a bit, a little
Naomi ちょっと [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Naomi ちょっと [natural native speed]
Naomi 楽しい [natural native speed]
Peter fun, enjoyable ; Adj(i)
Naomi 楽しい [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Naomi 楽しい [natural native speed]
Naomi 会社 [natural native speed]
Peter company, corporation
Naomi 会社 [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Naomi 会社 [natural native speed]
Naomi 観光 [natural native speed]
Peter sightseeing
Naomi 観光 [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Naomi 観光 [natural native speed]
Peter Let's have a closer look at the usage for some of the words and phrases from this lesson.
Peter: First we have the phrase.
Naomi: ごちそう様でした 
Peter: Thanks for the meal. As you learned in All about series lesson 7, after the meal, it’s customary to say Gochisousama
Naomi: You can say either ごちそうさま or ごちそう様でした 
Peter: What does this literally mean?
Naomi: ごちそう means "Feast" 様 is a polite suffix so...ごちそう様でした is something like "It was a great feast"
Peter: Now, in All about series Lesson 7, we also learned the phrase you say before a meal.
Naomi: いただきます
Peter: It’s customary to say “Itadaki masu” before starting a meal. It literally means “I will humbly receive” and it’s a nice way to show gratitude for the meal.So can we hear those phrases again? Before a meal, you say...
Naomi: いただきます
Peter: And after the meal, you say
Naomi: ごちそう様でした
Peter: The next word is
Naomi: うち
Peter: house, home, family, we. Now in the dialogue we have "ie". "Ie" also means house
Naomi: そうですね。 Right. うち and いえ both mean "house or home" and the Kanji is the same.
Peter: I've heard UCHI is more like home or family and IE is more like house or residence, is that correct?
Naomi: You're right. However this rule is not as strict as English rule for House and home. Some people use いえ and うちinterchangeably. So in the dialogue, Ms. Mitsuoka said 両親のいえが日光にあります
Peter: My parents' house is in Nikko.
Naomi: But it's also OK to say...両親のうちが日光にあります
Peter: The next word is
Naomi: 泊まる
Peter: to stay. It's a class 1 verb so the masu form is...
Naomi: 泊まります The place you stay is marked by particle に So... 旅館にとまる
Peter: I'll stay at a Japanese Inn. or I stay at a Japanese Inn. Or for formal speech..
Naomi: 旅館に泊まります
Peter: I'll stay at a Japanese Inn. or I stay at a Japanese Inn. Okay, next?
Naomi: I'd like to introduce 2 nouns. The first one is 連絡
Peter: contact, connect
Naomi: The second one is 観光
Peter: sightseeing
Naomi: With [する] or [をする], they become a verb. 連絡する
Peter: To contact Literally, to do contact.
Naomi: 観光する
Peter: To go sightseeing. Literally to do sightseeing. In the dialogue we have....?
Naomi: あとで、連絡します。
Peter: I'll contact you later. ATODE later RENRAKUSHIMASU I'll contact.
Naomi: ちょっと観光します
Peter: I'll do a little sightseeing. CHOTTO a little KANKOUSHIMASU I'll go sightseeing

Lesson focus

Peter: In this lesson, you'll learn 2 things. The first thing is the usage of adjectives. The second thing is how Class 1 verbs conjugate. Let's start with adjectives, if you master this, you'll be able to express your opinion about past events.
Naomi: Right. Like...It was fun 楽しかったです。
Peter: In this lesson, you'll learn how to create the past tense of adjectives ("It was ~") As we explained in Lesson 16, there are two different types of adjectives, which are-
Naomi: i-adjectives, and na-adjectives
Peter: How we conjugate these adjectives depends on the type. Let us start with I-Adjectives.
For i-adjectives, first of all drop the final -i. And add katta. If you're speaking formally add です to it. Let's illustrate it with an example. Can we have one i-adjective?
Naomi: 楽しい
Peter: Fun. First, drop -i and you have...
Naomi: たのし
Peter: Add "KATTA" to it and get
Naomi: たのしかった
Peter: Now this means "it was fun". But if you're talking to your boss or teacher, you need to put "DESU" So...
Naomi: たのしかったです
Peter: It was fun. Let's do one more example. How do you say "delicious"?
Naomi: おいしい
Peter: Drop the final i
Naomi: おいし
Peter: And add "Katta"
Naomi: おいしかった
Peter: It was delicious. But in a formal situation you need to add DESU to the end.
Naomi: おいしかったです
Peter: It was delicious. Please note that the i-adjective ii (いい), meaning "good" or "well", is an exception to this rule. The past form of "ii" is not "IKATTA" but "YOKATTA".
Naomi: いい becomes よかった for the informal past. The formal past would be よかったです。
Peter: Please remember that desu (です) only serves to make the phrase polite, and is not needed when speaking informal Japanese.OK. On to the na-adjectives. This conjugation is quite simple. For informal speech, just add "datta" to the dictionary form. For formal speech add "deshita". Naomi-sensei, can we have a na adjective?
Naomi: 暇 
Peter: free as in free time. If you want to say "I was free" in informal speech. 
Naomi: 暇だった
Peter: How about "I was free" in formal speech?
Naomi: 暇でした
Peter: Can we have another example of a na adjective?
Naomi: きれい
Peter: Beautiful. Now this adjective ends in い but it's actually a na adjective. So "It was beautiful" in informal speech...
Naomi: きれいだった
Peter: And in formal speech?
Naomi: きれいでした
Peter: Let's move onto the Class 1 verb conjugation. In the last lesson, we introduced Class 2 and Class 3 verbs and showed you how to make the dictionary form from the masu form.
In the last lesson, we showed you how you can tell which class a verb belongs to when the verb is in the dictionary form. In this lesson, we'll show you how to tell which class a verb belongs to when the verb is in masu form.
Naomi: When masu is preceded by -i, such as 行きます、飲みます、話します
Peter: Did you notice the sound right before masu has an i-sound? Say those words again?
Naomi: いきます (Peter, KI i sound) のみます(Peter, MI i sound) 話します(Peter, SHI i sound)
Naomi: When masu is preceded by -e sound or a one syllable sound, that's a class 2 verb.
Peter: For example?
Naomi: みます(Peter, Mi-Masu..."Mi"one syllable sound before masu) ねます(Peter, Ne-Masu "Ne"one syllable sound before masu) たべます(Peter, BE e sound before masu)
Naomi: And "来ます/to come", "します/to do" are Class 3 verbs
Peter: There's a detailed write up in the Lesson notes, so please make sure to read it. Now let's take a look at Class 1 verb conjugation. Can we have a class 1 verb?
Naomi: 飲む
Peter: "to drink "As we explained in previous lessons, the dictionary form of class 1 verbs ends with a u-column sound. If you change that u-column sound to corresponding i-column sound and add ます, you can create the masu form. Let's review it with examples. To drink is...
Naomi: 飲む
Peter: the u-column sound is
Naomi: む
Peter: The corresponding i column sound is
Naomi: み
Peter: So we have
Naomi: 飲み
Peter: And add masu
Naomi: 飲みます
Peter: One more example, To go is...
Naomi: 行く
Peter: Change the final u sound to corresponding i sound.
Naomi: 行き
Peter: Add masu
Naomi: 行きます
Peter: Now on to the negative form. Making the formal negative is very simple.
Naomi: Replace ます with ません
Peter: So...
Naomi: 飲みます
Peter: To drink becomes
Naomi: 飲みません
Peter: don't drink, won't drink.
Naomi: 行きます(Peter, to go) becomes いきません(Peter, don't go, won't go)
Peter: However, the informal negative is not that easy. To form the informal negative, change the final u-column sound to corresponding a-column sound and add NAI.
Let's illustrate it with an example. "to drink" is...
Naomi: 飲む
Peter: the u-column sound is
Naomi: む
Peter: So change this MU to corresponding A column.
Naomi: ま
Peter: So far we have...
Naomi: のま
Peter: And add ない to it
Naomi: のまない
Peter: Let's do one more example. To go is...
Naomi: 行く
Peter: The final syllable is...
Naomi: く
Peter: The corresponding A sound is
Naomi: か
Peter: So we have
Naomi: いか
Peter: Add ない to it.
Naomi: 行かない
Peter: In the dialogue, Ashley said...
Naomi: 今週、会社に行きません
Peter: This week, I won't go to work. She said "IKIMASEN" which is a formal negative form. If she wants to say it informally... she would say...
Naomi: 今週、会社に行かない
Peter: Let's recap this lesson with a quiz. The quiz will be multiple choice. We'll give a question and three possible answers. Your job is to guess the answer.OK. The first question.
Which of the following phrases are you most likely to hear after a meal?
Naomi: A)いただきます B)ごちそう様でした C)いらっしゃいませ
Peter: The answer is
Naomi: B)ごちそう様でした。
Peter: A)ITADAKIMASU is used before a meal C)IRASSHAIMASE means "Welcome" and used at shops. OK. The second question. Which of the following word is the informal negative form of "To go"
Naomi: A)行く B)行きます C)行かない
Peter: The answer is ...
Naomi: C)行かない
Peter: A)IKU is the dictionary form B)IKIMASU is the masu form.


Peter: That concludes the lesson. In the next lesson, Ashely is going to a museum by train. So you'll learn some essential expressions for taking a train.
Naomi: じゃ、また!


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