Vocabulary (Review)

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Lesson Transcript

Peter: Stand Out from the Crowd with these Language Learning Tricks and Tips.
Naomi: みなさん、Gengo Japanese へようこそ Welcome to Gengo Japanese.
Peter: Right. We learned this phrase ようこそ in the previous lesson. You also learned the the usage of the verb to go
Naomi: 行きます。 For example, 駅に行きます I'll go to the station.
Peter: In this lesson, you'll learn formal and informal speech.
Naomi: Right. You'll review the Masu form of a verb and the dictionary form of a verb that were covered in the previous lesson.
Peter: And we'll also review how to introduce yourself. This conversation takes place at
Naomi: 歓迎会 a welcome party
Peter: If you remember the last episode, Ashley's schedule said
Naomi: 七時に横浜駅に行く。歓迎会 Go to Yokohama Station at 7:00. Welcome party.
Peter: So it looks like they're having a welcome party for Ashley near Yokohama station.
The setting of this lesson's conversation is a little complicated. First, Mr. Matsuda introduces Ashely to other employees and he asks Ashley to give a speech in front of everyone.
Then in the next part, Ashley is talking with Daisuke Honda.
Naomi: Do you remember this guy from Lesson1?
Peter: The guy Ashley was talking to on Skype in Lesson 1, right?
Naomi: Right.
Peter: What about the formality of the conversation?
Naomi: It's mixed.
Peter: Now before we listen to the dialogue, we strongly recommend that you reference the verb conjugation and adjective conjugation lessons.
OK, let's listen to the conversation.
Peter: Good work today, everyone!
Peter: This is Ashley Jones from the New York office.
Peter: Ashley, could you introduce yourself and make a toast?
Peter: Huh? In Japanese??
Peter: Yes, of course in Japanese!
Peter: Good evening, everyone. Nice to meet you.
Peter: My name is Ashley Jones. I'm American.
Peter: I'm from Long Island in New York.
Peter: I understand...a little Japanese.
Peter: But I'm not good at it yet.
Peter: Yes you are!!
Peter: But I'm very good at English.
Peter: Well, of course you are!
Peter: I look forward to working with you all!
Peter: Cheers!
Peter: Cheers!
Peter: Ashley-san! Long time no see! How are ya?
Peter: Not good...
Peter: Just kidding! How are you Honda-kun?
Peter: I'm great!
Peter: Oh, you don't have any beer do you. What will you have to drink?
Peter: What do you recommend?
Peter: Ashely said "Nihon-go wa chotto wakarimasu.""Demo mada jouzu ja arimasen." -" I understand some Japanese. But I'm not good at it yet." I think Ashley's Japanese is higher than "chotto wakarimasu- understand a little " level.
Naomi: I think Ashley is just being humble or I should say she's being polite. In Japanese society, when people want to be formal, they often act humble or modest. Do you do that in English too?
Peter: (Comment) I think "Nihon-go wa chotto wakarimasu.""Demo mada jouzu ja arimasen." is a really good response for "nihon go jouzu desu ne"
Naomi: Right. As we mentioned in Lesson 12, you'll probably hear "日本語上手ですね -Wow, your Japanese is good." all the time in Japan.
Peter: Right. And most of the time Japanese people say it to encourage you to speak Japanese and they sometimes don't really mean it.
Naomi: How do you usually respond to the "日本語上手ですね-Your Japanese is good" compliment then.
Peter: I usually, say..."IIe, mada jouzu ja arimasen.- No, I'm not good at it yet" or drop "jouzujanai" and "Iie madamada desu."
Naomi: I liked the way Mr. Suzuki encouraged her after she said 上手じゃありません I'm not good at it yet.
Peter: What did he say?
Naomi: Mr. Suzuki said 上手だよ! Yes you are! Of course he's a trying to tell Ashley that her Japanese is good.
Peter: Also Ashley said "Demo eigo wa jouzu desu. -But I'm very good at English or I speak fluent English. "
Naomi: I think she said it as a joke. Everyone knows that she's a Native English speaker.
Peter: And to that comment Mr. Suzuki said "touzen da yo", which is "Of course you are" or "we know that."
Naomi: Japanese people are usually quiet listeners. So it's rare to meet the people who are like Mr. Suzuki. But he is doing it for Ashley I think, because she's probably nervous.
Peter: So you think Mr. Suzuki is doing it to loosen up the atmosphere.
Peter Let's take a look at the vocabulary for this lesson.
Naomi 皆さん [natural native speed]
Peter everyone
Naomi 皆さん [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Naomi 皆さん [natural native speed]
Naomi 自己紹介 [natural native speed]
Peter self-introduction
Naomi 自己紹介 [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Naomi 自己紹介 [natural native speed]
Naomi 乾杯 [natural native speed]
Peter Cheers!
Naomi 乾杯 [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Naomi 乾杯 [natural native speed]
Naomi とても [natural native speed]
Peter very
Naomi とても [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Naomi とても [natural native speed]
Naomi お勧め [natural native speed]
Peter recommendation
Naomi お勧め [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Naomi お勧め [natural native speed]
Peter Let's have a closer look at the usage for some of the words and phrases from this lesson.
Peter: First we'd like to introduce a phrase you must know for work situations. It's-
Naomi: お疲れ様です。
Peter: This phrase can be used as "Hello" "thank you" or "good-bye" in the office. What's the meaning?
Naomi: Well... 疲れ means "tiredness" "fatigue" so...it's like "You must be exhausted by" or "I appreciate your hard work" ... But the direct translation doesn't really help. So I recommend that you memorize this as a set phrase.
Peter: Who do you use this phrase to?
Naomi: to someone who is working or has been working for a while. So I wouldn't say お疲れ様です in the morning or to someone who just came back from lunch.
Peter: The next phrase is...
Naomi: 乾杯!
Peter: Cheers! Look at the Kanji this word contains. The first Kanji means "Dry" And the second Kanji means "glass" So literally Kampai means "dry glass" To get a dry glass, you have to empty it, right. So it means "Drink up" or "Bottoms up"
Naomi: This is the literal meaning. Of course it doesn't mean that you have to finish your drink.
Sometimes people prolong the ぱ sound and say かんぱーい!
Peter: Next we'd like to introduce two words which have the same meaning.
Naomi: もちろん and とうぜん
Peter: of course. In the dialogue, Mr. Matsuda said
Naomi: もちろん、日本語で
Peter: Of course, in Japanese.
Naomi: Since もちろん and とうぜん have the same meaning, Mr. Matsuda could have said 当然日本語で
Peter: The next word we're looking at is...
Naomi: 嘘
Peter: Lie We've already learned the word "truth" or "really" in Lesson 12, haven't we. It's-
Naomi: 本当 USO and HONTOU are often used as interjections, especially in informal conversations.
Peter: That cant' be true.
Naomi: 本当?
Peter: Really? When you want to say "Just kidding"  You can say "Uso" or "Uso desu" meaning "It's a lie." "I lied." or "Just kidding" Just like Ashely did in the dialogue.
Naomi: Right. She said うそうそ after she said the joke.
Peter: OK? Next we have a very useful phrase.
Naomi: おすすめは
Peter: Literally, "Recommendation?" or "Any recommendations?" Of course "What" is inferred. So it means "What's your recommendation, what do you recommend? "
Naomi: Right. The original sentence would be おすすめは何ですか
Peter: What's your recommendation. Let's break this down.
Naomi&Peter: おすすめ recommendation は is a particle, as for. 何 what です copula"is" か question.
Naomi: Where do you use this phrase?
Peter: I use this phrase at (Restaurants or bars).
Naomi: Sometimes, you'll see 今日のおすすめ on the menu.
Peter: Today's recommendation. chef's picks. OK. Let's quickly review how Ashley introduced herself in the speech. She said.
Naomi: 皆さん、こんばんは。はじめまして。
Peter: Everyone. Good evening. Nice to meet you.
Naomi: 私の名前はアシュリー・ジョーンズです。
Peter: My name is Ashley Jones.
Naomi: アメリカ人です
Peter: I'm American. How to say one's nationality is covered in lesson7
Naomi: 出身はニューヨークのロングアイランドです。
Peter: My hometown is Long island, NY. This sentence structure is covered in Lesson 3.

Lesson focus

********(7 47 -7 57 収録済み)*****************
Peter: In this lesson you'll learn basic sentence structure using nouns and adjectives.
Naomi: You'll also learn more about Formal and Informal Speech
Peter: First of all, let's explain the differences between formal and informal speech.
******(1059 -1243 既に録音済み)******
Peter: As we explained in lesson 1, there are basically 3 levels of formality, in Japanese.
Naomi: Informal, Formal and honorific.
Peter: Informal is used among friends in casual situations.
Formal is used when you talk to strangers, co-workers, or people who have higher social status than you. Usually, formal speech is good enough.
However, there are times you want to be even more formal. For example when you're talking to a very important client or a person who you're supposed to be very respectful to. In that case you have to use honorific Japanese.
My image of informal speech is language in shorts and a t-shirt. It's laid back and relaxed. But you probably don't want to go to the office or do an important presentation wearing that, right?
Formal speech is like language in nice clean button-down collared shirt with nice clean slacks.
And honorific speech is language in a nice tux.
******Sentence structure(取り直し)******
Peter: OK. Next, let's learn the the basic sentence structure using nouns.
OK. Naomi-sensei. First, what's a noun?
Naomi: A noun is a person, place, or thing. Like コーヒー(coffee),お茶 (tea),日本(Japan), 学生(student).
Peter: OK. How do you say... "Ashley is a student" using formal speech.
Naomi: アシュリーは学生です。
Peter: As for Ashley, a student is. Ashley is a student. Now how do you say the exact same sentence using informal speech?
Naomi: アシュリーは学生だ。
Peter: Ashley is American. Notice how the formal copula DESU becomes DA using informal speech. As we learned in lesson 5, DA is a copula used in informal situations, while DESU is used in formal situations. So the the meaning is exactly the same - only the politeness level is different.
Naomi: Next, let's learn how to create negative sentences.
Peter: How about an informal negative sentence? "Ashley isn't a student."
Naomi: アシュリーは学生じゃない。
Peter: DA becomes JANAI in negative speech. How about "Ashley isn't a student." using formal speech?
Naomi: アシュリーは学生じゃないです。
Peter: JANAI plus DESU. You simply add DESU after JANAI the negative form of DA to make it formal. Can you say those sentences again? "Ashley is a student." using informal speech.
Naomi: アシュリーは学生だ 
Peter: Informal copula DA. How about "Ashley is a student." using formal speech?
Naomi: OK. You change DA to DESU. アシュリーは学生です。
Peter: On to the negative sentences. "Ashley isn't a student." using informal speech.
Naomi: アシュリーは学生じゃない。
Peter: How about "Ashely isn't a student." using formal speech?
Naomi: Simply add です to it. アシュリーは学生じゃないです。
Peter: Now you can also say アシュリーは学生じゃありません for "Ashely is not a student" There's a detailed write-up in the lesson notes, so be sure to check out.
************adjective(取り直し) **********************
Peter: Now let's look at sentences that contain adjectives.
Naomi: Adjectives are words that describe things.
Peter: For example "delicious". If we say "a delicious cookie", the word delicious is describing the cookie. Delicious is an adjective and cookie is a noun.
Naomi: There are two types of adjectives in Japanese.
Peter: Right, adjectives that end in "i" and adjectives that end in "na". From now on we'll refer to them as i-adjectives and na-adjectives. How you distinguish the two is all explained in Conjugation lesson 2 about Adjectives, so be sure to check out that conjugation lesson.
Naomi: In this lesson, we'll cover only na-adjectives.
Peter: Can we have a na-adjective ?
Naomi: 元気
Peter: healthy, full of energy
Now for na-adjective sentences, the sentence structure is the same as the noun sentences. So... the sentence "Ashley is full of energy" using informal speech is....
Naomi: アシュリーは元気だ。
Peter: How about "Ashley is full of energy" using formal speech?
Naomi: アシュリーは元気です
Peter: DA becomes DESU for formal speech. The negative sentence "Ashely is not full of energy" using informal speech is?
Naomi: アシュリーは元気じゃない
Peter: How about using formal speech?
Naomi: アシュリーは元気じゃないです。
**********収録済み (1408~)************
Peter: In the last lesson, we briefly introduced the concept of the dictionary form (informal) and the masu form (formal) of verbs, using iku/ikimasu ("to go") as an example. The conjugation from the masu form to the dictionary form is covered in Conjugation lesson 5. So please make sure to reference it.
Naomi: Now, there are 3 types of verbs in Japanese. Class one, class 2 and class 3
The verbs which have -i sound right before masu are called class 1.
Peter: To change those verbs into the dictionary form, Drop the -masu ending. And get the form called masu-stem. Change the final "i sound" to corresponding "u sound"
For example,
Naomi: あります to exist
Peter: Drop masu to get masu stem
Naomi: あり
Peter: Change the final -i sound to the corresponding -u sound.The -i sound is
Naomi: り
Peter: the corresponding -u sound is
Naomi: る
Peter: So replace RI with RU and get
Naomi: ある 
Peter: ARU is the dictionary form of ARIMASU. Let's do with other verb. How do you say "to drink"
Naomi: 飲みます to drik
Peter: Drop masu and get the masu form
Naomi: のみ
Peter: Change the i sound MI to u sound MU and get
Naomi: のむ
Peter: So "To drink" dictionary form is
Naomi: のむ
Peter: And the masu form is
Naomi: 飲みます
Peter: The last example, masu form of to go is
Naomi: 行きます
Peter: masu stem is
Naomi: 行き
Peter: replace the i sound with the corresponding u sound
Naomi: 行く
Peter: So "To go " dictionary form is
Naomi: 行く
Peter: And the masu form is
Naomi: いきます
Peter: Let's recap this lesson with a quiz. The quiz will be multiple choice. We'll give a question and three possible answers. Your job is to guess the answer.OK. The first question.
Which of the following phrases can be used as "Hello""thank you" or "good-by" at the office.
Naomi: A)お疲れ様です B)ひさしぶり C)ちょっと
Peter: The answer is
Naomi: A)お疲れ様です.
Peter: Hisashiburi is "It's been a long time" chotto means "a little". OK, next question.
Peter: How do you say "Cheers!" in Japanese.
Naomi: A)もちろん B)乾杯 C)とうぜん
Peter: The answer is
Naomi: B)乾杯
Peter: Both もちろん(mochiron) and とうぜん(touzen) mean "of course."


Peter: This concludes this lesson. In the next lesson, Ashely is going to meet a new person. And you'll learn how to say you like something.
Naomi: じゃまた。


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