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Let's take a closer look at each of these expressions.
First do you remember how Karen says,
"See you."
じゃ、また。(Ja, mata.)
This starts with the interjection, じゃ, translating as "well," in this context. じゃ.(enunciated) じゃ.
It's similar to the word "well" in English when it's used to express a pause in conversation or thought.
The second part is また, "again." ま-た. また.
All together, じゃ、また literally means "Well, again," but it translates as "See you again."
じゃ、また。(Ja, mata.)
This phrase is an abbreviated form of じゃ、また あいましょう。"Well, let's meet again. " じゃ、また あいましょう。
あいましょう (aimashō), "let's meet." あいましょう.
あいましょう is omitted from this expression, but it's understood.
あいましょう is from the verb あう meaning, "to meet." あう (au)。
The expression, じゃ、また, is fairly informal, which indicates a very close relationship between Karen and her host mother. Otherwise, Karen would use a more formal alternative.
After this, do you remember how Sasha says,
おやすみなさい. is a set phrase meaning, "goodnight." おやすみなさい.
The first part is お, an honorific prefix. お.
It's used to show politeness.
Next is やすみ, "rest." や-す-み. やすみ.
It's from the verb やすむ yasumu, meaning "to rest." やすむ.
The last part is なさい, meaning "please do." な-さ-い. なさい.
Together, やすみなさい is a command meaning, "Take a rest." やすみなさい。
All together, おやすみなさい literally means "please have a [good] rest," but it translates as, "Goodnight."
Both Sasha and Ben use this polite expression when saying goodnight to Miki Mori.
Note, there is an informal form of おやすみなさい。
おやすみ. "Goodnight." おやすみ.
Miki Mori uses this to say goodbye to everyone. おやすみ.
She's the oldest person in the conversation, so she has a lot of freedom to use informal language.
Do you remember how Miki Mori says,
"See you later. Goodnight."
またね。おやすみ。(Mata ne. Oyasumi.)
First is またね。"See you later." ま-た-ね. またね。
There are two parts to this expression.
First is また, meaning "again." また.
Next is ね, a sentence-ending particle used to seek confirmation about something or build a consensus. Here it means something like, "Right?" ね
Together, またね。 means something like, "Again, right?" but it translates as "See you later." またね。
またね。 is an abbreviated form of また あいましょうね。Let's meet again, right? また あいましょうね。
Next is おやすみ。Goodnight. おやすみ。
The informal form of おやすみなさい。"Goodnight." おやすみなさい。
All together, またね。おやすみ。"See you later. Goodnight."
またね。おやすみ。(Mata ne. Oyasumi.)
You may be familiar with the expression, さようなら。 (Sayōnara.), "Farewell." さようなら。
It's fairly common to hear it in foreign movies or dramas that involve Japan or Japanese people. Despite this, it's not so frequently used in daily life.
There is another parting expression you may have come in contact with:
バイバイ。 (Baibai.). Bye-bye. バイバイ。
Borrowed from the English language, it's an informal expression which is basically used between kids and young people or when you talk to kids.
The parting expression you choose will depend on many factors, such as your relationship with the person or people you're talking with.