Dialogue

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Lesson Transcript

INTRODUCTION
Naomi: なおみです。
Peter: Peter here. I Don’t Think This Japanese Restaurant Is That Kind of Place! In this lesson, you'll learn how to use extremely formal language.
Naomi: Right. 謙譲語 の使い方です "the usage of humble language"
Peter: This conversation takes place at
Naomi: ゴンロクというすし屋です。
Peter : A sushi restaurant called GONROKU. The conversation is mainly between Ayumu and a staff member at the restaurant.
Naomi: そうですね。歩さんと、お店の人が話しています。
Peter: As it's a conversation between a customer and a staff member, you'll hear ...
Naomi: とても丁寧な日本語
Peter: extremely formal Japanese.
Naomi: では、聞きましょう。
Peter: Let’s listen to the conversation.
DIALOGUE
遠井歩:もしもし?…え?まだ会社?
: じゃ、先に お店に 入るね。
店員:いらっしゃいませ。
遠井歩:こんばんは。
: 六時から 二名で 予約を いたしました、遠井と 申します。
店員:申し訳ございません。もう一度、お名前を 伺ってもいいですか。
遠井歩:と・お・いです。
店員:失礼いたしました。遠井様ですね。コートを お預かりします。
: では、こちらへ どうぞ。
大空風歌:あ、お姉ちゃん!
遠井歩:あなたは、この間の・・・。
大空風歌:風歌だよ。
大空風歌:今日、パパの お誕生日なの。
: だから、みんなで、おすしを 食べているの。
: こっちに 来て、お姉ちゃんも 一緒に 食べよう。
Naomi: もう一度、お願いします。今度は、ゆっくり、お願いします。
遠井歩:もしもし?…え?まだ会社?
: じゃ、先に お店に 入るね。
店員:いらっしゃいませ。
遠井歩:こんばんは。
: 六時から 二名で 予約を いたしました、遠井と 申します。
店員:申し訳ございません。もう一度、お名前を 伺ってもいいですか。
遠井歩:と・お・いです。
店員:失礼いたしました。遠井様ですね。コートを お預かりします。
: では、こちらへ どうぞ。
大空風歌:あ、お姉ちゃん!
遠井歩:あなたは、この間の・・・。
大空風歌:風歌だよ。
大空風歌:今日、パパの お誕生日なの。
: だから、みんなで、おすしを 食べているの。
: こっちに 来て、お姉ちゃんも 一緒に 食べよう。
Naomi: 今度は、英語が入ります。
遠井歩:もしもし?…え?まだ会社?
Lady: Hello? Huh? You're still at the office?
: じゃ、先に お店に 入るね。
Lady: Then I'll go on ahead into the restaurant.
店員:いらっしゃいませ。
Lady: Welcome.
遠井歩:こんばんは。六時から 二名で 予約を いたしました、遠井と 申します。
Lady: Good evening. My name is Toi; I made a reservation for two at six o'clock.
店員:申し訳ございません。もう一度、お名前を 伺ってもいいですか。
Lady: I'm terribly sorry, could I ask your name one more time?
遠井歩:と・お・いです。
Lady: It's T-o-i.
店員:失礼いたしました。遠井様ですね。
Lady: Excuse me. Ms. Toi, correct?
店員: コートを お預かりします。
Lady: Allow me to take your coat.
: では、こちらへ どうぞ。
Lady: This way, please.
大空風歌:あ、お姉ちゃん!
Lady: Ah, the lady from before!
遠井歩:あなたは、この間の・・・。
Lady: It's you from the other day, you're…
大空風歌:風歌だよ。
Lady: Fūka!
遠井歩:どうしたの?
Lady: What brings you here?
大空風歌:今日、パパの お誕生日なの。
Lady: Today is Daddy's birthday!
: だから、みんなで、おすしを 食べているの。
Lady: So we're all eating sushi together.
: こっちに 来て、お姉ちゃんも 一緒に 食べよう。
Peter: Come over here and eat with us!
POST CONVERSATION BANTER
Peter: 高そうですね。
Naomi: うん。
Peter: It sounds like this restaurant is a pretty high-end.
Naomi: そうですね。You can tell from the way the staff member talks. She speaks super politely.
Peter: And Ayumu is also speaking super politely, isn't she?
Naomi: ああ、そうね。
Peter: She's a customer, so she doesn't need to be that polite, right? I mean, if you're a customer your social level is basically higher than any of the staff members, right?
Naomi: そうですね。 Technically, you don't have to be that polite at a restaurants or shops. But it's more like a matter of dignity. You know. If you speak politely, it sounds like you're well-groomed and educated. If you speak too casually, it sounds...you know.
Peter: maybe...a little rude?
Naomi: Or rough.
Peter: I like rough better.
Naomi: So... I'd say adults often use super polite language to keep their dignity.
Peter: You know, ah...I went to a restaurant once very nice restaurants and not just one.
Naomi: (笑)
Peter: I’ve been to other nice restaurants. But we were in Japan we went to this nice restaurant. And the person you are with was the host, so it was of course, a given that they
would order for us. But the person who's ordering was a businessman who worked at a very big Japanese company, so he was very experienced with the different levels, obviously people above him and of course people below him. So when he ordered he use the verb もらう in the plain form. And.. I don't know for me, it felt like you said a little rough that he was acknowledging that I’m the customer I'm a superior position than you, so just bring the stuff.
Naomi: Umm..
Peter: Rather make a polite either by saying もらいます making that polite or saying いただく using plain form of a more polite word.
Naomi: そうね。人によるんですよね。 I’d say women tend to use polite language at shops or restaurants, but men tend to, you know, be a little rough to show that they are above the staff. Does it make sense?
Peter: Ye, that makes sense. And again you're not wrong. It's just as Naomi sensei said it can come off as being a little rough. And of course there's some people like that being with someone who expresses their kinda dominant position.
Naomi: そうね。
Peter: Not wrong, we’re just trying to introduce you to the subtleties.
VOCAB LIST
Peter: Let's take a look at the vocabulary for this lesson.
The first word is:
Naomi: 先に [natural native speed]
Peter: ahead, first
Naomi: 先に [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Naomi: 先に [natural native speed]
Next:
Naomi: 伺う [natural native speed]
Peter: (humble language) to visit, to ask
Naomi: 伺う [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Naomi: 伺う [natural native speed]
Next:
Naomi: いたす [natural native speed]
Peter: (humble language) to do
Naomi: いたす [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Naomi: いたす [natural native speed]
Next:
Naomi: 預かる [natural native speed]
Peter: to look after, to keep in custody, to keep
Naomi: 預かる [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Naomi: 預かる [natural native speed]
Next:
Naomi: この間 [natural native speed]
Peter: the other day
Naomi: この間 [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Naomi: この間 [natural native speed]
VOCAB AND PHRASE USAGE
Peter: Let's have a closer look at the usage for some of the words and phrases from this lesson. Naomi-sensei. What’s the first word we are going to look at?
Naomi: いたす
Peter: Humble language, or the humble way to say "to do"
Naomi: そうです。「する」 and 「いたす」 basically mean the same thing. It's just that いたす is super polite and is used to describe your own actions.
Peter: Let us explain with some examples. How do you say "excuse me"?
Naomi: 失礼します
Peter: Now this sentence is already formal. But when you need to even more polite replace (します) with (いたします) which is the masu form of the verb (いたす). So the expression becomes?
Naomi: 失礼いたします。
Peter: This means "Excuse me" in a politer tone. Maybe something like "excuse me, ma'am" or "excuse me, sir".
Naomi: うん、そうですね。And in the dialogue we have...失礼いたしました。
Peter: "Excuse me, sir. Excuse me, ma'am."
Naomi: いたしました is in the past tense.
Peter: Right. When you want to say "Excuse me" for something you've already done, the past tense is used.
Naomi: Um.
Peter: OK. Can we hear those phrases again? The regular, formal way to say "Excuse me"
Naomi: 失礼します
Peter: And the super extremely polite way to say "Excuse me".
Naomi: 失礼いたします
Peter: The formal way to say "excuse me" for something you've already done.
Naomi: 失礼しました
Peter: The super polite way to say "excuse me" for something you've already done.
Naomi: 失礼いたしました
Peter: On to the grammar point.

Lesson focus

Peter: In this lesson, you'll learn how to be extra formal, extremely formal using kenjō-go or humble language. So Naomi-sensei, what is kenjō-go, or humble language?
Naomi: Well...when you use 謙譲語 or humble language, you elevate the status of the listening party and lower your own status. It's like a seesaw or classic scale balance. You use it to describe your own actions.
Peter: Right. Remember that the basic function of kenjō-go is to lower the status of the subject, so it's usually used to describe your own actions.
Naomi: そうです。The concept is a little difficult but forming the humble form of verbs is not so bad. The formation is ... O+[masu stem of a verb] +suru or shimasu.
Peter: Now this is for the majority of verbs when you want to put them into 謙譲語 There are a couple up unusual cases and rare cases exceptions which we actually introduced. But what we're gonna cover now is the general rule for using humble language. Okay? Let's try to make a regular verb into the humble form. Naomi-sensei. How do you say "to hold, or to have"?
Naomi: 持つ
Peter: The masu form?
Naomi: 持ちます
Peter: Now, drop masu to get the masu stem
Naomi: もち
Peter: Now, add to the beginning, the honorific prefix "o" お
Naomi: おもち
Peter:  Finally we attach?
Naomi: する
Peter: And we get?
Naomi: おもちする Here's a sample sentence. かばん、お持ちします。
Peter: Literally,"I'll have your bag" but it means "I'll take or carry your bag."
Let's do another example. How do you say "to meet"?
Naomi: 会う
Peter: The masu form is?
Naomi: 会います
Peter: Masu stem is
Naomi: あい
Peter: Add the honorific prefix "o" to the beginning of it
Naomi: おあい
Peter: Now attach suru
Naomi: お会いする Here's a sample sentence. 昨日 お客さんとお会いしました。
Peter: I met with a client yesterday.
Peter: Now, as we kind of set before, not all verbs have their own humble form. Some of them, like する change to a different verb.
Naomi: Yes. like いたす。
Peter: Okay finally I want to give you one more example and you've actually been using 謙譲語 for probably since you started studying Japanese. Naomi sensei, do you know what I’m talking about?
Naomi: Ahh.. You mean お願いします?
Peter: That’s right. It's taught you as set phrase but it really comes from this. The verb is..?
Naomi: ねがう to wish
Peter: the masu-tem is..?
Naomi: ねがいます
Peter: Drop the masu?
Naomi: ねがい
Peter attach the honorific prefix..?
Naomi: お ねがい
Peter: And then we add
Naomi: する
Peter: And the polite form is..?
Naomi: します。お願いします。
Peter: So the expression that we’ve been using over and over again is actually humble language.
Naomi: Hmm
Peter: 謙譲語. OK. Let's review this lesson with a quiz.
Naomi: Sounds good.
Peter: How do you say "I talked with the client."
Naomi: わたしは、お客さんと話しました。
Peter: Now, how would you say it in a humble manner?
[pause]Here's a hint. The humble form of 話す to speak is (お話する)
[pause]And the answer is?
Naomi: わたしはお客さんとお話しました。
Peter: I humbly spoke with the client. Now, listen and repeat. "I humbly spoke with the client."
Naomi: わたしはお客さんとお話しました。
Peter: [pause] OK. Say "I humbly spoke with the client."
Naomi: [pause] わたしはお客さんとお話しました。
Peter: And finally, one of the most difficult things about 謙譲語 and 敬語 humble and honorific speeches is when when exactly to use it.
Naomi: hmm
Peter: Right now, you’d probably hear this much more than you’d use it. And you'll hear it when you are the customer at restaurants, hotels or any type of shop. So if you would have a chance for now, listen and try and pick up the humble language you hear that the staff is using towards you. At this time when they're speaking, they are lowering their status. And at the same time, probably saying something to elevate yours.
Peter: OK.That's all for this lesson. We only introduced the regular humble form of a verb. But there are also irregular ones, so be sure to read the lesson notes and memorize all the irregular verbs as well.
Naomi: 頑張ってください。じゃ、また。
Peter: See you next lesson.

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