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Lesson Transcript

Naomi: Naomiです。
Peter: Peter here. It’s always sunny in Japan. This series continues from Newbie series season 2 Nihongo Dojo "Welcome to Style You", Newbie series season 3 Nihongo Dojo "Style You and beyond, and Beginner series season 4.
Peter: In this lesson you will learn…
Naomi: 天気予報の言葉とフレーズ
Expressions used in a weather forecast. This conversation takes place at...
Naomi: テレビ局
Peter: A T.V. Station. The conversation is between a TV crew and a weather forecaster, right?
Naomi: そうですね。 You hear the 天気予報 or weather forecast in Japanese.
Peter: Now, since the weather forecaster is talking to the viewers at home, she is using...
Naomi: 丁寧な日本語. 
Peter: Formal Japanese. Let’s have a listen to the conversation.

Lesson conversation

男: 五秒前、四、三、二、一
遠井 歩:みなさん、おはようございます。遠井歩(とおいあゆむ)の天気予報の時間です。
今日、東京は とても寒くなるでしょう。天気は晴れ のち くもりでしょう。
朝は 晴れますが、午後から くもるでしょう。夕方からは 雨でしょう。
ところによって 雪が 降るかもしれません。
外出の時、暖かいコートと 傘を 忘れないでくださいね。
それでは、みなさん今日も 頑張りましょう。
遠井 歩:ふー。お疲れ様です。
Naomi: もう一度、お願いします。 今度は、ゆっくり、お願いします。
男: 五秒前、四、三、二、一
遠井 歩:みなさん、おはようございます。遠井歩(とおいあゆむ)の天気予報の時間です。
今日、東京は とても寒くなるでしょう。天気は晴れ のち くもりでしょう。
朝は 晴れますが、午後から くもるでしょう。夕方からは 雨でしょう。
ところによって 雪が 降るかもしれません。
外出の時、暖かいコートと 傘を 忘れないでくださいね。
それでは、みなさん今日も 頑張りましょう。
遠井 歩:ふー。お疲れ様です。
Naomi: 今度は、英語が入ります。
男: 五秒前、四、三、二、一
Lady: Five seconds remaining, four, three, two, one.
遠井 歩:みなさん、おはようございます。遠井歩(とおいあゆむ)の天気予報の時間です。
Lady: Good morning, everybody. It's time for the weather forecast with Ayumu Tōi.
: 今日、東京は とても寒くなるでしょう。
Lady: Today, Tokyo will get very cold.
: 天気は晴れ のち くもりでしょう。
Lady: The weather will be clear, followed by clouds later on.
: 朝は 晴れますが、午後から くもるでしょう。
Lady: The morning will be clear, but from the afternoon onward it will become cloudy.
: 夕方からは 雨でしょう。
Lady: Rain is forecast for the evening.
: ところによって 雪が 降るかもしれません。
Lady: Depending on your location, there is a chance of snow.
: 外出の時、暖かいコートと 傘を 忘れないでくださいね。
Lady: If you go out, please don't forget a warm jacket and an umbrella.
: それでは、みなさん今日も 頑張りましょう。
Lady: As always, give it your best today, everyone!
Lady: Okay, cut! That's fine.
Lady: Thank you, Ms. Tōi.
遠井 歩:ふー。お疲れ様です。
Lady: [sigh] Thank you.
Peter: Naomi-sensei, what do you call this person? The weather woman...天気姉さん?
Naomi: ああああ、you mean お天気お姉さん ですね。
Peter: Right. お天気お姉さん・・・かわいいですね。
Naomi: あ、お天気お姉さんが?ああ、そうですね。お天気お姉さんは、うん、若くて、かわいいですね。
Peter: So according to Naomi-sensei, お天気お姉さん, or weather ladies, are usually young and pretty.
Naomi: うん。で、お金持ちとか、スポーツ選手とかと結婚しますね。
Peter: And most of them get married to sports players or rich people or the like.
Naomi: そうそうそうそう。Maybe I'm stereotyping too much, I don't know! (笑)
Peter: その通りですね。
Naomi: Ah, そう思う? Do you agree?
Peter: I agree. But I think it's actually interesting that in Japan it's お天気お姉さん, like 'the weather woman'.
Naomi: Mm. そう。There's usually no お天気お兄さん.
Peter: Or 'weather guys', or 'weather man'. And in the US there are usually a lot of weather men.
Naomi: あ、そう?
Peter: And usually a guy is doing the weather man.
Naomi: ふーん。おもしろいですね。
Peter: So usually young women are doing the weather forecast.
Naomi: そうですね。
Peter: Ok. Let's take a look at the vocabulary.
First word:
秒 [natural native speed]
秒 [slowly - broken down by syllable]
秒 [natural native speed]
天気予報 [natural native speed]
weather forecast
天気予報 [slowly - broken down by syllable]
天気予報 [natural native speed]
夕方 [natural native speed]
夕方 [slowly - broken down by syllable]
夕方 [natural native speed]
雪 [natural native speed]
snow, snowy
雪 [slowly - broken down by syllable]
雪 [natural native speed]
外出 [natural native speed]
outing, trip, going out
外出 [slowly - broken down by syllable]
外出 [natural native speed]
Peter: Let's take a closer look at the usage for some of the words and phrases from this lesson.
Peter: Naomi-sensei? What's the first word we're looking at?
Naomi: 頑張る
Peter: to try one's best, to hang in there.
Naomi: This word is often used in the te-form right? Like 頑張ってください.
Peter: Which in English means "Do your best", or "Hang in there". And, I think it's used in the same way as "Good luck" in English.
Naomi: うん、そうだと思います。I think so too. I'd translate 頑張ってください or 頑張って as "Good luck".
Peter: Of course this is a kind of relative, and dependent on the context in which it's used. In the dialogue, the weather woman said in the weather forecast,
Naomi: 頑張りましょう.
Peter: 'Let's do our best', or 'let's give our best'.
Naomi: うん、Of course, she could have said 頑張ってください。"Give it your best." "Do your best". That'll work too.
Peter: Now, がんばりましょう。 You learned this grammatical structure in Beginner Series Season 4. And this is a verb stem plus ましょう. If you are not familiar with this grammar point, please review Beginner series season 4 Lesson 33.
Peter: Ok. Next, we are going to go over the announce of describe the weather. Naomi-sensei, ‘Sunny’ is?
Naomi: 晴れ
Peter: 'Cloudy' is?
Naomi: くもり
Peter: 'Rain' or 'shower' is?
Naomi: 雨
Peter: There are corresponding verbs listed in the lesson notes, so be sure to read those.
Naomi: Also, I'd like to introduce two phrases often used in weather forecast, which are ときどき(sometimes, occasionally) and のち(later, after)
Peter: Can we hear a sample sentence using ときどき?
Naomi: 晴れときどきくもり.
Peter: 'Clear, partly cloudy'. Literally 'Clear, sometimes clouds' or 'Sometimes cloudy'. Now how about the sample sentence using のち?
Naomi: くもりのちあめ.
Peter: 'Cloudy conditions followed by rain'. And Naomi-sensei.
Naomi: はい。.
Peter: This word のち is a pretty formal word, right?
Naomi: そうですね。
Peter: So it's not something you'd use in a conversation with your friends.
Naomi: そうですね。
Peter: Remember this is a television conversation, so they're being pretty formal, because they're presenting to everybody watching.
Naomi: うん。.
Peter: So this のち is quite formal. How about if you were talking with your friends? How would you say this?
Naomi: Ah, ok. Noun plus のあと.
Peter: Yeah.
Naomi: That grammar will be explained in the PDF of the next lesson.
Peter: OK, on to the Grammar Section.

Lesson focus

Peter: In this lesson, you'll learn how to talk about predictions using some new sentence-ending expressions. Now, these expressions are used to talk about probability, possibility or the speaker's guess about something. We're going to introduce four sentence-ending expressions. The first two expressions we're going to look at are...
Naomi: だろう (darō) and でしょう (deshō).
Peter: Darō, and the formal, deshō. These express the speaker's guess or prediction about something and is similar to "probably" in English. The speaker's guess is based on some information or knowledge they have. In the dialogue, the weather forecaster said...
Naomi: 天気は晴れ のち くもりでしょう。
Peter: "The weather will be clear, followed by clouds later on." Split this sentence down.
Naomi: はい。天気は (As for the weather) 晴れ(sunny)のち(after, or later)くもり(cloudy)でしょう(probably)
Peter: So literally, "As for the weather, sunny after cloudy probably". Of course in more natural English it means "The weather will be clear, followed by clouds later on." And, please notice that でしょう follows a noun.
Naomi: そうですね。
Peter: And here, でしょう has a pretty high degree of certainty - at least higher than the other expressions we're going to introduce.
Naomi: そうですね。 For affirmative sentences, だろう or でしょう follows the dictionary form of a verb or adjective. And for negative sentences, だろう or でしょう follows the informal negative form of a verb or adjective.
Peter: And please note, the only difference between だろう and でしょう is just the politeness level.
Naomi: Right.
Peter: So if I was speaking with my friend, I could use だろう. But in formal situations, でしょう.
Naomi: そうですね。
Peter: But the meaning is exactly the same.
Peter: OK Naomi-sensei, let's look at some examples. First how do you say "It will rain"?
Naomi: 雨が降る.
Peter: How about "It will probably rain"? And again, 'probably' here has a pretty high degree of certainty.
Naomi: 雨が降る だろう.
Peter: And in this case this is informal Japanese, so kind of give some context, maybe a husband and wife riding the train and looking at a very cloudy sky with low clouds and kind of dark clouds? So 雨が降るだろう - pretty high degree of certainty that it's going to rain.
Naomi: はい. And 雨が降るでしょう.
Peter: Same exact meaning, just a higher degree of politeness; and, this is something that again you would hear on the news.
Naomi: Right.
Peter: Now, Naomi-sensei, how do you say "It won't rain"?
Naomi: 雨が降らない.
Peter: Ok. How about "It probably won't rain"?
Naomi: For informal situations, 雨が降らないだろう, and for formal situations, 雨が降らないでしょう.
Peter: OK. On to the next expressions.
Naomi: かもしれない [ kamoshirenai ] and かもしれません [ kamoshiremasen ]
Peter: かもしれない and its formal counterpart かもしれません express probability. Now, it indicates that something is possible, but that the speaker is uncertain whether sure or not. It's similar to the English "might" or "maybe". Now remember this is a lower degree of certainty than the expressions we just introduced of だろう and でしょう.
Naomi: The formation is the same as だろう and でしょう。They also follow the informal form of a verb or adjective.
For example, 雨が降るかもしれない or 雨が降るかもしれません。
Peter: "It might rain."
So, Naomi-sensei, for the sentence, 雨が降るでしょう and 雨が降るかもしれません, which has a higher possibility or probability.
Naomi: I would say だろう or でしょう has higher probability. And でしょう is the one the weather forecaster usually uses.
Peter: For the forecaster predicting.
Naomi: そうですね。Of course they use かもしれません if the probability is low.
Peter: Kind of for uncertainty, if they're not quite sure.
Naomi: そうそうそう。
Peter: Or less confident. In the dialogue, the woman said...
Naomi: ところによって 雪が 降るかもしれません。
Peter: So, "depending on your location, there is a chance of snow."
Naomi: うん、雪が降るかもしれません. "There's a chance of snow." So...雨が降るかもしれません would be?
Peter: "There's a chance of rain." ところによって is a good phrase to know.
Naomi: ああ、そうですね。Right. ところ means "place". ~による is "depend on"
Peter:  So, 人による is "depends on the person". 日による is "depends on the day".
Naomi: そうですね。ピーターの態度は日によりますね。(笑:フフフフ)
Peter: So, 'Peter's attitude kind of changes depending on the day.'
Naomi: And mood. (笑)
Peter: OK, and one more point. I just want to revisit something about かもしれません. This is the most polite way, and the informal way is かもしれない. But often, in very casual conversations, you can hear かも.
Naomi: Ah, actually, I use it a lot!
Peter: So see, ultra-short version.
Naomi: そう。「かも」。
Peter: Yeah. 'Maybe'. So the same level of certainty, but it's just a very short version.
Naomi: Right. 「かも」は便利かも。 
Peter: 'The sentence-ending phrase かも may be useful.'
Naomi: はい。
Peter: Naomi-sensei's little play on words! OK, in the lesson notes, there's a reference for the grammar used in the dialogue. We tell you which lessons contain the grammar seen in the lesson so that you can go back and review if needed! That’s going to do it.
Naomi: じゃあ、また。


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