Dialogue

Vocabulary

Learn New Words FAST with this Lesson’s Vocab Review List

Get this lesson’s key vocab, their translations and pronunciations. Sign up for your Free Lifetime Account Now and get 7 Days of Premium Access including this feature.

Or sign up using Facebook
Already a Member?

Lesson Notes

Unlock In-Depth Explanations & Exclusive Takeaways with Printable Lesson Notes

Unlock Lesson Notes and Transcripts for every single lesson. Sign Up for a Free Lifetime Account and Get 7 Days of Premium Access.

Or sign up using Facebook
Already a Member?

Lesson Transcript

INTRODUCTION
Naomi: 直美です。
Peter: Peter here. What’s Your Japanese Potential? In this lesson, you learn how to say you cannot do something.
Naomi: Such as もう、食べられない。
Peter: I can’t eat anymore. This conversation takes place at
Naomi: レストランです。
Peter: A restaurant. The conversation is between
Naomi: 下山新さんと上司。
Peter: Mr. Shin Shimoyama and his boss. They are having lunch together.
Naomi: そうですね。お昼ごはんを食べています。
Peter: The boss uses informal Japanese. Mr. Shimoyama uses
Naomi: Formal Japanese.
DIALOGUE
上司: ふー、食べた食べた。もう、食べられない。
下山: ですよね。僕ももう、食べれません。
上司: 下山君、出身は?東京?
下山: ええ。東京の足立区で生まれましたが、父の仕事で色々な国に住みました。シンガポール、南アフリカ、ロシア、ポルトガル、チリ・・・
上司: へぇー。すごいなぁ。じゃ、外国語がペラペラ話せる?
下山: 子供の時、ペラペラでした。でも、今は全然話せません。(笑)
上司: ご兄弟は?
下山: 双子の兄がいました。5歳の時、病気で死にました。
もう一度、お願いします。今度は、ゆっくりお願いします。
上司: ふー、食べた食べた。もう、食べられない。
下山: ですよね。僕ももう、食べれません。
上司: 下山君、出身は?東京?
下山: ええ。東京の足立区で生まれましたが、父の仕事で色々な国に住みました。シンガポール、南アフリカ、ロシア、ポルトガル、チリ・・・
上司: へぇー。すごいなぁ。じゃ、外国語がペラペラ話せる?
下山: 子供の時、ペラペラでした。でも、今は全然話せません。(笑)
上司: ご兄弟は?
下山: 双子の兄がいました。5歳の時、病気で死にました。
今度は、英語が入ります。
上司: ふー、食べた食べた。もう、食べられない。
SUPERIOR : Phew, we ate it all. I can't eat another bite.
下山: ですよね。僕ももう、食べれません。
SHIMOYAMA : You said it. I'm stuffed, too.
上司: 下山君、出身は?東京?
SUPERIOR : Shimoyama, where are you from? Tokyo?
下山: ええ。東京の足立区で生まれましたが、父の仕事で色々な国に住みました。
SHIMOYAMA : Yes. I was born in Tokyo's Adachi ward, but I've lived in a lot of countries because of my father's job.
シンガポール、南アフリカ、ロシア、ポルトガル、チリ・・・
Singapore, South Africa, Russia, Portugal, Chile...
上司: へぇー。すごいなぁ。じゃ、外国語がペラペラ話せる?
SUPERIOR : Wow, that's amazing. So, you can speak foreign languages fluently?
下山: 子供の時、ペラペラでした。でも、今は全然話せません。(笑)
SHIMOYAMA : I could when I was a child, but not anymore. Haha!
上司: ご兄弟は?
SUPERIOR : Do you have any siblings?
下山: 双子の兄がいました。5歳の時、病気で死にました。
SHIMOYAMA : I did have a twin brother, but he got sick and died when I was five.
POST CONVERSATION BANTER
Peter: 東京の足立区? Is it Haruya another hero on this episode also from 足立区 in Tokyo?
Naomi: ああ、いいポイントですね。そうなんです。大空晴夜さんの出身も東京都足立区なんです。で、下山さんも東京都足立区なんですね。
Peter: でも下山さんのほうが頭がいいですね。 But Mr. Shimoyama is smarter right?
Naomi: ああ、まあそうですね。まあ晴夜さんはいい人ですけどね。で、大空晴夜さんと下山新さんはそっくりなんですね。
Peter: So Haruya and Mr. Shimoyama are identical.
Naomi: そうですね。似てるみたいですよ。あと、下山さんはお父さんの仕事で色々な国に住みましたって言ってましたね。
Peter: So Mr. Shimoyama said, he lived in many countries because of his father’s work.
Naomi: そう。いいですよね。 I wish my father was like that.
Peter: Again what one should pick up here is 仕事で
Naomi: Ah!
Peter: It’s kind of translated on work but here it’s because of work.
Naomi: そうね。 Because of work.
Peter: So related to his father’s work, he lived in many different countries. So why are you here? 仕事で。
Naomi: そうそうそうそうそう。
Peter: Here on business.
Naomi: そうです。
Peter: Let’s take a look at the vocabulary for this lesson.
VOCAB LIST
Peter: What do we have first?
Naomi: 色々
Peter: Various.
Naomi: (slow)いろいろ (natural speed) 色々
Peter: Next
Naomi: 外国語
Peter: Foreign language.
Naomi: (slow)がいこくご (natural speed) 外国語
Peter: Next.
Naomi: 全然
Peter: Not at all.
Naomi: (slow)ぜんぜん (natural speed) 全然
Peter: Next.
Naomi: 病気
Peter: Sickness, illness.
Naomi: (slow)びょうき (natural speed) 病気
Peter: Next.
Naomi: 死ぬ
Peter: To die.
Naomi: (slow)しぬ (natural speed) 死ぬ
VOCAB AND PHRASE USAGE
Peter: Now let’s have a closer look at the usage for some of the words and phrases from this lesson. Naomi sensei, what’s the first word we will look at?
Naomi: 死ぬ
Peter: To die.
Naomi: This is similar word which is 亡くなる
Peter: Umm 死ぬと亡くなるは一緒ですか? So is 死ぬ to die and 亡くなる to become nothing kind of a literal translation here. Are they the same?
Naomi: うーん。亡くなる is a euphemism for 死ぬ but you cannot use 亡くなる for animals.
Peter: I think a pretty good translation for this would be to pass away.
Naomi: そう。 to pass away ていう感じだと思います。
Peter: So now animal lovers out there, please don’t get angry but similar to English, I don’t think you would say my animal passed away.
Naomi: Same in Japanese, you cannot probably say 犬が亡くなりました。
Peter: Although I don’t know in the 21st century, probably people do use it.
Naomi: そうかもね。
Peter: 想像できるでしょ。 Like I can imagine it but it’s very similar to that kind of expression in English to pass away and to die. Naomi sensei, jumping back to the example you gave, you wouldn’t say 犬が亡くなりました。 my dog passed away but rather 犬が
Naomi: 死にました
Peter: So my dog died. Now if you want to add the cause, you use the particle
Naomi: で
Peter: As in the dialogue.
Naomi: そうですね。
Peter: Not that we used it in this context as someone passed away but で as the reason. In the dialogue, we had the reason for him living overseas was his father’s work. Here we will use で to mark the reason the cause of death.
Naomi: 病気で犬が死にました。
Peter: My dog died from illness.
Naomi: 事故で犬が死にました。
Peter: My dog died from the traffic accident. So in Japanese で the particle で is used in many situations here marking the reason. Notice how the English translation often changes. We had on business 仕事で, from illness 病気で. The English particle changes but the Japanese particle is the same and again explaining the reason. The next word is
Naomi: 時
Peter: When or at the time when. Now in the dialogue we had noun plus the particle の and 時
Naomi: For example 子供の時
Peter: In one’s childhood, when one was a child.
Naomi: 5歳の時
Peter: When someone was 5. Now Naomi sensei, how would you say when I was a student?
Naomi: Student in Japanese is 学生 So
Peter: 学生の時
Naomi: そうですね。よくできました。
Peter: ありがとうございます。 Like a student. 今学生みたい。 So you take the noun followed by the particle の and follow it with
Naomi: 時
Peter: 学生の時。When I was a student.
Naomi: 悪い子でした。とかね。
Peter: You were bad when you were a student. On to the grammar point.

Lesson focus

Peter: In this lesson, we are going to learn how to say I cannot do something. Now in the previous two lessons, we learned how to make the potential form of class 1, 2 and 3 verbs. Now when we change a verb to its potential form, it becomes a class 2 verb and then we can conjugate accordingly. Now this may sound a little complicated but we are going to break it all down right now. So Naomi Sensei, can we first have an example from the dialogue?
Naomi: 全然話せません。
Peter: I can’t speak it all. Now can you put the subject and object in the sentence and say the sentence again?
Naomi: はい。私は全然外国語が話せません。
Peter: I cannot speak foreign languages at all. So 話せません is
Naomi: Cannot speak.
Peter: Now let’s explain how 話せません is conjugated. Naomi Sensei, what is the verb to speak or to talk?
Naomi: 話す
Peter: So we start out with the verb 話す which is the class 1 verb. Now the potential form is
Naomi: 話せる
Peter: す becomes
Naomi: せる
Peter: Now the informal negative form or the ない form is
Naomi: 話せない
Peter: Cannot speak. So you can get the negative form of the potential form of a verb by replacing the final る with
Naomi: ない
Peter: Just like other class 2 verbs. So let’s just reinforce this with a few examples. So 話せる can speak becomes
Naomi: 話せない
Peter: Cannot speak.
Naomi: 食べられる
Peter: Can eat becomes.
Naomi: 食べられない
Peter: Cannot eat.
Naomi: できる
Peter: Can do becomes
Naomi: できない
Peter: Cannot do.
Naomi: 止められる
Peter: Can quit becomes.
Naomi: 止められない
Peter: Cannot quit.
Naomi: 私はタバコを吸いません。お酒も飲みません。
Peter: え、本当ですか。 You don’t smoke I know but you don’t drink?
Naomi: Just a little bit. ちょっとだけね。でも、私は甘いものが止められないですね。
Peter: So Naomi Sensei said, she doesn’t smoke, she doesn’t drink but she can’t give up sweets.
Naomi: そう。ピーターは?
Peter: あの、私は仕事が止められません。
Naomi: 仕事ね。ちょっと中毒ですからね。 You are a workaholic.
Peter: Yes I can’t stop working.
Naomi: 皆さんは何が止められませんか。教えてください。
Peter: So please share with us something that you can’t give up.
Naomi: Hopefully your answer is JapanesePod101.com を止められません、とかね。

Outro

Peter: Okay before we go, we want to tell you about a way to drastically improve your pronunciation.
Naomi: The voice recording tool.
Peter: Yep. The voice recording tool in the premium learning center.
Naomi: Record your own voice with a click of a button.
Peter: And then easily play it back again and again.
Naomi: So you record your own voice and then listen to it.
Peter: And it’s on the same page as line by line. So you can compare your voice, the way you pronounce it to the native speaker.
Naomi: And adjust your pronunciation.
Peter: This will help you improve fast. Now that just about does it for today.
Naomi: じゃあ、また。

Grammar

Japanese Grammar Made Easy - Unlock This Lesson’s Grammar Guide

Easily master this lesson’s grammar points with in-depth explanations and examples. Sign up for your Free Lifetime Account and get 7 Days of Premium Access including this feature.

Or sign up using Facebook
Already a Member?

Kanji

Review & Remember All Kanji from this Lesson

Get complete breakdowns, review with quizzes and download printable practice sheets! Sign up for your Free Lifetime Account Now and get 7 Days of Premium Access including this feature.

Or sign up using Facebook
Already a Member?

91 Comments

Hide
Please to leave a comment.
😄 😞 😳 😁 😒 😎 😠 😆 😅 😜 😉 😭 😇 😴 😮 😈 ❤️️ 👍

JapanesePod101.com Verified
May 19th, 2009 at 06:30 PM
Pinned Comment
Your comment is awaiting moderation.

みなさん、こんにちは! Tell us about something you can't do using what you've learned!

JapanesePod101.com Verified
August 17th, 2020 at 09:08 PM
Your comment is awaiting moderation.

Ashleshaさん


コメントありがとうございます😄

He could be😮

Please let us know if you have any questions :)


Sincerely

Ryoma

Team JapanesePod101.com

Ashlesha
August 16th, 2020 at 07:44 AM
Your comment is awaiting moderation.

Is haruya shin's twin brother ?

JapanesePod101.com Verified
August 13th, 2020 at 04:22 PM
Your comment is awaiting moderation.

Hi dada,


Thank you for your comment!


In this lesson, we learned one of the various usages of the particle で.

で can indicate a weak causal relationship between two conditions or events,

which means で indicates reason, like "because of..." or "due to..."

So "ani wa go-sai no toki byōki de shinimashita" means

"my brother died of a disease when he was five years."


Hope this helps:)


Sincerely,

Miho

Team JapanesePod101.com

dada
August 8th, 2020 at 03:21 PM
Your comment is awaiting moderation.

about the casual relationship in de particle

i don't get it team san

chichi no shigoto de iroiro kuni ni sundeimasu. i understand this one.

like there are two phrases and the de particle connects them as a whole

my father's job have been living in various countries

ani wa go-sai no toki byouki de shinimashita

when my brother was 5 years old sick died

arigatou team san. gomenasai

i finally understand the minna de hitori de arigatou ryoma-san

JapanesePod101.com Verified
August 7th, 2020 at 03:49 PM
Your comment is awaiting moderation.

dadaさん


That use of "de" in "minna de" o "hitori de" is like "as a unit / group."😇

Minna de resutoran ni ikimasu. = We're going to a restaurant as a whole group (In English, it'll be "with everyone").

Hitori de sundeimasu. = I live by myself (Here it means that your group has only you).

Kazoku de eiga o mimasu. = I watch a movie as a family (In English, it'll be "with my family").


Sincerely

Ryoma

Team JapanesePod101.com

dada
August 6th, 2020 at 03:38 PM
Your comment is awaiting moderation.

i already understand the location of the action, transportation, what is it called it this language, and the phrase you told us to memorize the koko de ii desu. the agent particle where we use de in minna de hitori de is still beyond my understanding. arigatou team san

JapanesePod101.com Verified
August 6th, 2020 at 02:35 PM
Your comment is awaiting moderation.

dadaさん


Thank you so much for your comment😄

We have a couple of different lessons on the de particle. Which one are you talking about? Could you tell us what exactly you need help with? so that we can help you better since the de particle has several functions.

The potential form is shorter and more colloquial than koto ga dekiru, so we tend to use it more in informal settings. Koto ga dekiru can be used in formal settings.


Please let us know if you have any questions :)


Sincerely

Ryoma

Team JapanesePod101.com

dada
August 6th, 2020 at 07:05 AM
Your comment is awaiting moderation.

when do we use the potential form and koto ga dekiru?

arigatou team san

dada
August 5th, 2020 at 10:36 PM
Your comment is awaiting moderation.

i need help regarding the lesson about de particle.

and also how to compare verbs things

watching anime makes me feel good better than sleeping.

arigatou team san

JapanesePod101.com Verified
May 22nd, 2020 at 11:55 AM
Your comment is awaiting moderation.

Hi Paris,

Thank you for your comment!


チョコレートは美味しいから、なかなか止められないですよね😄


Thank you for studying with us!


Sincerely,

Erica

Team JapanesePod101.com