Dialogue

Vocabulary

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Lesson Notes

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Lesson Transcript

INTRODUCTION
Naomi: 直美です。
Peter: Peter here. Able-bodied Japanese. In this lesson, we will learn how to express possibility or ability. For example, I can drive a car.
Naomi: 私は車が運転できます。
Peter: This conversation takes place at
Naomi: 会社です。
Peter: An office. The conversation is between
Naomi: 下山新さんと上司。
Peter: Mr. Shin Shimoyama and his boss. The boss uses informal Japanese and Mr. Shimoyama uses
Naomi: Formal Japanese.
DIALOGUE
下山 新: はい、下山です。
上司: 前田です。お疲れ様。
下山君、今からちょっと出られる?
下山 新: ええ...まぁ。でも、どうしてですか。
上司: 昼飯食べに行かない?おごるよ。
下山 新: お!めずらしい!ごちそう様です。
上司: 辛いものは食べられる?
下山 新: ええ、食べれます。
上司: じゃ、食べ放題の韓国料理屋に行こう。じゃ、十五分後にロビーに来られる?
下山 新: はい。行けます。じゃ、十五分後に。
もう一度、お願いします。今度は、ゆっくりお願いします。
下山 新: はい、下山です。
上司: 前田です。お疲れ様。
下山君、今からちょっと出られる?
下山 新: ええ...まぁ。でも、どうしてですか。
上司: 昼飯食べに行かない?おごるよ。
下山 新: お!めずらしい!ごちそう様です。
上司: 辛いものは食べられる?
下山 新: ええ、食べれます。
上司: じゃ、食べ放題の韓国料理屋に行こう。じゃ、十五分後にロビーに来られる?
下山 新: はい。行けます。じゃ、十五分後に。
今度は、英語が入ります。
下山 新: はい、下山です。
SHIN SHIMOYAMA :Hello, Shimoyama here.
上司: 前田です。お疲れ様。下山君、今からちょっと出られる?
SUPERIOR : This is Maeda. Can you come out for a moment Shimoyama?
下山 新: ええ...まぁ。でも、どうしてですか。
SHIN SHIMOYAMA :Uh well... Sure. But what is this about?
上司: 昼飯食べに行かない?おごるよ。
SUPERIOR : Why don't we go out for lunch? My treat.
下山 新: お!めずらしい!ごちそう様です。
SHIN SHIMOYAMA :Wow! Well this is unusual! Thank you.
上司: 辛いものは食べられる?
SUPERIOR : Can you eat spicy foods?
下山 新: ええ、食べれます。
SHIN SHIMOYAMA :Sure I can.
上司: じゃ、食べ放題の韓国料理屋に行こう。
SUPERIOR : Alright, then let's go to the all you can eat Korean place.
じゃ、十五分後にロビーに来られる?
Can you meet me in the lobby in 15 minutes?
下山 新: はい。行けます。じゃ、十五分後に。
SHIN SHIMOYAMA :Yes, that should be fine. Alright, I'll see you in 15 minutes.
POST CONVERSATION BANTER
Naomi: この二人、仲がいいでしょうね。
Peter: So they must have a good relationship. え、どうして? Why do you think so?
Naomi: だって下山さん said, お、珍しい。ごちそうさまです。
Peter: You are going to buy me lunch. It’s not like you. Thank you very much. Actually ごちそうさま is a really good phrase especially when you want someone to pay your bill.
Naomi: そうそうそう。 Put the bill away. あ、ピーターさん、ごちそうさまです。
Peter: So you are saying, ah Peter, thanks for the meal.
Naomi: そうそうそう。
Peter: So you are kind of hinting at me to pay for the meal or you could be more direct and say, おごってください。
Naomi: ああ、慣れてますね。 Sounds like you use that phrase quite often.
Peter: Yeah when I was a student especially.
Naomi: おごってください。先輩!
Peter: で、直美先生もよく使いますね。
Naomi: いや、これね、使わないです。
Peter: え~ごちそうさま。 I have heard you say it several times with me.
Naomi: ああ、そうそうそう。 I use ごちそうさま quite a lot but not おごってください。絶対言わないです。おごってくださいは。 I never say おごってください because it’s too direct.
Peter: Yes Naomi Sensei prefers more indirect ways like ごちそうさま or her favorite line is 財布忘れました。 I forgot my wallet. That’s a pretty good one too.
Naomi: そうね。私たまに使いますね。
Peter: 多分、よく… Not once in a while. Okay on to the vocabulary for this lesson.
VOCAB LIST
Peter: First word.
Naomi: 珍しい
Peter: Unusual, rare.
Naomi: (slow)めずらしい (natural speed) 珍しい
Peter: Next.
Naomi: ごちそうさま
Peter: I really enjoyed the meal, thank you for the meal.
Naomi: (slow)ごちそうさま (natural speed) ごちそうさま
Peter: Next.
Naomi: 辛い
Peter: Hot, spicy.
Naomi: (slow)からい (natural speed) 辛い
Peter: Next.
Naomi: 食べ放題
Peter: All you can eat.
Naomi: (slow)たべほうだい (natural speed) 食べ放題
Peter: Next.
Naomi: 15分後
Peter: In 50 minutes, 50 minutes later.
Naomi: (slow)じゅうごふんご (natural speed) 15分後
VOCAB AND PHRASE USAGE
Peter: Let’s have a closer look at the usage for some of the words and phrases from this lesson. Naomi sensei, what’s the first word we will look at?
Naomi: 辛い
Peter: Spicy, hot.
Naomi: This kanji can be read as つらい painful or tough.
Peter: So you need to decide the meaning from the context.
Naomi: そうですね。 And I like to introduce some flavor related vocab.
Peter: Okay flavor related vocab.
Naomi: 甘い
Peter: Sweet.
Naomi: 辛い
Peter: Spicy.
Naomi: しょっぱい
Peter: Salty.
Naomi: 苦い
Peter: Bitter.
Naomi: すっぱい
Peter: Sour.
Naomi: そうですね。 Some people might say 塩辛い instead of しょっぱい.
Peter: Really?
Naomi: I never use 塩辛い but I think people from different area use different vocab. So…
Peter: 私は聞いたことないです。 I have never heard of it.
Naomi: 東京の人は使わないかもしれないですね。
Peter: So most likely people in Tokyo don’t use this phrase.
Naomi: 韓国料理は辛いですよね。
Peter: Korean food is quite spicy.
Naomi: コーヒーは?
Peter: 苦いですね。
Naomi: 苦いですね。
Peter: It’s bitter.
Naomi: アメリカのケーキは?
Peter: 甘いですね。 Very sweet. ものすごく甘いですね。 very – super sweet.
Naomi: It’s almost 甘すぎます for me.
Peter: So too sweet for you.
Naomi: うん。時々ね。 Sometimes.
Peter: Okay next we have a phrase.
Naomi: 15分後
Peter: 15 minutes later or in 15 minutes.
Naomi: 15分
Peter: The first part of this means 15 minutes.
Naomi: 後
Peter: Means later. So when we attach 後 to the end of a period of time, it means after that.
Naomi: So an hour is 1時間 So 1時間後 would be
Peter: In an hour. How would you say a week later?
Naomi: A week is 一週間. So 一週間後
Peter: A week later. On to the grammar point.

Lesson focus

Peter: Next. In this lesson, we will learn how to express possibility and ability. In the last lesson, we learned how to do this with class 1 verbs. So in this lesson, we will be focusing on how to conjugate class 2 and class 3 verbs into their potential form. Potential of course just means can. Now Naomi Sensei, can we have a sample sentence from the dialogue?
Naomi: 辛いものは食べられる?
Peter: Can you eat spicy stuff?
Naomi: 辛い
Peter: Spicy.
Naomi: もの
Peter: Stuff.
Naomi: は
Peter: Topic marking particle.
Naomi: 食べられる
Peter: Literally to be able to eat. So literally we have spicy food, can you eat and of course it means, can you eat spicy food.
Naomi: 食べられる means to be able to eat.
Peter: Now to form the potential of class 2 verbs, it’s very, very easy. Simply drop the る and tack on られる. I think the best way to illustrate this is with an example.
Naomi: はい。
Peter: Naomi Sensei, can we have a class 2 verb.
Naomi: 食べる To eat.
Peter: Now we are going to drop the る
Naomi: 食べ
Peter: Now it’s in its masu-stem. To the masu-stem, we are going to tack on
Naomi: られる
Peter: To get
Naomi: 食べられる
Peter: To be able to eat.
Naomi: 私は辛いものが食べられる。
Peter: I can eat spicy food. Let’s have another example. What is the word for to quit.
Naomi: 止める
Peter: Drop the る to get the masu-stem. So drop the る, we have
Naomi: 止め
Peter: Tack on.
Naomi: られる
Peter: And we have
Naomi: 止められる
Peter: So this means to be able to quit.
Naomi: お酒が止められる
Peter: I can quit drinking.
Naomi: タバコが止められる
Peter: I can quit smoking.
Naomi: My friend is a chain smoker and he always says, 僕はいつでもタバコが止められる。
Peter: So he always says, I can quit smoking any time.
Naomi: I don’t think so.
Peter: So Naomi Sensei, I often hear 食べれる or 止めれる instead of 食べられる or 止められる. What’s the main difference here? They are the same thing?
Naomi: Same thing. 両方とも正しいです。Both are correct. レッスンノートに載っているので、読んでください。
Peter: So please check out the PDF to kind of find out the difference but the short story is that it’s much easier to say and hence られる becomes れる.

Outro

Naomi: じゃあ、また。
Peter: See you later.

Grammar

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Kanji

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78 Comments

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JapanesePod101.com Verified
May 12th, 2009 at 06:30 PM
Pinned Comment
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Hi みなさん! With this lesson, we've covered the potential form of all verbs! Feel free to practice them here in the comments! :)

JapanesePod101.com Verified
September 26th, 2020 at 04:15 PM
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チーさん、こんにちは!

コメントどうもありがとうございます。


You're right. Recently Japanese people often drop ら from potential form of Class 2 verbs and the verb 来る

especially in conversation.

食べられる → 食べれる

見れらる → 見れる

来られる → 来れる


This "ra-deletion"(ら抜き) used to be considered mistake, but now it has being commonly used in informal situation.

If you know the correct conjugation, however, I still recommend you to try not to use "ra-deletion."


Hope you enjoy learning Japanese:)


Sincerely,

Miho

Team JapanesePod101.com

チー
September 11th, 2020 at 06:16 PM
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こんにちは!


私は質問があります。

In recent years, which between 「られる」and 「れる」is more commonly used in conversations when conjugating a verb into its potential form?


ありがとうございます!

JapanesePod101.com Verified
August 5th, 2020 at 04:03 PM
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sssさん


Thank you so much for your comment😄

It will be

nihongo ga sukoshi wakarimasu.

Please let us know if you have any questions :)


Sincerely

Ryoma

Team JapanesePod101.com

sss
August 4th, 2020 at 10:16 PM
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nihongo o sukoshi wakarareru desu

i can understand nihongo a little bit

JapanesePod101.com Verified
December 10th, 2019 at 05:44 AM
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Lainさん


こんにちは!

質問ありがとうございます😄

昼ご飯 is formal (even more formal as お昼ご飯) and 昼飯 is informal.


Please let us know if you have any question :)


Sincerely

Ryoma

Team JapanesePod101.com

Lain
November 27th, 2019 at 02:52 AM
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こんにちわ~


昼ご飯 and 昼飯, What is the difference between these two words? ありがとうございます!

JapanesePod101.com Verified
November 21st, 2019 at 02:51 AM
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Sarahさん


Thank you for your question!!

食べます is the present/future tense (formal).

食べることができます and 食べられる are the same. They both mean "to be able to eat."

You can use them interchangeably.


Please let us know if you have a further question :)


Sincerely

Ryoma

Team JapanesePod101.com

Sarah
November 1st, 2019 at 10:39 PM
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What is the difference between 食べます、食べることができます、and 食べられる?Thank you!

JapanesePod101.com Verified
April 26th, 2019 at 07:03 PM
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Konnichiwa ティシー


Thank you for asking here. Wa and Ga particle difference is one of confusing part for Japanese learners. は emphasizes the following word then が emphasizes the preceding word.

Also, Nuance will change depending on wa or ga.

辛い物は食べられる/ I can eat spicy thing.(But not other thing)

辛い物が食べられる/ I can eat spicy thing.

Please check "Notes" in this page: www.japanesepod101.com/learningcenter/reference/grammar/147


Feel free to ask us any questions.

Sono

Team JapanesePod101.com

ティシー
March 2nd, 2019 at 06:50 PM
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辛い物は食べられる。


Why is it the partical は and not the particle が?