Dialogue

Vocabulary

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Lesson Notes

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Lesson Transcript

INTRODUCTION
Natsuko: おはよう、ラオス。ナツコです。(Ohayō, Raosu. Natsuko desu.)
Take: おはよう、ラオス。タケです。(Ohayō, Raosu. Take desu.)
Peter: Peter here. Beginner lesson #77. All right, back in the studio is Natsuko-san and Take-san for round 2 of the potential.
Natsuko: こんにちは。よろしくお願いします。(Kon’nichiwa. Yoroshiku onegai shimasu.)
Peter: Take?
Take: こんにちは。よろしくお願いします。(Kon’nichiwa. Yoroshiku onegai shimasu.)
Natsuko: タケさん、元気ですか。(Take-san, genki desu ka.)
Take: 元気だよ。(Genki da yo.)
Peter: All right, now with that said, let’s get on to today’s lesson. Here we go.
DIALOGUE
夏子 (Natsuko) : 可愛い赤ちゃんですね。(Kawaii akachan desu ne.)
父 (chichi) : ありがとうございます。(Arigatō gozaimasu.)
夏子 (Natsuko) : こんにちは!・・・こんにちは。あれ、(Kon’nichiwa! ... Kon’nichiwa. Are,)
この赤ちゃんは話すことができませんか。(kono akachan wa hanasu koto ga dekimasen ka.)
父 (chichi) : まだ、1歳ですよ。まだ、話すことはできません。(Mada, issai desu yo. Mada, hanasu koto wa dekimasen.)
夏子 (Natsuko) : 歩くことは出来ますか。(Aruku koto wa dekimasu ka.)
父 (chichi) : いいえ、できません。でも、ハイハイすることができます。(Iie, dekimasen. Demo, haihai suru koto ga dekimasu.)
夏子 (Natsuko) : それだけですか。つまらないですね。(Sore dake desu ka. Tsumaranai desu ne.)
父 (chichi) : そんなことありません。ほら。(Sonna koto arimasen. Hora.)
夏子 (Natsuko) : うわー、かわいい笑顔ですね。(Uwā, kawaii egao desu ne.)
Natsuko: もう一度お願いします。ゆっくりお願いします。(Mō ichi-do onegai shimasu. Yukkuri onegai shimasu.)
夏子 (Natsuko) : 可愛い赤ちゃんですね。(Kawaii akachan desu ne.)
父 (chichi) : ありがとうございます。(Arigatō gozaimasu.)
夏子 (Natsuko) : こんにちは!・・・こんにちは。あれ、(Kon’nichiwa! ... Kon’nichiwa. Are,)
この赤ちゃんは話すことができませんか。(kono akachan wa hanasu koto ga dekimasen ka.)
父 (chichi) : まだ、1歳ですよ。まだ、話すことはできません。(Mada, issai desu yo. Mada, hanasu koto wa dekimasen.)
夏子 (Natsuko) : 歩くことは出来ますか。(Aruku koto wa dekimasu ka.)
父 (chichi) : いいえ、できません。でも、ハイハイすることができます。(Iie, dekimasen. Demo, haihai suru koto ga dekimasu.)
夏子 (Natsuko) : それだけですか。つまらないですね。(Sore dake desu ka. Tsumaranai desu ne.)
父 (chichi) : そんなことありません。ほら。(Sonna koto arimasen. Hora.)
夏子 (Natsuko) : うわー、かわいい笑顔ですね。(Uwā, kawaii egao desu ne.)
Take: 次はピーターの英語が入ります。(Tsugi wa Pītā no Eigo ga hairimasu.)
夏子 (Natsuko) : 可愛い赤ちゃんですね。(Kawaii akachan desu ne.)
NATSUKO: What a cute baby!
父 (chichi) : ありがとうございます。(Arigatō gozaimasu.)
FATHER: Thank you.
夏子 (Natsuko) : こんにちは!(Kon’nichiwa!)
NATSUKO: Good afternoon!
夏子 (Natsuko) : ・・・こんにちは。(... Kon’nichiwa.)
NATSUKO: ... Hello.
夏子 (Natsuko) : あれ、(Are,)
NATSUKO: Huh?
夏子 (Natsuko) : この赤ちゃんは話すことができませんか。(kono akachan wa hanasu koto ga dekimasen ka.)
NATSUKO: Can't this baby speak?
父 (chichi) : まだ、1歳ですよ。(Mada, issai desu yo.)
FATHER: He's still one.
父 (chichi) : まだ、話すことはできません。(Mada, hanasu koto wa dekimasen.)
FATHER: He still can't speak.
夏子 (Natsuko) : 歩くことは出来ますか。(Aruku koto wa dekimasu ka.)
NATSUKO: Can he walk?
父 (chichi) : いいえ、できません。(Iie, dekimasen.)
FATHER: No, he can't.
父 (chichi) : でも、ハイハイすることができます。(Demo, haihai suru koto ga dekimasu.)
FATHER: But, he can crawl.
夏子 (Natsuko) : それだけですか。(Sore dake desu ka.)
NATSUKO: That's it?
夏子 (Natsuko) : つまらないですね。(Tsumaranai desu ne.)
NATSUKO: Boring, isn't it?
父 (chichi) : そんなことありません。(Sonna koto arimasen.)
FATHER: No such thing.
父 (chichi) : ほら。(Hora.)
FATHER: Look.
夏子 (Natsuko) : うわー、かわいい笑顔ですね。(Uwā, kawaii egao desu ne.)
NATSUKO: Wow, what a cute smile!
POST CONVERSATION BANTER
Peter: Take-san, what a good dad!
Natsuko: 本当にいいパパですね。(Hontō ni ii papa desu ne.)
Peter: そうですね。びっくりしました。(Sō desu ne. Bikkuri shimashita.)
Take: 人柄が表れてると言うんでしょうかね。(Hitogara ga arawarete ru to iu n deshō ka ne.)
Peter: Very different from Shakespeare, Takahashi.
Natsuko: Very different with 戸辺先生 (Tonabe-sensei), too.
Take: 本当はいい人なんですよ。(Hontō wa ii hito nan desu yo.)
Peter: I believe it. Wow! Natsuko, I am shocked.
VOCAB AND PHRASE USAGE
Peter: Okay, lots of vocab in there. We are going to get right in. Again, joining us for the second day in a row for the vocab section.
Yoshi: ヨシです。(Yoshi desu.)
Peter: よろしくお願いします。(Yoroshiku onegai shimasu.)
Natsuko: よろしくお願いします。(Yoroshiku onegai shimasu.)
Yoshi: こちらこそ、よろしくお願いします。(Kochira koso, yoroshiku onegai shimasu.)
Peter: All right. So without further adieu, let’s get right in. ナツコさん、お願いします。(Natsuko-san, onegai shimasu.)
Natsuko: 最初のキーワードは、赤ちゃん (Saisho no kīwādo wa, akachan)
Peter: Baby.
Natsuko: (slow)あかちゃん (akachan) (natural speed)赤ちゃん (akachan)
Peter: Now Natsuko, what is the character before the ちゃん(chan) in this word?
Natsuko: 赤 (aka)
Peter: Red.
Natsuko: Yes.
Peter: So red plus the suffix ちゃん (chan) equals baby. Natsuko-san, please explain to us why this is?
Natsuko: Ah, I think usually many babies look red with the skin.
Peter: Yeah. Could be.
Natsuko: Especially when they are crying.
Peter: Yes. Ah Natsuko, you are justifying. You are acting in this…
Natsuko: Yes.
Peter: Yeah, what we are going to do is going to take a look into this word why it came out like this. It’s very interesting that they would have the character for red plus ちゃん (chan) as the word for baby. Quite interesting.
Natsuko: Right.
Peter: Yoshi-san, do you have any idea?
Yoshi: Yep.
Peter: Really?
Yoshi: I think so. When mothers give birth to the babies..
Peter: Aaha.
Yoshi: You know they come out really red.
Natsuko: Ah, yes.
Yoshi: I think it came from that.
Peter: Really?
Yoshi: Yeah.
Peter: All right. Well we are going to have to look at this because this is a pretty interesting point in today’s lesson. So stop by japanesepod101.com. We will have more information about this. Interesting, all right. Now we talked about the age. How old was the baby in the conversation?
Natsuko: 1歳 (issai)
Peter: Okay, now what about if he is younger than 1歳 (issai), what can we say?
Natsuko: 9カ月 (kyū-kagetsu)
Peter: Nine months. All right, well how about from when the baby is born up until 1 year? Could you count that out for us, Natsuko-san and Yoshi-san?
Natsuko: 1カ月 (ikkagetsu)
Yoshi: 2カ月 (ni-kagetsu)
Natsuko: 3カ月 (san-kagetsu)
Yoshi: 4カ月 (yon-kagetsu)
Natsuko: 5カ月 (go-kagetsu)
Yoshi: 6カ月 (rokkagetsu)
Natsuko: 7カ月 (nana-kagetsu)
Yoshi: 8カ月 (hachi-kagetsu)
Natsuko: 9カ月 (kyū-kagetsu)
Yoshi: 10カ月 (jukkagetsu)
Natsuko: 11カ月 (jū ikkagetsu)
Yoshi: 12カ月 (jū ni-kagetsu)
Peter: Or
Natsuko: 1歳 (issai)
Peter: Okay, but also sometimes in Japanese, I hear 0歳 (zero-sai)
Natsuko: Yes, sometimes.
Peter: What – can you explain this to us? Like, for example, if you ask Yoshi-san how old his baby is and it’s – how would the answer 0歳 (zero-sai), meaning zero years old come about?
Natsuko: It means he or she is less than 1 year from birth.
Peter: Okay, so instead of saying the exact month, you can also say
Natsuko: 0歳 (zero-sai)
Peter: Okay, can you give us a little example?
Natsuko: ヨシさん、お子さんは何歳ですか。(Yoshi-san, o-ko-san wa nan-sai desu ka.)
Yoshi: 0歳です。(Zero-sai desu.)
Peter: Okay, stop right there. もう一度お願いします。ゆっくりお願いします。(Mō ichi-do onegai shimasu. Yukkuri onegai shimasu.)
Natsuko: ヨシさん、お子さんは何歳ですか。(Yoshi-san, o-ko-san wa nan-sai desu ka.)
Peter: Now what was that word in there, お子さん (o-ko-san)?
Natsuko: お子さん (o-ko-san), yes.
Peter: Break that down.
Natsuko: (slow)おこさん (o-ko-san) (natural speed)お子さん (o-ko-san)
Peter: What does this mean?
Natsuko: It means your child.
Peter: But a very polite way, right?
Natsuko: Yes.
Peter: It has the prefix
Natsuko: お (o)
Peter: And the suffix
Natsuko: さん (san)
Peter: And 子 (ko) is child and the character is the same as child, correct?
Natsuko: Yes.
Peter: All right, again stop by japanesepod101.com to check out that character. お子さん (o-ko-san), it’s a very, very polite way to say this.
Natsuko: Yes, so it’s usually talking about someone else’s child.
Peter: Yes, now you would never refer to your child as お子さん (o-ko-san), right?
Natsuko: No, never.
Peter: Okay, how would you refer to your own baby?
Natsuko: うちの子 (uchi no ko)
Peter: Okay, one more time.
Natsuko: うちの子 (uchi no ko)
Peter: Yoshi, break it down.
Yoshi: (slow)うちのこ (uchi no ko) (natural speed)うちの子 (uchi no ko)
Peter: Now it’s the same 子 (ko). In front, we have the possessive の (no) and in front of that, we have うち (uchi). Now this うち (uchi) is
Natsuko: House.
Peter: All right. So the child of the house.
Natsuko: Yes.
Peter: Okay, thank you very much, Natsuko. It’s all becoming so much clearer now.
Natsuko: Yes, right.
Peter: All right. Yoshi-san, next word.
Yoshi: 次のキーワードは、歩く (Tsugi no kīwādo wa, aruku)
Peter: Walk.
Yoshi: (slow)あるく (aruku) (natural speed)歩く (aruku)
Peter: Now there is also another way to say walk. Now this is just one Chinese character. Now there is also a compound using the same Chinese character found in this word that also means walk. Correct, Natsuko-san?
Natsuko: Yes. 徒歩 (toho)
Peter: And break it down.
Natsuko: (slow)とほ (toho) (natural speed)徒歩 (toho)
Peter: Now the reason we bring this up is because remember, a few weeks ago, we went over how long does it take.
Natsuko: Oh yes.
Peter: Now how would we say from the station to Japanesepod101.com by foot or on foot, it takes 5 minutes.
Natsuko: 駅からジャパニーズポッドまで徒歩で5分かかります。(Eki kara Japanīzupoddo made toho de go-fun kakarimasu.)
Peter: Exactly and give it to us one more time slowly, Yoshi-san.
Yoshi: 駅からジャパニーズポッドまで徒歩で5分かかります。(Eki kara Japanīzupoddo made toho de go-fun kakarimasu.)
Peter: Now here is the keyword in there, by foot.
Natsuko: 徒歩で (toho de)
Peter: Okay, and the particle で (de) marks by foot. All right, next word. ナツコさん、お願いします。(Natsuko-san, onegai shimasu.)
Natsuko: ハイハイ (haihai)
Peter: Crawl.
Natsuko: Yes. (slow)はいはい (haihai) (natural speed)ハイハイ (haihai)
Peter: Crawl. Now I like this word a lot. How do we turn this word into a verb?
Natsuko: ハイハイする (haihai suru)
Peter: Okay, and now our last word is
Yoshi: 次のキーワードは、つまらない (Tsugi no kīwādo wa, tsumaranai)
Peter: Boring.
Yoshi: (slow)つまらない (tsumaranai) (natural speed)つまらない (tsumaranai)
Peter: And we had this one when we went over the movies. Ah, the good old days. I remember that one. Okay, now let’s jump back to baby crawling for one minute because we are about to get into today’s key point and what’s today’s key point, Natsuko-san?

Lesson focus

Natsuko: 今日のポイントは (Kyō no pointo wa) more about できる (dekiru)。
Peter: Yes. Now yesterday we got a bit into できる (dekiru), but yesterday we only had できる (dekiru) by itself.
Natsuko: Yes.
Peter: There were no other verbs in the sentence. So it was I can, you can’t, he can, she can, I can, I can, you can’t. Let’s just give you a little bit of refresher. Natsuko, how can I say I can?
Natsuko: 私はできます。(Watashi wa dekimasu.)
Peter: Yoshi-san, how do we say Natsuko can’t?
Yoshi: ナツコさんはできません。(Natsuko-san wa dekimasen.)
Peter: Okay. Now we are going to add some verbs in there and that’s what we did today. Now with できる (dekiru), there are two construction patterns. Now the first one is noun plus が (ga) or は (wa) plus
Natsuko: できる (dekiru)
Peter: Let’s give a quick example of that and I think the best way to illustrate this is to use ハイハイ (haihai)
Natsuko: Yes.
Peter: Okay. ナツコさん、お願いします。(Natsuko-san, onegai shimasu.)
Natsuko: ハイハイができる (haihai ga dekiru)
Peter: Can crawl and let’s put the baby in there, let’s get the subject in there. So let’s say, the baby can crawl.
Natsuko: 赤ちゃんはハイハイができます。(Akachan wa haihai ga dekimasu.)
Peter: The baby can crawl. So again we had the subject marked by は (wa). Then we had the noun
Natsuko: ハイハイ (haihai)
Peter: Marked by が (ga) and then we had
Natsuko: できます (dekimasu)
Peter: Now there is another way to form this sentence. We can take
Natsuko: こと (koto)
Peter: Add it to the verb, mark it with
Natsuko: が (gai)
Peter: And then add
Natsuko: できる (dekiru)
Peter: All right. Now Yoshi-san, can you give us the exact same sentence but this time instead of using the noun crawl, please use the verb to crawl?
Yoshi: ハイハイすることができます。(Haihai suru koto ga dekimasu.)
Peter: There it is. And give us the whole sentence, the baby can crawl.
Yoshi: 赤ちゃんはハイハイすることができます。(Akachan wa haihai suru koto ga dekimasu.)
Peter: All right. So there it is, the two ways. Now for more about this, check out the PDF plus we are going to give you a little bit more right now. So this little dialogue is kind of like a quiz. For some, it should come very easily, but here we go.
Natsuko: 私は鳥ですが、泳ぐことができます。(Watashi wa tori desu ga, oyogu koto ga dekimasu.)
Yoshi: 飛ぶことができますか。(Tobu koto ga dekimasu ka.)
Natsuko: いいえ、できません。(Iie, dekimasen.)
Yoshi: 走ることができますか。(Hashiru koto ga dekimasu ka.)
Natsuko: 一応できます。(Ichiō dekimasu.)
Yoshi: あなたはペンギンさんですか。(Anata wa pengin-san desu ka.)
Natsuko: 正解です。(Seikai desu.)

Outro

Peter:  All right. So stop by Japanesepod101.com and we should have a little more about this dialogue. All right, let’s goint to do it for today. 
Natsuko: また明日ね。(Mata ashita ne.)
Yoshi: またね。(Mata ne.)

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37 Comments

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JapanesePod101.com Verified
May 31st, 2006 at 06:30 PM
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Mina-san, Today's location is ラオス・Raosu. Hello to all of our listeners in Laos! Grammar buffs rejoice, as today's lesson includes a very useful construction! Let us know what you think! Yoroshiku onegai shimasu!

JapanesePod101.com Verified
June 29th, 2020 at 10:47 AM
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Hi Minty,


Thank you for your question!


When you use できます or できません, the form should be always "[noun] が できます/できません",

as in テニスができます。

We cannot say "[verb] が できます/できません."

That's why こと is used, to nominalize the preceding verb , when you want to say "I can [do something.]"

Hope this helps;)


Sincerely,

Miho

Team JapanesePod101.com

Minty
May 24th, 2020 at 08:14 PM
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Thanks for the lesson!

I'm not sure I fully understand こと though, it feels redundant. If you removed it from the sentences like in この赤ちゃんは話すことができませんか。I feel like the meaning would still be the same, because it's the できません that means "cannot". Or would it be different?(and if so, how would the meaning change?)

I'm not good at explaining, so I hope this made sense.

JapanesePod101.com Verified
October 15th, 2016 at 02:46 PM
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Marcus-san,

konnichiwa! :smile:

I'm sorry for the late reply!!


歌うことができます。

is correct. Well done! :wink:


Natsuko (奈津子),

Team JapanesePod101.com

Marcus
September 24th, 2016 at 05:27 AM
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Hello,


Is this sentence structure used with verbs as nouns, also? For example, "I can sing."


Would it be "歌うことができます," or "歌うができます?”


Thanks,


Marcus.

JapanesePod10.com
June 20th, 2016 at 05:28 PM
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Peter san,

Konnichiwa.

どういたしまして。:smile:

Yuki 由紀

Team JapanesePod101.com

Peter
June 20th, 2016 at 01:46 PM
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由紀先生、


分かりました。


ありがとうございます。


peter

JapanesePod101.com Verified
June 20th, 2016 at 05:50 AM
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Peter Lloyd san,

Konnichiwa.

The reason why ‘ga’ is in the first sentence is the topic shows up first time.

However in the second sentence ‘wa’ indicates a contrast between ‘hanasu koto’ and ‘others.’

The third sentence has the new topic ‘aruku koto’ so ‘ga’ should be used.’

In the fourth sentence, the father wants to emphasis the baby can craw so ‘ga’ is used.:smile:


Erindesu

Konnichiwa.

Yes, you are right.

watashi wa nihongo ‘o’ hanasu koto ga dekiru.:wink:

Yuki  由紀

Team JapanesePod101.com

Erindesu
June 15th, 2016 at 06:20 AM
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Could you say: watashi wa nihongo hanasu koto ga dekiru

"I can speak Japanese" Is this right?

I feel like it's missing a particle in there some where...

Peter Lloyd
June 7th, 2016 at 06:52 AM
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夏子 この赤ちゃんは話すことができませんか。

父: まだ、1歳ですよ。まだ、話すことはできません!

夏子: 歩くことは出来ますか。

父: いいえ、できません。でも、ハイハイすることができます。


Hi,


With reference to the above dialogue, I would appreciate some clarification on the usage of "wa" and "ga". In the first sentence, Natsuko san uses "koto ga" to ask whether the child can speak, the father answers with the "koto wa" construction, presumably because Natsuko's question has introduced the subject of the child's ability to speak.


However in the subsequent exchange, Natsuko uses "koto wa" to ask if the child can walk, and the father answers using the 'koto ga' construction. This is the opposite to the first exchange. Is this because the subject of the child's abilities has already been introduced in the first exchange, so Natsuko uses 'koto wa' to ask about being able to walk, while the father uses the 'koto ga' construction in his answer as emphasis that the child cannot walk, but can crawl?


Appreciate your explaination of the usage here.


Thanks


peter

JapanesePod101.com Verified
May 18th, 2015 at 09:14 AM
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エリックさん、

こんにちは。

As you know we have two potential expressions.

One is potential form.

食べる→食べられる(食べれる)

行く→行ける

くる→こられる(これる)

する→できる


The other one is dictionary form + ことができる.

食べる→食べることができる

行く→行くことができる

くる→くることができる

する→することができる


So that is not an omission.

They are both perfect sentences.


Yuki 由紀

Team JapanesePod101.com