Dialogue

Vocabulary

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Lesson Notes

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Lesson Transcript

INTRODUCTION
John:
Hi everyone, I'm John.
Risa:
And I'm Risa.
John:
And welcome to Must-Know Japanese Sentence Structures, Season 1, Lesson 26 - Expressing Necessity.
John:
In this lesson, you'll learn how to use a sentence pattern for describing something that needs to be done.
PATTERN
John:
For example,
John:
"I have to hurry."
Risa:
急がなければなりません。 (Isoganakereba narimasen.)
Risa:
[slow] 急がなければなりません。 (Isoganakereba narimasen.)
John:
The pattern for describing something that needs to be done has two elements. First, the informal negative form of the verb meaning "to hurry,"
Risa:
急がない (isoganai)
John:
without the ending...
Risa:
ない (nai)
John:
so we get...
Risa:
急が (Isoga-).
John:
Second and last, a phrase that roughly means "have to do" or "must do."
Risa:
なければなりません (nakereba narimasen).
John:
Altogether, we have... "I have to hurry."
Risa:
急がなければなりません。 (Isoganakereba narimasen.) [slow] 急がなければなりません。 (Isoganakereba narimasen.) [normal] 急がなければなりません。 (Isoganakereba narimasen.)
John:
The sentence pattern for saying “I have to [do something.]” in Japanese is the informal negative form of the verb without -nai, plus a pattern roughly equivalent to "have to do" or "must do"
Risa:
なければなりません (nakereba narimasen).
John:
So, "I have to hurry" would be
Risa:
急がなければなりません。 (Isoganakereba narimasen.)
John:
So, to say "I have to [do something]," remember to say a verb or verb phrase in the informal negative form without the ending
Risa:
ない (nai)
John:
and, at the end, add the pattern roughly equivalent to "have to do" or "must do"
Risa:
なければなりません (nakereba narimasen).
John:
Here is another example meaning, "I have to study." First, the informal negative form of the verb phrase without nai, meaning "to study" .
Risa:
勉強し (Benkyō shi-).
John:
Second, the phrase that roughly means "have to do" or "must do".
Risa:
なければなりません (nakereba narimasen).
John:
Altogether we have...
Risa:
勉強しなければなりません。 (Benkyō shinakereba narimasen.) [slow] 勉強しなければなりません。 (Benkyō shinakereba narimasen.) [normal] 勉強しなければなりません。 (Benkyō shinakereba narimasen.)
John:
"I have to study."
[pause]
Risa:
勉強しなければなりません。 (Benkyō shinakereba narimasen.)
John:
How do you say, "I have to send an email right now."? To give you a hint, "to send an email right now" is...
Risa:
すぐにメールを送る (sugu ni mēru o okuru)
John:
the informal negative form of this verb phrase is
Risa:
すぐにメールを送らない (sugu ni mēru o okuranai). [slow] すぐにメール送らない (sugu ni mēru o okuranai). [normal] すぐにメールを送らない) (sugu ni mēru o okuranai).
John:
"I have to send an email right now."
[pause]
Risa:
すぐにメールを送らなければなりません。 (Sugu ni mēru o okuranakereba narimasen.)
[slow] すぐにメールを送らなければなりません。 (Sugu ni mēru o okuranakereba narimasen.)
[normal] すぐにメールを送らなければなりません。 (Sugu ni mēru o okuranakereba narimasen.)
[pause]
Risa:
すぐにメールを送らなければなりません。 (Sugu ni mēru o okuranakereba narimasen.)
John:
Remember, you will need to drop the “-nai” ending to construct the sentence.
REVIEW
John:
Let's review the sentences from this lesson. I will give you the English equivalent of the phrase and you are responsible for shouting it out loud in Japanese. Here we go.
John:
"I have to hurry."
[pause]
Risa:
急がなければなりません。 (Isoganakereba narimasen.)
[pause]
Risa:
急がなければなりません。 (Isoganakereba narimasen.)
John:
"I have to study."
[pause]
Risa:
勉強しなければなりません。 (Benkyō shinakereba narimasen.)
[pause]
Risa:
勉強しなければなりません。 (Benkyō shinakereba narimasen.)
John:
"I have to send an email right now."
[pause]
Risa:
すぐにメールを送らなければなりません。 (Sugu ni mēru o okuranakereba narimasen.)
[pause]
Risa:
すぐにメールを送らなければなりません。 (Sugu ni mēru o okuranakereba narimasen.)
OUTRO
John:
Okay. That's all for this lesson. You learned a pattern for describing something that needs to be done, as in...
Risa:
急がなければなりません。 (Isoganakereba narimasen.)
John:
meaning "I have to hurry."
John:
You can find more vocab or phrases that go with this sentence pattern in the lesson notes. So please be sure to check them out on JapanesePod101.com. Thanks everyone, see you next time!
Risa:
またね!(Mata ne!).

3 Comments

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JapanesePod101.com
Monday at 6:30 pm
Pinned Comment
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Try using this pattern in the comments!

JapanesePod101.com
February 14th, 2018 at 9:17 am
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Hi ブロキ,


Thank you for the comment! And yes, your sentence is correct!

弟さんとどんな仕事をするのですか?

What kind of work do you do with your younger brother?


I'm just curious...


Miki H

Team JapanesePod101.com

ブロキ
January 11th, 2018 at 10:53 pm
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今晩は弟と働かなければなりません

Is it correct?

いいですか