Dialogue

Vocabulary

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Lesson Transcript

INTRODUCTION
Naomi: なおみです。
Kat: Kat here. Seeing Ghosts in Japan. In this lesson you'll learn how to say "supposed to be" or "should be" in Japanese
Naomi: 「はず」 の使い方です。
Kat: We'll cover the usage of はず. Where does this conversation take place?
Naomi: 会社です。
Kat: At an office.
Naomi: 最初は 銀行の人と、松田一平さんが話しています。 次に、松田さんは森野モエさんに質問をします。
Kat: Now this conversation has 2 parts. The first half of the conversation is between someone from a bank and Mr. Matsuda.The latter part is between Mr.Matsuda and Moe while he is asking her a question.
Naomi: では聞いてみましょう。
Kat: Let's listen to the conversation.
DIALOGUE
ユウ レイ:JP銀行のユウ レイと申します。
: ジョシュさんと約束があるのですが。
松田一平:ジョシュはもうすぐ来るはずなんですが…。
ユウ レイ:じゃ、待ちます。
松田一平:・・・来ないですね。あ、お昼でもどうですか?
: 近くに有名なそば屋があるんですよ。
: 私は行ったことがありませんが、おいしいはずですよ。
ユウ レイ:結構です。
松田一平:・・・そうですか。
松田一平:ジョシュ、来た?
森野モエ:え?お休みのはずです。
松田一平:は?
森野モエ:課長に休暇届を出したはずですよ。
松田一平:うわ・・・。JP銀行のユウ レイという人が来て待っているんだ。
森野モエ:え・・・ユウ レイさんは・・・先月亡くなったはずですけど・・・。
もう一度、会話を聞いてください。今度はゆっくり話します。
ユウ レイ:JP銀行のユウ レイと申します。
: ジョシュさんと約束があるのですが。
松田一平:ジョシュはもうすぐ来るはずなんですが…。
ユウ レイ:じゃ、待ちます。
松田一平:・・・来ないですね。あ、お昼でもどうですか?
: 近くに有名なそば屋があるんですよ。
: 私は行ったことがありませんが、おいしいはずですよ。
ユウ レイ:結構です。
松田一平:・・・そうですか。
松田一平:ジョシュ、来た?
森野モエ:え?お休みのはずです。
松田一平:は?
森野モエ:課長に休暇届を出したはずですよ。
松田一平:うわ・・・。JP銀行のユウ レイという人が来て待っているんだ。
森野モエ:え・・・ユウ レイさんは・・・先月亡くなったはずですけど・・・。
今度は英語の訳と一緒に聞いてみましょう。
ユウ レイ:JP銀行のユウ レイと申します。
Kat: My name is Rei Yū from JP Bank.
: ジョシュさんと約束があるのですが。
Kat: I have an appointment with Josh...
松田一平:ジョシュはもうすぐ来るはずなんですが…。
Kat: Josh should be here any minute...
ユウ レイ:じゃ、待ちます。
Kat: Alright, I'll wait.
松田一平:・・・来ないですね。
Kat: ... He hasn't come yet, has he.
: あ、お昼でもどうですか?
Kat: How about lunch, or something?
: 近くに有名なそば屋があるんですよ。
Kat: There's a famous soba restaurant near here.
: 私は行ったことがありませんが、おいしいはずですよ。
Kat: I've never been, but it's supposed to be delicious.
ユウ レイ:結構です。
Kat: No thank you.
松田一平:・・・そうですか。
Kat: ... I see.
松田一平:ジョシュ、来た?
Kat: Has Josh come in?
森野モエ:え?お休みのはずです。
Kat: Huh? I'm pretty sure he's off today.
松田一平:は?
Kat: What?!
森野モエ:課長に休暇届を出したはずですよ。
Kat: I'm almost certain he submitted a vacation application form to the Section Chief.
松田一平:うわ・・・。JP銀行のユウ レイという人が来て待っているんだ。
Kat: Argh... Someone called Rei Yū from JP Bank is here and waiting for him.
森野モエ:え・・・ユウ レイさんは・・・先月亡くなったはずですけど・・・。
Kat: Huh? But Mr. Rei Yū is... supposed to have passed away last month…
POST CONVERSATION BANTER
Kat: うわー。直美先生!最後にぞっとしますね!You get chills down your spine at the end there!
Naomi:そうですよね。 銀行の人の名前は 大きいヒントですよね。気づきました?
Kat: That's right... there was a big clue in the name of the man from the bank. Did you notice it? 直美先生、銀行の人の名前はなんでしたっけ?What’s the name of the person from the bank again?
Naomi: ユウ・レイさんでしたよね。 ゆうれい 幽霊 ghost.
Kat: いやー!こわいー!笑 Yeah, that’s right. And ゆうれい in Japanese means a ghost.
Naomi: キャットさんは、怖い話とか幽霊の話とか好きですか?
Kat: Do I like scary stories and stories about ghosts? うーん、大好きですけど、日本の幽霊は怖すぎて、本当にトラウマになりますよね。(笑)
Naomi: 怖い怖い。
Kat: Japanese ghosts are probably the scariest in the world.I get mentally traumatized after watching some of these Japanese horror films...
Naomi: そうですね、私も怖いものは大嫌いなんですけど、でも昔、うちの祖母、おばあちゃんがね、「幽霊は怖くないなぁ・・・」って言っていました。
Kat: えーすごい!So your grandmother used to said ghosts aren't scary to her?
Naomi: うん。でね、人間のほうが怖い って。
Kat: Ah… Human beings are scarier! まぁ、確かにそうですね。I daresay that's true.
Naomi: でも日本の幽霊って、ちょっとあのアメリカの幽霊とかイギリスの幽霊とかとは違いますよね。
Kat: あ、違いますね。特徴 special point あります。
Naomi: 呪いますよね。
Kat: Ah, yes! They curse human beings forever. So please be careful if you come to Japan, everyone. (Laugh)
VOCAB LIST
Kat: OK. So now, let's take a look at the vocabulary for this lesson.
And the first one we are going to look at is:
Naomi: もうすぐ [natural native speed]
Kat: soon, almost, very soon
Naomi: もうすぐ [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Naomi: もうすぐ [natural native speed]
Kat: And next:
Naomi: 結構 [natural native speed]
Kat: splendid, nice,well enough
Naomi: 結構 [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Naomi: 結構 [natural native speed]
Kat: And next:
Naomi: お休み [natural native speed]
Kat: holiday, day-off, absence
Naomi: お休み [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Naomi: お休み [natural native speed]
Kat: And next:
Naomi: 休暇届 [natural native speed]
Kat: request for vacation time
Naomi: 休暇届 [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Naomi: 休暇届 [natural native speed]
Kat: And finally:
Naomi: 亡くなる [natural native speed]
Kat: to pass away
Naomi: 亡くなる [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Naomi: 亡くなる [natural native speed]
VOCAB AND PHRASE USAGE
Kat: OK so now, let's have a closer look at the usage for some of the words and phrases from this lesson.
Kat: And what will we be looking at first?
Naomi: お昼でもどうですか。
Kat: Literally, "How about lunch, or something?"
Naomi: お昼 here means "lunch". どうですか means "how is" or "how about".
Kat: And there's the word でも between these two.
でも here indicates more than one possibility or example. This can be translated as “…or something.” in English.
Naomi: お昼どうですか is "How about lunch?"
But お昼でもどうですか is "how about lunch, or something?"
Kat: お昼でもどうですか sounds a lot less direct, doesn't it, in Japanese?
Naomi: そうですね。Here's another sample sentence.
コーヒーでも飲みませんか。
Kat: "Would you like some coffee, or something?"
Here the speaker gave "coffee" as an example. It doesn't necessarily -have- to be coffee. There are other drinks as well.
Naomi: お茶とかジュースとか、紅茶とか何でもいいんですよね。
Kat: Yeah, that’s right. It could be green tea, juice, black tea - anything is fine! That's what's implied with this でも.
Naomi: それから、このフレーズはデートに誘うときにもよく使いますよね。This is actually often used when asking someone out on a date.
Kat: Like...今度の日曜日映画でも見にいきませんか。"Would you like to go and see a film or something this Sunday?"
Naomi: そう。よく使われるでしょ、キャットさん。
Kat: いや、使われないです。No one use it to me. (Laugh) And the next one is?
Naomi: 結構です。
Kat: "No thank you." or “I’m fine.”
The word 結構 itself actually means "fine, enough, splendid,or nice or phrase like that".
But the phrase 結構です is often used to refuse an offer in a formal situation.It's literally saying "I'm fine [without accepting what you're offering]".
Naomi: これ、英語でも "I'm fine" とか "I'm OK, thanks" とか言いませんか。I think it's similar in English too.
Kat: そうですよねー。It's actually really similar. For example if someone asked me "Would you like some coffee?" and I didn't want any, I could say "I'm fine, thank you", or "I'm OK, thanks".
Kat: And the last word we are going to look at is?
Naomi: 亡くなる
Kat: to pass away. 亡くなる is a euphemistic or polite way of saying 死ぬ which is “to die.” 亡くなる is used much more often than 死ぬ when talking about a person's death, I think. 死ぬ is very blunt. 亡くなる is like the English "pass away".
Naomi: Since it's an intransitive verb the person who dies is marked by particle が
So 社長がなくなった
Kat: "The company president passed away." One more thing that I like to mention. I used to make a mistake when I was learning Japanese for the first time is even though 亡くなる is a polite way of saying しぬ when you are talking about an animal, even if your boss’s pet or something has died, you don’t say for example, いぬが亡くなりました。 You say 犬が死にました。
Naomi: そうです。動物は死にました。人は亡くなりました。
Kat: That’s right. So animals always use 死ぬ and people usually use 亡くなる。

Lesson focus

Kat: The focus of this lesson is how to say “supposed to”or “it is supposed to be the case that…”in Japanese
Naomi: supposed to は 「はず」ですね。
Kat: The formation is [ informal speech ] plus はず. Let's look at some examples. Naomi-sensei, how do you say "boyfriend"?
Naomi: 彼氏
Kat: And then, how do you say "To have a boyfriend"then?
Naomi: 彼氏がいる。
Kat: And how about"Maki has a boyfriend"?
Naomi: マキは彼氏がいる。
Kat: Now attach はず だ to this sentence.
Naomi: マキは彼氏がいるはずだ
Kat: This sentence means "I'm sure Maki has a boyfriend". In this case you have some kind of background information - like, you've seen Maki with the same boy lots of times, or you've heard from other people that she has a boyfriend and judging from that information, you're almost certain that Maki has a boyfriend.
Listeners, listen and repeat.
Naomi: マキは彼氏がいるはずだ
Kat: (pause)Listeners, say "I'm sure Maki has a boyfriend".
Naomi: (pause)マキは彼氏がいるはずだ
Kat: Let's do one more. How do you say "to come"?
Naomi: 来る
Kat: And how about "To come at 10."
Naomi: 10時に来る
Kat: So "The bus will come at 10." is
Naomi: バスは10時に来る
Kat: Attach はずだ
Naomi: バスは10時に来るはずだ。
Kat: This sentence means "The bus should come at 10". Listeners, listen and repeat.
Naomi: バスは10時に来るはずだ。
Kat: (pause)Listeners, say "The bus should come at 10".
Naomi: (pause)バスは10時に来るはずだ
Kat: 質問があります。
Naomi:はい。
Kat: Naomi-sensei, I have a question.
Naomi: 何ですか?
Kat: 「バスは10時に来ると思います」 も大丈夫ですね? It's also OK to say "I think the bus will come at 10", using と思います, isn't it?
Naomi: はい。大丈夫です。Yes, You can say 「バスは10時に来ると思います」too.
Kat: 違いはなんですか?What's the difference?
Naomi: Um! いい質問ですね。Good question!
はず sounds like you you're saying this based on some objective information or knowledge.
思う indicates your opinion in general, without any specific proof to back it up.
Kat: I see.So in short, use はず when you have some information to base your statement on, and と思う when it's just an opinion or a feeling, based on nothing in particular.
Naomi: 正しいはずです。That seems correct!
Kat: Well that just about does it for this lesson.
Naomi: レッスンノートを読んで下さいね。役に立つはずです。
Kat: Yes, please read the lesson notes! They should come in handy.
Naomi: じゃ、また
Kat: それじゃ、バイバイ!

Outro

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