Dialogue

Vocabulary

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Lesson Transcript

INTRODUCTION
Peter: Okay, without further adieu, let’s get in today's lesson, here we go.
Natsuko: おはよう、パナマ。ナツコです。(Ohayō, Panama. Natsuko desu.)
Yoshi: おはよう、パナマ。ヨシです。(Ohayō, Panama. Yoshi desu.)
Peter: Peter here. Beginner lesson #63. All right, this is the first time for Natsuko and Yoshi to be paired up together. We are expecting big things from you guys. How is everybody doing today? ヨシ、今日元気ですか。(Yoshi, kyō genki desu ka.)
Yoshi: 元気です。ナツコさんは元気ですか。(Genki desu. Natsuko-san wa genki desu ka.)
Natsuko: とっても元気ですよ。ピーターは?(Tottemo genki desu yo. Pītā wa?)
Peter: 相変わらず絶好調です。(Aikawarazu zekkōchō desu.) Now today, it’s bachelor #3.
Natsuko: Oh, oh again!
Peter: Oh yes, Natsuko. One more time.
Natsuko: Am I in trouble again?
Peter: Well we are going to have to find out. So without further adieu, here we go.
DIALOGUE
夏子 (Natsuko) : はい。(Hai.)
健治 (Kenji) : もしもし、こんにちは、初めまして。(Moshimoshi, kon’nichiwa, hajimemashite.)
三番目の独身者の本田健治と申します。よろしくお願いします。(San-ban-me no dokushinsha no Honda Kenji to mōshimasu. Yoroshiku onegai shimasu.)
夏子 (Natsuko) : こちらこそ、初めまして。川本夏子です。よろしくお願いします。(Kochira koso, hajimemashite. Kawamoto Natsuko desu. Yoroshiku onegai shimasu.)
健治 (Kenji) : 川本さんは暇な時には何をしますか。(Kawamoto-san wa hima na toki ni wa nani o shimasu ka.)
例えば、ご趣味は何ですか。(Tatoeba, go-shumi wa nan desu ka.)
夏子 (Natsuko) : ええ?私ですか。暇な時ですか。(Ē? Watashi desu ka. Hima na toki desu ka.)
健治 (Kenji) : もちろん。川本さんのことを全然知りませんから。(Mochiron. Kawamoto-san no koto o zenzen shirimasen kara.)
夏子 (Natsuko) : ああ、夏子でいいですよ。私の趣味は運転することです。(Ā, Natsuko de ii desu yo. Watashi no shumi wa unten suru koto desu.)
暇な時にはいつもドライブします。ほとんど毎日、仕事の後にドライブに行きます。(Hima na toki ni wa itsumo doraibu shimasu. Hotondo mainichi, shigoto no ato ni doraibu ni ikimasu.)
よく富士山まで行きますけど、たまには伊豆にも行きますよ。(Yoku Fuji-san made ikimasu kedo, tama ni wa Izu ni mo ikimasu yo.)
健治 (Kenji) : へぇぇ、私は伊豆が大好きで、車にも興味があります。(Hee, watashi wa Izu ga daisuki de, kuruma ni mo kyōmi ga arimasu.)
家には車が沢山あります。今週末一緒にドライブへ行きませんか。(Ie ni wa kuruma ga takusan arimasu. Konshūmatsu issho ni doraibu e ikimasen ka.)
夏子 (Natsuko) : いいですよ! 行きましょう!(Ii desu yo! Ikimashō!)
健治 (Kenji) : よっしゃ!(Yossha!)
Peter:  One more time, please. Slowly please.  
Natsuko: もう一度お願いします。ゆっくりお願いします。(Mō ichi-do onegai shimasu Yukkuri onegai shimasu.)
夏子 (Natsuko) : はい。(Hai.)
健治 (Kenji) : もしもし、こんにちは、初めまして。(Moshimoshi, kon’nichiwa, hajimemashite.)
三番目の独身者の本田健治と申します。よろしくお願いします。(San-ban-me no dokushinsha no Honda Kenji to mōshimasu. Yoroshiku onegai shimasu.)
夏子 (Natsuko) : こちらこそ、初めまして。川本夏子です。よろしくお願いします。(Kochira koso, hajimemashite. Kawamoto Natsuko desu. Yoroshiku onegai shimasu.)
健治 (Kenji) : 川本さんは暇な時には何をしますか。(Kawamoto-san wa hima na toki ni wa nani o shimasu ka.)
例えば、ご趣味は何ですか。(Tatoeba, go-shumi wa nan desu ka.)
夏子 (Natsuko) : ええ?私ですか。暇な時ですか。(Ē? Watashi desu ka. Hima na toki desu ka.)
健治 (Kenji) : もちろん。川本さんのことを全然知りませんから。(Mochiron. Kawamoto-san no koto o zenzen shirimasen kara.)
夏子 (Natsuko) : ああ、夏子でいいですよ。私の趣味は運転することです。(Ā, Natsuko de ii desu yo. Watashi no shumi wa unten suru koto desu.)
暇な時にはいつもドライブします。ほとんど毎日、仕事の後にドライブに行きます。(Hima na toki ni wa itsumo doraibu shimasu. Hotondo mainichi, shigoto no ato ni doraibu ni ikimasu.)
よく富士山まで行きますけど、たまには伊豆にも行きますよ。(Yoku Fuji-san made ikimasu kedo, tama ni wa Izu ni mo ikimasu yo.)
健治 (Kenji) : へぇぇ、私は伊豆が大好きで、車にも興味があります。(Hee, watashi wa Izu ga daisuki de, kuruma ni mo kyōmi ga arimasu.)
家には車が沢山あります。今週末一緒にドライブへ行きませんか。(Ie ni wa kuruma ga takusan arimasu. Konshūmatsu issho ni doraibu e ikimasen ka.)
夏子 (Natsuko) : いいですよ! 行きましょう!(Ii desu yo! Ikimashō!)
健治 (Kenji) : よっしゃ!(Yossha!)
Peter:  You know the rouitne. Here we go.  
夏子 (Natsuko) : はい。(Hai.)
NATSUKO: Yes?
健治 (Kenji) : もしもし、こんにちは、(Moshimoshi, kon’nichiwa,)
KENJI: Hello, good afternoon.
健治 (Kenji) : 初めまして。三番目の独身者の本田健治と申します。(hajimemashite. San-ban-me no dokushinsha no Honda Kenji to mōshimasu.)
KENJI: Nice to meet you. I'm the third bachelor, Kenji Honda.
健治 (Kenji) : よろしくお願いします。(Yoroshiku onegai shimasu.)
KENJI: Please be kind to me.
夏子 (Natsuko) : こちらこそ、初めまして。川本夏子です。(Kochira koso, hajimemashite. Kawamoto Natsuko desu.)
NATSUKO: Same here. Nice to meet you. I'm Natsuko Kawamoto.
夏子 (Natsuko) : よろしくお願いします。(Yoroshiku onegai shimasu.)
NATSUKO: Please be kind to me.
健治 (Kenji) : 川本さんは暇な時には何をしますか。(Kawamoto-san wa hima na toki ni wa nani o shimasu ka.)
KENJI: What do you [Kawamoto] do in your free time?
健治 (Kenji) : 例えば、ご趣味は何ですか。(Tatoeba, go-shumi wa nan desu ka.)
KENJI: For example, what are your hobbies?
夏子 (Natsuko) : ええ?私ですか。(Ē? Watashi desu ka.)
NATSUKO: Eh, me?
夏子 (Natsuko) : 暇な時ですか。(Hima na toki desu ka.)
NATSUKO: In my free time?
健治 (Kenji) : もちろん。(Mochiron.)
KENJI: Of course.
健治 (Kenji) : 川本さんのことを全然知りませんから。(Kawamoto-san no koto o zenzen shirimasen kara.)
KENJI: Since I don't know anything about you [Kawamoto] at all....
夏子 (Natsuko) : ああ、夏子でいいですよ。(Ā, Natsuko de ii desu yo.)
NATSUKO: Aa, Natsuko is ok.
夏子 (Natsuko) : 私の趣味は運転することです。(Watashi no shumi wa unten suru koto desu.)
NATSUKO: My hobby is driving.
夏子 (Natsuko) : 暇な時にはいつもドライブします。(Hima na toki ni wa itsumo doraibu shimasu.)
NATSUKO: I always drive in my free time.
夏子 (Natsuko) : ほとんど毎日、仕事の後にドライブに行きます。(Hotondo mainichi, shigoto no ato ni doraibu ni ikimasu.)
NATSUKO: Almost every day, after work, I go for a drive.
夏子 (Natsuko) : よく富士山まで行きますけど、たまには伊豆にも行きますよ。(Yoku Fuji-san made ikimasu kedo, tama ni wa Izu ni mo ikimasu yo.)
NATSUKO: I often go to Mt. Fuji, but sometimes I also go to Izu.
健治 (Kenji) : へぇぇ、私は伊豆が大好きで、(Hee, watashi wa Izu ga daisuki de,)
KENJI: Wow, I love Izu,
健治 (Kenji) : 車にも興味があります。(kuruma ni mo kyōmi ga arimasu.)
KENJI: and I'm also interested in cars.
健治 (Kenji) : 家には車が沢山あります。(Ie ni wa kuruma ga takusan arimasu.)
KENJI: There are a lot of cars at my house.
健治 (Kenji) : 今週末一緒にドライブへ行きませんか。(Konshūmatsu issho ni doraibu e ikimasen ka.)
KENJI: This weekend, won't [you] go for a drive together [with me]?
夏子 (Natsuko) : いいですよ! 行きましょう!(Ii desu yo! Ikimashō!)
NATSUKO: Sure! Let's go!
健治 (Kenji) : よっしゃ!(Yossha!)
KENJI: Yes! Woohoo!
POST CONVERSATION BANTER
Peter: So Natsuko, what do you think?
Natsuko: At last, ah I am so relieved to meet someone normal at last.
Peter: I thought the last two guys were pretty normal.
Natsuko: Ah, no more Shakespeare Takahashi, please.
Peter: So my man, you passed the first test.
Yoshi: All right.
Peter: But let’s just see what the writers have in store for you.
Yoshi: Okay.
Peter: Let’s see how long your good fortune lasts.
Natsuko: What do you mean?
Peter: You are going to have to wait. Okay.
Natsuko: Not my fortune?
Peter: Good point, Natsuko. Well, your fortune and Yoshi’s fortune.
VOCAB LIST
Peter: Okay, so now let’s get into today’s vocab.
Natsuko: 3番目 (san-ban-me)
Peter: Third.
Natsuko: (slow)さんばんめ (san-ban-me) (natural speed)3番目 (san-ban-me)
Peter: Yoshi, what comes before the third?
Yoshi: 2番目 (ni-ban-me)
Peter: Second. And Natsuko, what’s higher than that?
Natsuko: 1番目 (ichi-ban-me) or 最初 (saisho)
Peter: Oh, I like that. I like the sound of that.
Natsuko: Really?
Peter: One more time.
Natsuko: 1番目 (ichi-ban-me) or 最初 (saisho)
Peter: Natsuko, I have seen the T-Shirt. It’s a very popular T-Shirt of Bendana. It always says on it
Natsuko: 一番 (ichi-ban)
Peter: Meaning #1 or the best.
Natsuko: Yes.
Peter: Now you find these words used all the time in rankings.
Yoshi: Also in 野球 (yakyū)
Peter: Baseball.
Natsuko: And also in 競馬 (keiba)
Peter: Natsuko, horse racing. You really like that, don’t you?
Natsuko: Yes, remember that.
Peter: Yoshi, do you like horse racing?
Yoshi: Not really.
Natsuko: Oh!
Yoshi: I am not a big gambler.
Natsuko: Me neither. I just like horses.
Peter: Now Natsuko, we did 3番 (san-ban) but what is this 目 (me) what is this that comes after it?
Natsuko: Oh I think we add 目 (me) just to emphasize that it’s merely the order and not the ranking.
Peter: Ah, I got it.
Natsuko: So when you say 一番 (ichi-ban) it usually means best or besides you know the numbering but when you say 一番目 (ichi-ban-me), that means the first.
Peter: As in the order.
Natsuko: Yes.
Peter: Okay, like for example, who was the first person to come here?
Natsuko: Yes, in that case, you use 一番目 (ichi-ban-me) or maybe 最初 (saisho)
Peter: I see. Okay Yoshi, what’s next?
Yoshi: と申します (to mōshimasu)
Peter: To say.
Yoshi: (slow)ともうします (to mōshimasu) (natural speed)と申します (to mōshimasu)
Peter: All right, Natsuko. What is this? Help us out. Please, Natsuko.
Natsuko: This is 謙譲語 (kenjō-go).
Peter: Yoshi, what’s this? Help us out here.
Yoshi: It’s an expression to lower yourself as a respect.

Lesson focus

Peter: In Japanese they have different expressions, some to lower yourself, some to raise the other person up and some for speaking with people in your group. Now today what we are introducing you to is
Natsuko: A 謙譲 (kenjō) expression.
Peter: To lower yourself down out of respect for the other person. Out of respect for the other person, you want to lower yourself down. Again this is where the Tuxedo comes in. We are always taking them off but now you are getting so good that we are going to put them on. Right, Natsuko?
Natsuko: Yes. Yes, try.
Yoshi: Right, Yoshi?
Peter: Yes.
Peter: You look good in the Tux, don’t you?
Yoshi: I do.
Natsuko: Yes.
Peter: So going to lower ourselves down with the Tuxedo. Now although this topic is a bit outside the grasp of this level, there is something that we feel we should introduce to you. The expression と申します (to mōshimasu), this is quite common in formal introductions and it can be used to replace the copula です (desu). It's a more polite form でございます (de gozaimasu) and と言います (to iimasu) when introducing oneself. So the politest way to introduce oneself would be the name followed by と申します (to mōshimasu). Again this is an expression that you will come across often in business and formal situations and we feel that it’s necessary to introduce you to it and get you used to it. So in order to ensure that you don’t make mistakes using this, for now please use this only for introductions, formal introductions. Your name followed by と申します (to mōshimasu). It’s a set expression here. Again we will be getting into much more of this later on. Okay, now again, business meetings, talking to your professor. If you are talking with someone you want to show respect for, this is the expression you want to go with. Natsuko?
Natsuko: 川本夏子と申します。(Kawamoto Natsuko to mōshimasu.)
Peter: There it is, so polite.
Yoshi: わたなべよしひろと申します。(Watanabe Yoshihiro to mōshimasu.)
Peter: Now when they are saying this, it’s really, really respectful and if you were to say to me, one more time
Natsuko: 川本夏子と申します。(Kawamoto Natsuko to mōshimasu.)
Peter: What’s the best way for me to respond?
Natsuko: You introduce yourself the same way.
Peter: Okay. So can you and Yoshi try a little exchange for us?
Natsuko: 初めまして。川本夏子と申します。(Hajimemashite. Kawamoto Natsuko to mōshimasu.)
Yoshi: 初めまして。わたなべよしひろと申します。(Hajimemashite. Watanabe Yoshihiro to mōshimasu.)
Peter: There it is. Now let’s just compare this to what we introduced you to up until this point.
Natsuko: 初めまして。川本夏子です。(Hajimemashite. Kawamoto Natsuko desu.)
Yoshi: 初めまして。わたなべよしひろです。(Hajimemashite. Watanabe Yoshihiro desu.)
Peter: Now Natsuko, what’s the difference between these two? Would you say slight, huge, tremendous? What’s the difference?
Natsuko: Well it depends on the cases but it makes the conversation much more polite.
Peter: Definitely and this is one of the things we are going to slowly introduce you to. If you meet someone your own age or if you meet a friend of a friend, which expression would you go with, Natsuko?
Natsuko: I’d prefer です (desu).
Peter: Yes. Again knowing polite Japanese is one thing but knowing when to use it is the key.
Natsuko: Right.
Peter: So when I meet people in a casual situation, I prefer to go with
Natsuko: です (desu)
Peter: Yoshi, which do you use?
Yoshi: I use です (desu) also.
Peter: Now if you are on an interview or if you are conducting business or you are talking to a professor or your boss, which one you are going to use?
Natsuko: 申します (mōshimasu)
Peter: Yep. So again, we will get you more and more used to this, but today just a quick introduction to this polite way. Now we can see from the conversation that 本田健治 (Honda Kenji) is a pretty polite guy, right Natsuko?
Natsuko: Right.
Peter: You think it’s too good to be true?
Natsuko: Yeah. I do, I am kind of scared of what's coming next.
Peter: You should be.
Natsuko: Aaha…
Peter: Okay Natsuko, running out of time.
Natsuko: 次の言葉は、暇なとき (Tsugi no kotoba wa, hima na toki)
Peter: Free time.
Natsuko: (slow)ひまなとき (hima na toki) (natural speed)暇なとき (hima na toki)
Peter: Okay, let’s find out what Yoshi does in his free time.
Natsuko: 暇なときは何をしますか。(Hima na toki wa nani o shimasu ka.)
Peter: Keep it tasteful.
Yoshi: 競馬に行きます。(Keiba ni ikimasu.)
Peter: You go to the track. Let’s find out what Natsuko does.
Yoshi: ナツコさんは暇なとき何をしますか。(Natsuko-san wa hima na toki nani o shimasu ka.)
Natsuko: 英語の勉強をします。(Eigo no benkyō o shimasu.)
Peter: 嘘でしょう。(Uso deshō.)
Natsuko: 嘘です。(Uso desu.)
Peter: There is no way you study in English.
Natsuko: Why? Believe me. Well I know I must.
Peter: You definitely don’t need to study English but your Japanese I think you could use a little….
Natsuko: Oh yes. It needs improvement.
Peter: All right. Next word.
Yoshi: 全然知りません (zenzen shirimasen)
Peter: Have no idea.
Yoshi: (slow)ぜんぜんしりません (zenzen shirimasen) (natural speed)全然知りません (zenzen shirimasen)
Peter: Well for me, this expression is very useful as I use it every day. Now the word for don’t know is
Natsuko: 知りません (shirimasen)
Peter: Okay, and what is the second word we had in there?
Natsuko: 全然 (zenzen)
Peter: And this means completely but … what has happened in recent years, Natsuko?
Natsuko: They use it for positive expression as well.
Peter: For example
Natsuko: 全然いいよ。(Zenzen ii yo.)
Peter: Completely okay.
Natsuko: Yes.
Peter: When actually it should be
Natsuko: 全然良くないよ。(Zenzen yokunai yo.)
Peter: Not good at all but again times change, things get adjusted. Okay, next we have
Natsuko: 運転 (unten)
Peter: Drive, operate and how do we make this into a verb?
Natsuko: 運転する (unten suru)
Peter: There it is.
Natsuko: ヨシ、次の言葉をお願いします。(Yoshi, tsugi no kotoba o onegai shimasu.)
Yoshi: はい。ドライブ (Hai. doraibu)
Peter: Drive.
Yoshi: (slow)どらいぶ (doraibu) (natural speed)ドライブ (doraibu)
Peter: Now Natsuko, how do we make this into a verb?
Natsuko: ドライブする (doraibu suru)
Peter: Okay and Yoshi, how do we say to go for a drive?
Yoshi: ドライブに行きます (doraibu ni ikimasu)
Peter: Now Yoshi, when you are inviting someone to go for a drive, how would we do that?
Yoshi: ドライブに行きませんか。(Doraibu ni ikimasen ka.)
Peter: Yes, and I have a feeling. This is a very popular expression.
Yoshi: Oh yeah.
Peter: Yoshi, have you used this quite a bit?
Yoshi: No.
Peter: Why not?
Yoshi: I don’t have a car. 次の言葉 (tsugi no kotoba)
Natsuko: 伊豆 (Izu)
Peter: Name of a peninsula famous for its hot springs and beauty.
Natsuko: (slow)いず (Izu) (natural speed)伊豆 (Izu)
Peter: Yoshi, let’s find out if Natsuko likes Izu.
Yoshi: ナツコさん、伊豆は好きですか。(Natsuko-san, Izu wa suki desu ka.)
Natsuko: はい、好きです。(Hai, suki desu.)
Peter: What does she like about it?
Yoshi: どうして伊豆が好きですか。(Dōshite Izu ga suki desu ka.)
Natsuko: 温泉があって、魚がおいしいからです。(Onsen ga atte, sakana ga oishii kara desu.)
Peter: So Natsuko, it’s because you like the hot springs and the fish is delicious?
Natsuko: Yes.
Peter: All right. Okay, last one.
Yoshi: 週末 (shūmatsu)
Peter: Weekend.
Yoshi: (slow)しゅうまつ (shūmatsu) (natural speed)週末 (shūmatsu)
Peter: So Natsuko, if 週末 (shūmatsu) is weekend, what’s weekday?
Natsuko: 平日 (heijitsu) (slow)へいじつ (heijitsu) (natural speed)平日 (heijitsu)
Peter: Yoshi, let’s ask Natsuko which one she prefers?
Yoshi: ナツコさんは、週末と平日、どちらが好きですか。(Natsuko-san wa, shūmatsu to heijitsu, dochira ga suki desu ka.)
Natsuko: 週末が好きです。(Shūmatsu ga suki desu.)
Yoshi: Of course, but let’s ask why…
Peter: Yeah, let’s ask why.
Yoshi: どうして週末が好きですか。(Dōshite shūmatsu ga suki desu ka.)
Natsuko: 週末は休みだからです。(Shūmatsu wa yasumi da kara desu.)
Peter: You like the weekends because it’s a day off.
Natsuko: Yes.
Peter: Me too. Yoshi, how about you?
Yoshi: Yeah, I love it.
Peter: All right. Way too long today but, ah what a team! I like having you guys in here together.
Natsuko: It was nice.

Outro

Peter: Yoshi went with no car. You better come up with better words. This is your big chance and you respond with... Oh man! All right, we are leaving on that note.
Yoshi: Okay.
Peter: See you tomorrow.
Natsuko: また明日ね。(Mata ashita ne.)
Yoshi: またね。(Mata ne.)

Kanji

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78 Comments

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😄 😞 😳 😁 😒 😎 😠 😆 😅 😜 😉 😭 😇 😴 😮 😈 ❤️️ 👍

JapanesePod101.com Verified
April 28th, 2006 at 06:30 PM
Pinned Comment
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いつ中級レッスンをはる?

JapanesePod101.com Verified
November 24th, 2016 at 09:04 PM
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Sam-san,

on behalf of Yuki sensei, you're very welome! :innocent::thumbsup:


Natsuko (奈津子),

Team JapanesePod101.com

Sam
October 24th, 2016 at 11:21 PM
Your comment is awaiting moderation.

Thanks very much :)

JapanesePod101.com Verified
July 4th, 2016 at 02:09 PM
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Sam san,

Konnichiwa.

Do you mean nominalizer?

If so please refer to the pages below.

https://www.japanesepod101.com/2010/07/13/lower-intermediate-lesson-s5-14-dessert-kingdom/

https://www.japanesepod101.com/2012/05/28/upper-beginner-11-inflight-announcement/

https://www.japanesepod101.com/2006/08/15/beginner-lesson-109-have-you-been-to-morioka/

https://www.japanesepod101.com/2006/10/18/beginner-lesson-137-weekend-activities/

:smile:

Yuki 由紀

Team JapanesePod101.com

Sam
June 22nd, 2016 at 03:09 PM
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Heya!


Just checking if you've covered the use of こと anywhere?


Thanks!

JapanesePod101.com Verified
June 20th, 2016 at 05:53 AM
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Lanceさん

こんにちは。

You can use both 私の趣味は運転することです and 私の趣味は運転です.:smile:

Yuki  由紀

Team JapanesePod101.com

Lance
June 7th, 2016 at 04:53 AM
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こんにちは、


From the conversation,

私の趣味は運転することです。(My hobby is driving.)


Would saying 私の趣味は運転です。be the same? Is there a subtle difference?

The use of ことis always confusing for me.

Japanesepod101.com Verified
September 24th, 2015 at 09:16 PM
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Joachim さん、

こんにちは。

On behalf of Motoko sensei,どういたしまして。

:smile:

Yuki 由紀

Team JapanesePod101.com

Joachim
September 24th, 2015 at 02:34 PM
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Motokoさん こんにちは。


答 ありがとうございます。分かりました。:smile:


It´s so nice to learn Japanese with you.


Joachim

JapanesePod101.com Verified
September 24th, 2015 at 10:33 AM
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Joachimさん こんにちは。


コメントありがとうございます。

Good question. That particle "e" is a particle which marks a destination, and we always write it as へ instead of え.

It's because we can recognise へ as a particle visually and easily, rather than え.

This happens to a topic marking particle "wa" (は not わ) and an object marking particle "o" (を not お) as well.


Hope this helps,

Motoko

Team JapanesePod101.com

Joachim
September 13th, 2015 at 01:26 AM
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こんにちはJoachim です

質問があります。


In the romanization at number 13 you wrote `doraibu e ikimasen ka`

But in the text you use へ instead of え。

I don`t understand the reason for it. Please tell me.


ありがとうございます


Joachim