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Lesson Transcript

Yuichi: ゆういちです。
Naomi: なおみです。
Jessi: Jessi here. If You Follow Her Japanese Advice, You Won’t Make a Mistake!
Naomi: ゆういちさん、今回のストーリーについて教えてください。
Yuichi: 今回はラジオ番組です。
Jessi: The conversation is a part of a radio program.
Yuichi: DJマキコと米田ハツさんの2人が出てきます。
Naomi: あ、DJマキコって、Lower IntermediateのSeason 4でも出てきた、ラジオのパーソナリティーですね。
Jessi: Right, in the conversation we have DJ Makiko and Hatsu Yoneda. DJ Makiko is the host of the show – and you may remember her from Season 4.
Naomi: 2人とも丁寧な日本語を話していますね。
Jessi: Both of them will be speaking formally.
Naomi: 今回の文法ポイントは何でしょう。
Yuichi: 「ば」です。
Jessi: The ば conjunction. As in
Yuichi: 日本語が話せれば、留学できます。
Jessi: If you can speak Japanese, you can study abroad.
Yuichi: それでは聞いてみましょう。
: 今日のゲストは、マナーの達人の米田ハツさんです。
: 「友達に遊びに行こうと誘われたのですが、どうやって断ればいいでしょうか。」
: 相手に気づいてもらえるように、話し方に気をつけましょう。
: あと、理由を言えば、完璧ですね。
: 「その日はちょっと・・・。次の日にテストがあるんですよ。」とかですか?
: せっかく相手が誘ってくれたのですから。
: 「ごめん。でも誘ってくれてありがとう」と言えば、相手も悪い気分にはなりませんよ。
Yuichi: 今度は英語が入ります。
Jessi: Good evening, everyone. I'm DJ Makiko.
: 今日のゲストは、マナーの達人の米田ハツさんです。
Jessi: Today's guest is the master of manners, Ms. Hatsu Yoneda.
Jessi: (clears throat) Thank you for having me.
Jessi: Today we have a question from a Chinese exchange student, Ms. Kin. She asks,
: 「友達に遊びに行こうと誘われたのですが、どうやって断ればいいでしょうか。」
Jessi: "I was invited to go out by friends, but how should I say no?"
Jessi: There are a lot of instances in which Japanese people basically will not give a flat-out "no."
: 相手に気づいてもらえるように、話し方に気をつけましょう。
Jessi: Be careful with how you phrase things so that the person you're speaking to realizes what you want to say.
: あと、理由を言えば、完璧ですね。
Jessi: And if you give a reason for why you're refusing, that would make it perfect.
Jessi: I see. For example,
: 「その日はちょっと・・・。次の日にテストがあるんですよ。」とかですか?
Jessi: something like, "That day is a little...I have a test the next day?"
Jessi: That's right. Also, you should take care to properly apologize to the person you're speaking to.
: せっかく相手が誘ってくれたのですから。
Jessi: After all, that person took the trouble to invite you out.
: 「ごめん。でも誘ってくれてありがとう」と言えば、相手も悪い気分にはなりませんよ。
If you say "Sorry, but thanks for inviting me," then the other person won't feel put out.
Jessi: Professor, thank you for coming in today.
Jessi: No, no, it was my pleasure. Thank you for having me.
Jessi: Until next time.
Yuichi: はい!今回のテーマは、断り方でしたね。断るのって大変ですよね。僕も、断るの嫌いなんですよ。なんか相手に悪いなあって思ってしまうので。2人はどうですか。
Naomi: う~ん、私も断るのはちょっと苦手ですね。
Jessi: 私も同じです。 I feel the same way. I feel bad turning people down for anything.
Naomi: まあ、ものによりますけどね。
Jessi:  そうですねー。
Yuichi: というわけで、あの、今回のダイアローグで、米田ハツさんが言っていた、「断り方」っていうのはどうですか?
Jessi: とても勉強になりました。
Naomi: 私も、すごいいいと思いますね。日本語だけじゃないとは思うんですけど、英語にも上手な断り方ってあると思うので、でも、日本語の勉強をするだけじゃなくて日本人は普段どういうふうに断っているのかとか、どういうふうに相手にメッセージを伝えてるのかっていうのを勉強するのも大事ですよね。
Jessi: あ~なるほど。So it’s not only helping you with your Japanese but also you learn how Japanese people might refuse something because it might be different from the way people in another cultures - in other countries - do it.
Naomi: たとえば、ゆういちさん、明日飲みに行きませんか?
Yuichi: 行きません。
Naomi: これは、英語でもおかしいですよね。英語でもたぶん言わないですよね。こんなふうに断られると、誘った人は、ちょっとショックですもんね。
Yuichi: いやですよね。なので、「ん・・・ちょっと」、「ああ~ちょっとその日は」というふうに、あの、センテンスを終わりにするととてもいいんじゃないでしょうか。
Jessi: Hmm, so if you're refusing someone, you can just show some hesitation by saying ん~・・ちょっと or あ~ちょっと… or something like that. You don't necessarily need to finish your sentence. The other person will get your drift, so to speak.
Yuichi: この「ちょっと」という言葉は本当に便利ですよね。他にも使うことができます。
Naomi: うん、ゆういちさんよく使いますね。
Yuichi: そうですねー。あ、僕これ大好きです、この言葉。たとえば、何かをお願いする時には、この「ちょっと」という言葉をよく使います。
Jessi: そうですね。ちょっと is a really useful word. If you ask someone to do something for you, you can use ちょっと to soften the meaning. Sometimes in English I use the phrases “kind of” or “sort of” to kind of soften a sentence in this way, right? For example, if you forget your wallet and you have to borrow some money from a friend, you could say...
Naomi: あーちょっと・・・今日財布を忘れちゃって...ちょっと、あの、お金を・・・
Jessi: Right right like that. So it might be kind of like ‘I uh, sort of forgot my wallet today...’ kind of like that. And also I'd like to point out something else here. If you noticed, Naomi-sensei didn't actually say the full sentence ちょっとお金を貸してもらえませんか, but instead she just said ちょっとお金を... just enough to imply that she wants to borrow some money.
Yuichi: そうですね。だれかにお願いするときの「ちょっと」もぜひ使ってみてください。
Jessi: Let's take a look at the vocabulary for this lesson.
Yuichi: 誘う [natural native speed]
Jessi: to invite, to ask
Yuichi: 誘う [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Yuichi: 誘う [natural native speed]
Naomi: 断る [natural native speed]
Jessi: to refuse, reject, V1
Naomi: 断る [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Naomi: 断る [natural native speed]
Yuichi: 基本的に [natural native speed]
Jessi: basically
Yuichi: 基本的に [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Yuichi: 基本的に [natural native speed]
Naomi: はっきりと [natural native speed]
Jessi: clearly, plainly
Naomi: はっきりと [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Naomi: はっきりと [natural native speed]
Yuichi: しっかりと [natural native speed]
Jessi: properly, thoroughly, firmly, tightly
Yuichi: しっかりと [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Yuichi: しっかりと [natural native speed]
Jessi: Let’s have a close look at the usage of some of the words and phrases from this lesson.
Yuichi: The first word is 気分
Jessi: feeling, mood
Yuichi: 「気分がいい」は、to be in a good mood.ですよね。で、どんなときに、気分がいいですか。
Naomi: 私は、プレゼントをもらった時は、まあ、気分が良いですね。この場合の「気分がいい」は、うれしいという意味に近いですね。
Jessi: So when you get a present from someone, you are in a good mood all day.
Naomi: そう~
Jessi: So I guess in this case 気分がいい is really close to being happy. 嬉しい。
Naomi: そうですね。
Yuichi: あと、試合に勝ったので、気分がいい。
Jessi: I won the game so I am in a good mood. あ、しつもんがあるんですけど…「気分がいい」は「気持ちがいい」と、どう違いますか。What’s the difference between気分がいい and気持ちがいい?
Yuichi: これは、似ていますよね。よく間違えてしまうことがとても多いと思うんですよね。たとえば、「プレゼントをもらって、気持ちがいい」はいえないですよね。おかしいです。「気持ちがいい」は、何かを触ったりした時に感じるものですね。例えば、
Naomi: このソファーは、気持ちがいい。
Jessi: This couch is comfortable.
Yuichi: すごくやわらかくて、とても寝たくなるようなソファーなんでしょうね。だから、「気持ちがいい」を使えます。「このソファは、気分がいい」とは言ってはいけません。あとは?
Naomi: 足のマッサージは、気持ちがいい。
Jessi: A foot massage feels really good.
Yuichi: 次の単語は
Naomi: しっかりと
Jessi: properly, thoroughly,
Naomi: よく、あの、先生が使ったりしますよね。
Yuichi: しっかりと勉強しなさい。
Jessi: Study hard.
Yuichi: しっかり予習をしましょう。
Jessi: Let's thoroughly prepare in advance.
Naomi: 「しっかり」でも「しっかりと」でもどちらでも大丈夫です。いまのサンプルセンテンスの「しっかりと」は、「頑張って」という意味と、「忘れないで」という両方の意味がありますよね。
Yuichi: そうですね。
Jessi: So in these example sentences, しっかり means both “to try hard” and also “don’t to forget to do it.”
Naomi: うん。似た単語に、「ちゃんと」とか「きちんと」なんという単語もありますよね。
Yuichi: そうですね。ちなみに、ジェシーさんとなおみさんは、しっかり朝ごはんを食べてますか?
Jessi: はい、毎朝食べてます。
Naomi: お、えらい。
Jessi: なおみさんは?
Naomi: 私は、食べてないんですよね~
Yuichi: 食べてないんですか?
Naomi: 今朝はチョコレートでした。
Yuichi&Jessi: わ~
Yuichi: しっかりは食べてないですね。
Naomi: はい。しっかり食べようと思います。
Yuichi: そうですね。はい。
Jessi: The next word is…
Yuichi: せっかく
Jessi: With trouble, at great pains. So let’s see how this word せっかく is used in conversation.
Yuichi: そういえば、直美さん、昔、長靴買いましたよね?You bought rain boots some time ago, right?
Naomi: あ、そうですね。
Yuichi: いくらでしたか。
Naomi: 内緒です。でも、結構高かったです。They were kind of expensive for me.
Yuichi: その長靴は今もはいていますか?
Naomi: はいていません。せっかく高い長靴を買ったけど、はいていないんですよ。
Jessi: So now, Naomi and Yuichi were talking about Naomi's expensive rain boots which she bought a long time ago but rarely used. In this kind of situation where someone goes through all the trouble to do something, you can use せっかく.

Lesson focus

Jessi: In this lesson, we'll focus on the Conditional ~ば. The ~ば conjunction indicates if that the condition expressed in the subordinate clause takes place, the action or state of the main clause will also take place. Could you give us an example?
Yuichi: たくさん寝れば、風邪が治る。
Jessi: If you sleep a lot, your cold will get better. Let's break down the sentence.
Yuichi: たくさん
Jessi: a lot
Yuichi: 寝れば
Jessi: ~ばconditional. if you sleep...
Yuichi: 風邪が治る。
Jessi: Your cold will get better
Jessi: Now let's take a closer look at how to form the ~ばconditional. For verbs, you change the final ‘u’ sound to the corresponding ‘e’ sound, in the same rhyme and attach ‘ba’. It’s a little hard to explain but I think once we go through some examples it’ll make sense. So let’s go through examples.
Naomi: 会う
Jessi: To meet. So here we change the final ‘u’ sound to the corresponding ‘e’ sound. So…
Naomi: 会え
Jessi: Then attach ‘ba’
Naomi: 会えば
Jessi: Here’s one more example.
Yuichi: 見る
Jessi: To see. Again you change the final ‘u’ sound to the corresponding ‘e’ sound.
Yuichi: 見れ
Jessi: And then attach ba.
Yuichi: 見れば
Jessi: Can you make a sentence with that word please?
Yuichi: この映画を見れば、絶対に感動するよ。
Jessi: If you watch this movie, you will definitely feel moved.
Yuichi: How about i-adjectives?
Jessi: For i-adjectives, you take off the last i, and attach ければ.
Naomi: 暑い
Jessi: Hot. First you remove the ‘I’
Naomi: 暑
Jessi: attach ければ.
Jessi: So here is a sample sentence.
Naomi: 暑ければ。So, here’s a sample sentence.暑ければ、クーラーを付けてください。
Jessi: If it's hot, please turn on the air conditioner.
Jessi: And lastly, for ‘na’-adjectives and nouns, ‘da’ becomes ‘nara’. Please be careful because ‘ba’ isn't used in these cases.
Yuichi: 大学生
Jessi: University student, and then you attach nara.
Yuichi: 大学生なら。大学生なら、時間がたくさんあるはずです。
Jessi: If you are a university student, you must have a lot of time.
Yuichi: それでは、練習をしましょう!
Jessi: So now, let's practice! You don't have to say it, but what you should do is to listen to the sentence carefully and judge it whether it's true or not. We'll do the speaking practice in the next lesson. This time, we especially want to focus on the construction; ~ba ii. This is a way of giving advice. If this construction is used as a question, it indicates that the speaker is asking for advice. Let's do one example.
Naomi: 風邪を引いたら、風呂に入ればいい。[pause]
Jessi: Did you get what that means? When you catch a cold, you should take a bath.
Yuichi: これは、本当ですか?
Naomi: うーん、分からないです。Actually we don't know the answer.昔は、風邪を引いたら、お風呂に入ってはいけません。って言っていましたけど、最近は、そんなことないみたいですね。
Jessi: あーでも聞いたことあります。In the past, it was said that you shouldn't bathe when you have a cold. But now that doesn't seem to be the case. ちなみに、私は、風邪を引いたときは、chicken soupを飲めばいいと思いますよ。
Naomi: あ~そうですよね。アメリカだとそうですよね。チキンスープね。
Yuichi : ま、風邪をひいたときは、病院に行けばいいと思いますよ。
Naomi: 間違いないですね。
Jessi: そうですね。
Naomi: じゃあ、ジェシーさん、日本語が上手になりたい人にアドバイスありますか?
Jessi: あ~そうですね。あの、日本語を上手になりたければ、日本人の友達を作ればいいです。So if you want to be good at Japanese you should make Japanese friends.
Naomi: Wow, you used ‘ba’ twice in this sentence.
Jessi: そうです~ twice!
Naomi: 上手になりたければ日本人の友達を作ればいいです。ま、JapanesePod101.comを聴けばいいと思います。
Jessi: Ah, that’s a great suggestion too.


Jessi: Well that’s all we have time for today. See you next time.
Yuichi: さようなら
Naomi: じゃまた!


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Please to leave a comment.
😄 😞 😳 😁 😒 😎 😠 😆 😅 😜 😉 😭 😇 😴 😮 😈 ❤️️ 👍

JapanesePod101.com Verified
February 16th, 2010 at 06:30 PM
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みなさん、 日本語が上手になるにはどうすればいいと思いますか?What should you do to get good at Japanese? :smile: Share your thoughts here~

JapanesePod101.com Verified
October 22nd, 2020 at 04:06 PM
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Both 専門家 and 達人 would be "expert" in English.

But 専門家 is a person with special knowledge in some field of study or something.

And 達人 is a person who mastered the secrets of some art or study.


This sentence is correct but if the main clause (あいつのこと忘れられませんよ) means suggestion,

you should use たら conditional instead of ば.

You can see how to use なんて in this lesson.


Lastly, 沈黙を破る is a set phrase just like the English "to break the silence."

Thank you for always learning Japanese with us:)



Team JapanesePod101.com

October 5th, 2020 at 08:15 PM
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みほ先生、ありがとうございました。Just a couple of follow-up questions.

専門家と達人は違いますか?Why did you prefer to use 専門家 than 達人 in the sentence?

Was this sentence correct? はっきりと振られたのに、またあさひと会えば、あいつのこと忘れられませんよ。

Is there a lesson for なんて?

最後に、is 沈黙を破る also a set phrase like "to break the silence" is in English?

Thanks for always helping me out, sensei. ❤️️😄

JapanesePod101.com Verified
October 5th, 2020 at 11:06 AM
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Your sentences are great as always, but I made some corrections for you.




You will learn in the next lesson that the main clause that follows ば cannot be one

that expresses your intention, permission, request, suggestion, etc.


And the last sentence would be 彼の咳払いは、沈黙を破るもっともよい方法だった。

But it's more natural and better to say 彼が咳払いしたおかげで、沈黙が破れた。

Please let us know if you have any further question:)



Team JapanesePod101.com

September 26th, 2020 at 10:38 PM
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明日達人が説明しにくれば、しっかり聞けばいいですよ。If the expert comes to explain tomorrow, you better listen properly.

はっきりと振られたのに、またあさひと会えば、あいつのこと忘れられませんよ。If you still meet up with Asahi even after he flat out dumped you, you won't be able to forget that jerk.

Is it also correct to say また彼と会えば、朝日なんて忘れられませんよ。I'm trying to see if I've used なんてcorrectly.

断れば、直接に謝ればいいですよ。せっかく誘ってもらったから。If you're going to refuse, you better apologize personally/directly. He/she went through the trouble of inviting you after all.

気分が悪かったら、休めばいいです。Better rest if you're not feeling well.

Also, I've thought about writing this sentence, but I can't quite make it sound right. 😅 Can you translate this for me, please?

Him clearing his throat was the best way to break the silence.


JapanesePod101.com Verified
July 13th, 2020 at 02:42 AM
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Cody さん





[Clause A]ば (-ba) [Clause B]

ば (-ba) = "as long as" making the condition the focus of the sentence.

[Clause A]たら(-tara)[Clause B]

Clause B can only happen if Clause A is realized.

There's a difference in nuance, but in many cases, you can use both ば (-ba) and たら (-tara) to mean "if."

Please check this lesson for more details.


Thank you for studying with us!



Team JapanesePod101.com

July 6th, 2020 at 10:29 AM
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Hi! Is there a difference between this lesson's grammar point and (もし) 〜たら?

Thank you!

June 18th, 2020 at 10:59 AM
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JapanesePod101.com Verified
April 3rd, 2020 at 01:10 PM
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I've heard that there are some language exchange apps such as HelloTalk or italki👍

Tomodachi means "friend" and Shiriai means "acquaintance."

The last 4 lines of the dialogue? I can't find any errors in them. Could you tell us more details about them, please?

Please let us know if you have any question :)



Team JapanesePod101.com

April 1st, 2020 at 11:30 PM
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What is the difference between TOMODATI and SHIRIAI?

Please, make corrections on last 4 phrases of the dialogue.

March 29th, 2020 at 06:25 AM
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Hello Team! Great class!

How tô make Japanese Friends tô tallk with them ON-LINE?