Dialogue

Vocabulary

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Lesson Transcript

Welcome to learn Japanese grammar absolute beginner. In this video series, you learn basic Japanese grammar patterns and phrases through easy to follow audio and visual cues. Here is what we will cover in this lesson.
Ready?
Let’s get started.
Naomi:
よかったです。 (Yokatta desu.)
Peter:
In this lesson, you learn how to create the past tense of adjectives, It was. There are two different types of adjectives, they are
Naomi:
I-adjectives and na-adjectives.
Peter:
How we conjugate these adjectives depends on the type. Let’s illustrate with an example. Can we have an i-adjective?
Naomi:
楽しい (tanoshii)
Peter:
Fun.
Now we are going to conjugate it. First, drop the final "i".
Naomi:
楽し (tanoshi)
Peter:
Now add かった (katta) to it and we get
Naomi:
楽しかった (tanoshi katta)
Peter:
And this means, it was fun. Let’s try another example. Remember, it’s super easy. To form the past tense of an adjective, we take the final syllable, drop it and add かった (katta). Naomi-sensei, what’s the word for delicious?
Naomi:
おいしい (oishii)
Peter:
Drop the final "i"
Naomi:
おいし (oishi)
Peter:
Now add かった (katta)
Naomi:
おいしかった (oishikatta)
Peter:
It was delicious. But if you are out with your boss or teacher, how do we say it was fun politely?
Naomi:
おいしかったです。 (Oishikatta desu.)
Peter:
It was delicious politely.
Naomi:
おいしかったです (Oishikatta desu.) You need to add です (desu) to the end.
Peter:
There is one i-adjective we should point out here, and that adjective is
Naomi:
いい (Ii)
Peter:
Long "i" which means good or well. The past form of this is not
Naomi:
いかった (ikatta)
Peter:
But rather
Naomi:
よかった (yokatta) 良い (ii) becomes 良かった (yokatta) for informal past. The formal past will be 良かったです (yokatta desu)
Peter:
Please remember that です (desu) only serves to make the phrase polite and it is not needed when speaking Japanese informally.
Naomi:
よかったです。 (Yokatta desu.)
Naomi:
きれいでした。 (Kirei deshita.)
Peter:
Onto na-adjectives, the conjugation is quite simple. For informal speech, just add
Naomi:
だった (datta)
Peter:
To the dictionary form of a verb to get the informal past. For formal speech, add
Naomi:
でした (deshita)
Peter:
To get the polite past. I think we can illustrate this best with an example. Naomi-sensei, can we have a na-adjective?
Naomi:
ひま (hima)
Peter:
Free as in free time. Now if you want to say, I was free in informal speech, just add だった (datta) to the word. ひま (hima) becomes
Naomi:
ひまだった (hima datta)
Peter:
How about I was free using formal speech.
Naomi:
ひまでした (hima deshita)
Peter:
I was free. Here we just add でした (deshita) to the word. Can we have another example of a na-adjective?
Naomi:
きれい (kirei)
Peter:
Beautiful.
Now this adjective ends in "i" but it’s actually a na-adjective. It’s an exception to the rule you are just going to have to remember. So it was beautiful using informal speech,
Naomi:
きれいだった (kirei datta)
Peter:
It was beautiful, or he or she was beautiful.
Using formal speech,
Naomi:
きれいでした (kirei deshita)
Peter:
It was beautiful, he or she was beautiful.
Naomi:
きれいでした。 (Kirei deshita.)
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37 Comments

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JapanesePod101.com
Friday at 6:30 pm
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Practice making your own sentences here, and let us know if you have any questions! :)

 

April 14th, 2017 at 7:55 pm
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Stephan san,
Konnichiwa.
The answer is ‘yes’ but the correct one is 良くなかった.😄
Yuki 由紀
Team JapanesePod101.com

Stephan
March 30th, 2017 at 11:10 pm
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Hello,

can i combine negative and past to 良くないかった?

Thank you!

Moira yufano
February 14th, 2017 at 1:59 pm
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I can’t download the PDF

November 21st, 2016 at 4:47 pm
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Aidan さん、
こんにちは。
ありがとうございます。 :smile:
Yuki  由紀
Team JapanesePod101.com

Aidan
November 7th, 2016 at 11:22 pm
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よかったです。 :thumbsup:

September 22nd, 2016 at 3:07 pm
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Hana-san,
konnichiwa!
Those are pretty much correct!
Just to make sure you pronounce them correctly,
please note the second sentence:
kore wa tanoshikatta.
You have to have a little pause between [ka] and [ta] in tanoshikatta,
and this pause is expressed by double consonant in writing.
Your first sentence is perfect! :sunglasses: :thumbsup:

Natsuko (奈津子),
Team JapanesePod101.com

Hana
September 13th, 2016 at 5:37 am
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Are my sentences correct?
sakura wa kireideshita (formal)
kore wa tanoshikata(informal)

thanks :smile:

June 20th, 2016 at 1:15 am
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Poneet さん、
こんにちは。 :smile:
そうですか。すごいですね。そしてよかったですね。
Yuki  由紀
Team JapanesePod101.com

June 12th, 2016 at 5:23 pm
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今日は日本語を勉強していました、楽しかったです! :smile:

December 31st, 2015 at 3:26 pm
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Jamesさん、
こんにちは。
はい、よくできました。 :thumbsup: :thumbsup:
Yuki  由紀
Team JapanesePod101.com