Dialogue

Vocabulary

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Lesson Transcript

Welcome to learn Japanese grammar absolute beginner. In this video series, you learn basic Japanese grammar patterns and phrases through easy to follow audio and visual cues. Here is what we will cover in this lesson.
Ready?
Let’s get started.
Noami:
これは古いです。 (Kore wa furui desu.)
Naomi:
In Japanese, there are two types of adjectives, i-adjectives and na-adjectives.
Peter:
In the phrase, an old pen, old is the adjective. In Japanese as well, adjectives can precede nouns. When i-adjectives precede nouns, i-adjectives come directly before the noun just as in English.
Naomi:
Old is 古い (furui), pen is ペン (pen), so old pen is 古いペン (furui pen)
Peter:
Now adjectives don’t only come before nouns, they can also come in the predicate. Naomi-sensei, how do you say this is old?
Naomi:
これは古いです。 (Kore wa furui desu.)
Peter:
Let’s break down this sentence.
Naomi:
これ (kore)
Peter:
This.
Naomi:
は (wa)
Peter:
Topic marking particle meaning as for.
Naomi:
古い (furui)
Peter:
Old.
Naomi:
です (desu)
Peter:
Formal form of the copula is, am, are.
So literally this old is. Of course, the sentence means this is old.
Naomi:
古い (furui) is an i-adjective and this is its dictionary form.
Peter:
Now let us introduce some i-adjectives and review their usage.
Naomi:
おいしい (oishii)
Peter:
Delicious, tasty.
Naomi:
おいしいチョコレート (oishii chokorēto)
Peter:
Delicious chocolate.
Naomi:
チョコレートはおいしいです。 (Chokorēto wa oishii desu.)
Peter:
Chocolate is delicious. Can you give us one more example?
Naomi:
はやい (hayai)
Peter:
Fast.
Naomi:
車 (kuruma) is car. So,
はやい車 (hayai kuruma) would be
Peter:
Fast car.
Naomi:
車ははやいです。 (Kuruma wa hayai desu.)
Peter:
Cars are fast.
Notice how the dictionary form of i-adjectives end with the i-syllable.
これは古いです。 (Kore wa furui desu.)
私はひまです。 (Watashi wa hima desu.)
In Japanese, there are two types of adjectives i-adjectives and na-adjectives.
Peter:
When i-adjectives precede nouns, i-adjectives come directly before the noun. Na-adjectives, however, when they come before a noun, na is inserted between the adjective and the noun. Naomi-sensei, how do you say a special pen in Japanese?
Naomi:
Special is 特別 (tokubetsu) Special pen is 特別なペン (tokubetsu na pen)
Peter:
That’s why this type of adjective is called a na-adjective. Now adjectives don’t only come before nouns, they can also come in the predicate.
Naomi:
Right.
Peter:
Naomi-sensei, how do you say this is special?
Naomi:
これは特別です。 (Kore wa tokubetsu desu.)
Peter:
Remember that 特別 (tokubetsu) means special and it’s a na-adjective. Next let’s introduce some na-adjectives and review their usage. First we have
Naomi:
静か (shizuka)
Peter:
Quiet.
Naomi:
静かな車 (shizuka na kuruma)
Peter:
Quiet car.
When na-adjectives come before a noun, na has to be added to the dictionary form.
Naomi:
How about this sentence
東京は静かです。 (Tōkyō wa shizuka desu.)
Peter:
Tokyo is quiet.
Here Shizuka, the na-adjective is used in a sentence but we don’t have the na. That’s because it doesn’t preceed a noun.
Naomi:
Right.
Peter:
Can you give us one more example?
Naomi:
ひま (hima)
Peter:
Free as in free time.
Naomi:
日 (hi) is day. So ひまな日 (hima na hi) would be
Peter:
Free day, a day where you have nothing to do. Na is inserted between the adjective and the noun.
Naomi:
ひまな日 (hima na hi) How about this sentence? 私 (watashi) is I. So 私はひまです。 (Watashi wa hima desu.)
Peter:
I am free, I have nothing to do.
私はひまです。 (Watashi wa hima desu.)
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JapanesePod101.com
Friday at 6:30 pm
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Practice making your own sentences here, and let us know if you have any questions! :)

 

Sean
May 14th, 2017 at 3:56 am
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こんにちは、ショーンです!
このりんごはあかいです。
あそこはゆめいなひとですね。

Konnichiwa, Sean desu!
Kono ringo wa akai desu.
Asoko wa yūmei na hito desu ne?

Hope that’s correct! 😁

February 3rd, 2017 at 4:24 pm
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Marcello san, SARAH san,
konnichiwa.
Basically i-adjective has ‘i’ at the end for example, ookii, chiisai, furui, atarashii and so on except kirei and yuumei.
:smile:
Yuki 由紀
Team JapanesePod101.com

SARAH
February 1st, 2017 at 5:37 pm
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Hi!

How do i know if an adjective is an “i-adjective” or a “na-adjective”?
Is there any way to distinguish between the two?
Or I just have to remember all the words that belongs to “i-adj.” and “na-adj.”?

Thank you very much :)

Marcello
January 22nd, 2017 at 4:26 pm
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But when presented with a new adjective, how do I know its an i (like furui) or a na (like free) adjective?

November 17th, 2016 at 5:51 pm
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Sarah san,
Konnichiwa.
Please refer to the sites below.
https://nihongoichiban.com/2011/04/10/complete-list-of-kanji-for-jlpt-n5/
https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/JLPT_Guide/JLPT_N5_Kanji

Aidanさん、
こんにちは。
そうですか。わかりました。
では、にほんごをべんきょうしましょう!Let’s study with us.
:smile:
Yuki 由紀
Team JapanesePod101.com

Aidan
November 4th, 2016 at 9:21 pm
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私は暇です。 :smile:

Sarah
November 4th, 2016 at 2:14 am
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Are all the 漢字 in the lesson notes for i adjectives and Na adjectives recommended to learn for JLPT N5?

October 30th, 2016 at 3:55 pm
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Brandon Schraven san,
konnichiwa! :smile:
I’m very sorry for the late reply!!
Basic rule is that when an adjective ends with ‘i’ like ‘ookii’ ( = big) and ‘marui’ ( = round),
it’s i-adjective whilst if an adjective ends with ‘na’ like ‘yuumeina’ ( = famous)
it’s na-adjective. These forms appear when an adjective comes right before noun
modifying it.
i.e. samui hi ( = cold day)
yuumeina hito ( = famous person)

Hope this helps!

Natsuko (奈津子),
Team JapanesePod101.com

October 26th, 2016 at 6:10 pm
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Yukari san,
Konnichiwa. :smile:
Please take your time.
If you start learning Japanese, it normally takes time.
Then after practicing you can be able to speak Japanese.
Yuki 由紀
Team JapanesePod101.com

October 19th, 2016 at 11:57 am
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This is kinda hard beacuse i never spoke in japanese before.